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Rights of Man

Rights of Man, a book by Thomas Paine, including 31 articles, posits that popular political revolution is permissible when a government does not safeguard the natural rights of its people. Using these points as a base it defends the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in Reflections on the Revolution in France, it was published in two parts in March 1791 and February 1792. Paine was a strong supporter of the French Revolution that began in 1789. Many English thinkers supported it, including Richard Price, who initiated the Revolution Controversy with his sermon and pamphlet drawing favourable parallels between the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the French Revolution. Conservative intellectual Edmund Burke responded with a counter-revolutionary attack entitled Reflections on the Revolution in France, which appealed to the landed class and sold 30,000 copies. Paine's Rights of Man was printed by Joseph Johnson for publication on 21 February 1791 withdrawn for fear of prosecution. J. S. Jordan published it on 16 March.

The 90,000-word book appeared on 13 March, three weeks than scheduled. It sold as many as one million copies and was "eagerly read by reformers, Protestant dissenters, London craftsman, the skilled factory-hands of the new industrial north". Paine argues that the interests of the monarch and his people are united, insists that the French Revolution should be understood as one which attacks the despotic principles of the French monarchy, not the king himself, he takes the Bastille, the main prison in Paris, to symbolise the despotism, overthrown. Human rights originate in Nature, it is a perversion of terms to say. It operates by a contrary effect—that of taking rights away. Rights are inherently in all the inhabitants. They... are instruments of injustice... The fact, must be that the individuals, each, in his own personal and sovereign right, entered into a contract with each other to produce a government: and this is the only mode in which governments have a right to arise, the only principle on which they have a right to exist.

Government's sole purpose is safeguarding his/her inherent, inalienable rights. The book's acumen derives from the Age of Enlightenment and has been linked to the Second Treatise of Government, by John Locke; the fuller development of this position seems to have been worked out one night in France after an evening spent with Thomas Jefferson, Lafayette, discussing a pamphlet by the Philadelphia conservative James Wilson on the proposed federal constitution. Rights of Man concludes in proposing practical reformations of English government: a written Constitution composed by a national assembly, in the American mould. Principally, Rights of Man opposes the idea of hereditary government—the belief that dictatorial government is necessary, because of man's corrupt, essential nature. In Reflections on the Revolution in France Edmund Burke says that true social stability arises if the nation's poor majority are governed by a minority of wealthy aristocrats, that lawful inheritance of power ensured the propriety of political power being the exclusive domain of the nation's élite social class—the nobility.

Rights of Man denounces Burke's assertion of the nobility's inherent hereditary wisdom. Paine refutes Burke's definition of Government as "a contrivance of human wisdom". Instead, Paine argues that Government is a contrivance of man, it follows that hereditary succession and hereditary rights to govern cannot compose a Government—because the wisdom to govern cannot be inherited. Edmund Burke's counter-revolutionary Reflections on the French Revolution delineates the legitimacy of aristocratic government to the 1688 Parliamentary resolution declaring William and Mary of Orange—and their heirs—to be the true rulers of England. Paine puts forward two arguments against this view. Firstly, he argues that "Every age and generation must be as free to act for itself in all cases as the age and generations which preceded it." Secondly, Paine counters that the institution of monarchy should not be traced from 1688, but from 1066, when William of Normandy forcibly imposed his Norman rule upon Englishmen.

Thomas Paine's intellectual influence is perceptible in the two great political revolutions of the eighteenth century. He dedicated Rights of Man to George Washington and to the Marquis de Lafayette, acknowledging the importance of the American and the French revolutions in his formulating the principles of modern democratic governance. Thus, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen can be encapsulated so: Men are born, always continue and equal in respect of their rights. Civil distinctions, there

Wizard of the Vibes

Wizard of the Vibes is a Blue Note Records compilation of performances by jazz vibraphonist Milt Jackson. The sessions were the work of The Thelonious Monk Quintet and The Modern Jazz Quartet plus Lou Donaldson; the album has been recompiled and expanded three additional times, with various tracks from these sessions added and deleted. The tracks from the Modern Jazz Quartet plus Lou Donaldson consisted of John Lewis on piano, Percy Heath on bass, Kenny Clarke on drums, Milt Jackson on vibraphone, Lou Donaldson on alto saxophone; the tracks with the Thelonious Monk Quintet were Thelonious Monk on piano, John Simmons on bass, Shadow Wilson on drums, Milt Jackson on vibraphone—with Kenny "Pancho" Hagood singing on the tracks "All the Things You Are" and "I Should Care". The original 1952 10" LP was expanded to a 12" LP in 1956, retitled Milt Jackson and the Thelonious Monk Quintet with a cover designed by Reid Miles, his first for the label. In 1989, the cover and title of the 1956 version were used for a CD featuring the complete 1948 and 1952 sessions, but the 1951 Monk Session was moved to Monk's Genius of Modern Music: Volume 2.

The 2001 album Milt Jackson: Wizard of the Vibes used the cover art and title of the original 1952 album, but contained a re-ordered and remastered version of the contents of the 1989 CD. In each formulation, the album contained Blue Note Thelonious Monk-led performances unavailable on the parallel editions of Genius of Modern Music; the Penguin Guide to Jazz described the tracks with Monk as "classics, rising to their greatest height with the riveting version of "I Mean You"." The AllMusic reviewer wrote that "Jackson's inventive playing throughout both dates makes this an important CD in his considerable discography, so it should be a part of any bop fan's collection." Side 1: "Tahiti" "Lillie" "Criss-Cross" "Willow Weep for Me"Side 2: "What's New?" "Bags' Groove" "On the Scene" "Eronel"Tracks A3, A4, B4 recorded July 23, 1951. Tracks A1-A2, B1-B3 recorded April 7, 1952. Side 1: "Lillie" "Tahiti" "What's New?" "Bags' Groove" "On the Scene" "Willow Weep for Me"Side 2: "Criss Cross" "Eronel" "Misterioso" "Evidence" "Lillie" "Four in One" Tracks B3, B4 recorded July 2, 1948.

Tracks A6, B1, B2, B6 recorded July 23, 1951. Tracks A1-A5, B5 recorded April 7, 1952. "Tahiti" "Lillie" "Lillie" "Bags' Groove" "What's New?" "What's New?" "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" "On the Scene" "Evidence" "Misterioso" "Misterioso" "Epistrophy" "I Mean You" "All the Things You Are" "I Should Care" "I Should Care"10-17 recorded July 2, 1948 1-9 recorded April 7, 1952. "Tahiti" "Lillie" "Bags' Groove" "What's New" "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" "On The Scene" "Lillie" "What's New" "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" "Evidence" "Misterioso" "Epistrophy" "I Mean You" "Misterioso" "All The Things You Are" "I Should Care" "I Should Care" 10-17 recorded July 2, 1948 1-9 recorded April 7, 1952

Taylor Hill, Huddersfield

Taylor Hill is a semi rural/industrial urban village of the town of Huddersfield in the English county of West Yorkshire. It lies on a hill above the A616 road to Honley and Penistone and the eastern bank of the River Holme, in the Holme Valley 1.5 miles to the south of Lockwood, west of Newsome and to the north of Berry Brow. Administratively, Taylor Hill is in the Newsome Ward of the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees, the latter of which includes all of Huddersfield and surrounding areas. On 15 March 1812, Taylor Hill was the site of the first large-scale Luddite operation in the West Riding, when the cloth-finishing shop of Frank Vickerman was attacked. Vickerman had been involved in coordinating the military and civil response to the Luddite threat, a warning letter had been thrown into his premises several days earlier. Despite a guard being set on the premises, the Luddites succeeded in destroying ten shearing frames, 30 shears, a quantity of wool and every window in the building; the former Vickerman & Sons Ltd woollen mill, on Fairlea Road has been converted into several smaller industrial units, which include a carpet manufacturers, commercial & industrial photographers and lithographers, wedding cake bakery, wrought Ironwork services, clothing manufacturers & wholesalers and an independent domestic energy assessment services.

The former Victorian village chapel has been converted into a Hydraulic engineers. There is a secondary school, Newsome High School and Sports College, 0.5 miles to the east. The school's assistant head teacher was named West Yorkshire Teacher of the Year 2006 for an award sponsored by Pulse 1 radio; the area is home to Kirklees College's Taylor Hill Centre, on Close Hill Road. This provides full-time courses relating to animal care, land-based studies and countryside management. Berry Brow railway station is the closest local railway station, being about 0.5 miles to the south-east. Trains on Northern's Penistone Line provide an hourly service between Huddersfield and Sheffield stations, calling at Berry Brow. Huddersfield station provides interchange with direct services to Leeds and other north of England destinations, whilst Sheffield station provides interchange with direct trains to London. Bus routes 306 and 319, run by First Calderdale & Huddersfield and Tiger Blue, pass through the village, link it to Huddersfield town centre several times an hour.

The closest main road is the A616 road to Penistone. Media related to Taylor Hill at Wikimedia Commons


Agrypnus is a genus of click beetle. The genus includes the following species: Agrypnus aberdarensis Agrypnus abstrusus Hayek, 1973 Agrypnus abstrusus Agrypnus acervatus Agrypnus acristatus Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus aculeatus Agrypnus acuminipennis Agrypnus acutangulus Agrypnus adelaidae Agrypnus adeloceroides Agrypnus adustus Agrypnus aequalis Agrypnus afflictus Agrypnus agrestis Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus akidiformis Agrypnus alberti Hayek, 1973 Agrypnus albisparsus Agrypnus albitactus Agrypnus alboguttatus Agrypnus albopictus Agrypnus alboscutatus Agrypnus alboseminatus Kolbe Agrypnus alluaudi Agrypnus alternans Agrypnus alternatus Agrypnus amamianus Agrypnus amamiensis Agrypnus ami Kishii, 1995 Agrypnus amplicollis Agrypnus anathesinus Agrypnus andersoni Agrypnus angularis Agrypnus angulicollis Agrypnus angustus Agrypnus anili Punam, Saini & Vasu, 1997 Agrypnus antiguus Agrypnus apiatus Hayek, 1979 Agrypnus apodixus Agrypnus applanatus Agrypnus aquilus Agrypnus arbitrarius Agrypnus arctior Agrypnus argentatus Agrypnus argentosquamus Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus argillaceus Agrypnus aristatus Agrypnus armatus Agrypnus arorai Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus asper Agrypnus asperulatus Agrypnus assus Agrypnus aterrimus Girard, 1986 Agrypnus atricolor Agrypnus babanus Agrypnus badeni Agrypnus badius Agrypnus baibaranus Agrypnus bakeri Agrypnus basalis Agrypnus beccarii Agrypnus bellator Agrypnus bengalensis Punam, Saini & Vasu, 1997 Agrypnus benitensis Agrypnus bergeali Agrypnus bidentatus Agrypnus bidivisus Agrypnus bifasciatus Agrypnus biforatus Agrypnus bigener Agrypnus bigranosus Agrypnus bilyi Cate, Platia & Schimmel, 2002 Agrypnus bimaculatus Agrypnus bimarginatus Agrypnus binodulus Agrypnus binus Agrypnus bipapulatus Agrypnus bipunctatus Agrypnus blackburni Hayek, 1973 Agrypnus blairei Agrypnus boomensis Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus borneoensis Ôhira, 1973 Agrypnus brachychaetus Agrypnus brachypterus Hayek, 1979 Agrypnus brevipennis Agrypnus brevis Agrypnus brightensis Agrypnus brunnipennis Agrypnus bullatus Agrypnus buyssoni Agrypnus caffer Agrypnus calamitosus Agrypnus caliginosus Agrypnus campestris Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus candezei Agrypnus canescens Agrypnus cariei Agrypnus carinicollis Agrypnus carinulatus Agrypnus cashmiriensis Agrypnus castaneipennis Agrypnus castaneus Agrypnus castelnaui Agrypnus catatonus Agrypnus catatonus Hayek, 1979 Agrypnus cervinus Agrypnus charcus Boheman Agrypnus cinctipes Agrypnus cineraceus Agrypnus cinerascens Agrypnus cinnamoneus Agrypnus cithareus Agrypnus claudinae Dolin & Girard, 2003 Agrypnus coarctatus Agrypnus coctus Agrypnus coenosus Agrypnus cognatus Agrypnus collisus Agrypnus colonicus Agrypnus coloratus Agrypnus communis Agrypnus commutabilis Agrypnus compactus Agrypnus comptus Agrypnus concoloris Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus confertus Vats & Kashyap, 1992 Agrypnus consobrinus Agrypnus conspiciendus Agrypnus conspurcatus Agrypnus cordicollis Agrypnus cordipennis Agrypnus corvinus Agrypnus costicollis Agrypnus costipennis Agrypnus couturieri Girard, 1986 Agrypnus crassus Agrypnus crenatus Agrypnus crenicollis Agrypnus cruentatus Agrypnus curtus Agrypnus cuspidatus Agrypnus cylindripennis Agrypnus davidis Agrypnus dealbatus Agrypnus deboulayi Agrypnus decoratus Agrypnus decoratus Agrypnus defectus Agrypnus denticollis Agrypnus depressus Agrypnus desjardinsi Agrypnus deyrollei von Hayek, 1973 Agrypnus dilaticollis Agrypnus dilatipennis Kishii, 1995 Agrypnus discedens Agrypnus divaricatus Agrypnus dorcinus Agrypnus dubius Candèze Agrypnus duplex Agrypnus ellipticus Agrypnus elongatus Agrypnus elstoni Agrypnus eucalypti Agrypnus eximius Agrypnus fairmairei Agrypnus fallax Agrypnus farinensis Agry

Kenneth Tempest

Kenneth Tempest DFC was a Royal Air Force navigator with 139 Squadron during the Second World War flying Mosquitos. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his service. After the war he trained as a pilot and flew with BOAC in the Bristol Britannia and the VC10. Kenneth Tempest was born in Cawnpore, India, on 9 April 1922, he was educated at Keighley Boys' Grammar School and his first job was with Lloyds Bank which he left to join the Royal Air Force. Tempest first trained as a navigator in Florida under the joint US/UK training programme. On returning to England he was posted to the non-military BOAC at Poole where he trained on flying boats and from 1943 he was the navigator on the Boeing 314 A Clipper in which he flew hundreds of transatlantic flights, he was posted to BOAC's station in Baltimore and was the navigator on several flights in support of the Quebec Conference of 1943. Tempest returned to the Royal Air Force in mid 1944 where he joined 139 Squadron and trained with the Light Night Striking Force, part of the Pathfinder Force flying Mosquitos.

The Pathfinders staged many raids on Berlin and other German cities, dropping markers to enable the larger bombers to find their targets and making single-bomb raids on other targets to confuse and harass the enemy. In all, Tempest completed 43 operations for the LNSF and in May 1945 took part in Bomber Command's last operation of the war, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross not long after. Following the war, Tempest returned to BOAC where he flew converted bombers from Baltimore and Canada. In 1951 he began to train as a pilot. At BOAC he flew first the Bristol Britannia, converting to the VC10 in 1964. In 1965, he was the pilot who flew Queen Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh to Addis Ababa and back. Tempest retired in 1975. Tempest married Norma Clayton in 1957, they had one child. Tempest had a child from a previous marriage. Tempest died in hospital on 2 June 2015

Harry and Wilga Williams

Harry Williams and Wilga Munroe were Indigenous Australians who performed professionally between the 1960s and 1980s. Harry Williams was called the godfather of Koori country. Harry "Buck" Williams was born in 1927 on the Erambie Mission just outside the town centre Cowra, New South Wales and died in 1991 under the same tree he was born under, his father "Knocker" Williams led a travelling tent show. In his 20s he started playing with Alan Saunders. Williams worked as an actor, appearing in films and on TV, including Blackfire and Matlock. Wilga Munro was born in Tamworth, New South Wales in 1940, she was named after the wild orange tree. After serving in the Air Force she returned to Tamworth and started performing. Harry Williams and Wilga Munro started performing together in a band called The Tjuringas around Newcastle in 1971. Other members were Keith Saunders. Harry and Wilga began performing as a duo. Harry and Wilga formed The Country Outcasts in Melbourne during the early 1970's, with Ian "Ocker" McKie and Bert Williams.

They toured throughout Australia and New Guinea and released two full-length albums. The Country Outcasts embraced a number of young artists during the seventies so the performance line-up varied; some of the other Band members included Ray "Buster" Thomas, Bill Brunswick, Debbie Williams, Ian "Ocker" McKie, Carole Fraser, Ian "Bear" Johnson and his sisters Roslyn and Janice Johnson, Henry Thorpe, Laurie Ingram, Claude "Candy" Williams, Mac Silva and Auriel Andrew. Harry and Wilga Williams were instrumental in promoting the first National Aboriginal Country Music Festival in Canberra in 1976 and a country music radio show, Country Music Shindig, for Melbourne Community Radio Station, 3CR. In 1981 they were recognised in the Country Music Hands of Fame in Tamworth. "Home-Made Didgeridoo"/Arnhem Land Lullaby" "Nullabor Prayer" Harry Williams and the Country Outcasts Harry & Wilga Williams and the Country Outcasts