A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses. As of 2015, somewhat less than half of the national legislatures are bicameral. Often, the members of the two chambers are elected or selected using different methods, which vary from country to country and this can often lead to the two chambers having very different compositions of members. However, in many Westminster system parliaments, the house to which the executive is responsible can overrule the other house, some legislatures lie in between these two positions, with one house only able to overrule the other under certain circumstances. For example, one house would represent the aristocracy, and the other would represent the commoners as was the case in the Kingdom of England. Others, such as France under the Ancien Régime had a legislature known as the Estates General, which consisted of separate chambers for the clergymen, the nobility. The Founding Fathers of the United States favoured a bicameral legislature, the idea was to have the Senate be wealthier and wiser.
Benjamin Rush saw this though, and noted that, this type of dominion is almost always connected with opulence, the Senate was created to be a stabilising force, elected not by mass electors, but selected by the State legislators. Senators would be more knowledgeable and more sort of republican nobility—and a counter to what Madison saw as the fickleness. He noted further that the use of the Senate is to consist in its proceeding with more coolness, with system and with more wisdom. Madisons argument led the Framers to grant the Senate prerogatives in foreign policy, an area where steadiness, the Senate was chosen by state legislators, and senators had to possess a significant amount of property in order to be deemed worthy and sensible enough for the position. In fact, it was not until the year 1913 that the 17th Amendment was passed, as part of the Great Compromise, they invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the Senate would have states represented equally, and the House would have them represented by population.
Many nations with parliaments have to some degree emulated the British three-tier model, the older justification for second chambers—providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation—has survived. An example of controversy regarding a second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the Canadian Senate or the election of the Senate of France. The relationship between the two chambers varies, in cases, they have equal power, while in others. The first tends to be the case in federal systems and those with presidential governments, the latter tends to be the case in unitary states with parliamentary systems. In the United States both houses of the U. S and this is due to their original location in the two-story building that was to house them. In Canada, the country as a whole is divided into a number of Senate Divisions, each with a different number of Senators, Senators in Canada are not elected by the people but are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister
Danish Social Liberal Party
The Danish Social Liberal Party is a social-liberal political party in Denmark. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals, the party was founded in 1905 as a split from the liberal Venstre Reform Party. The initial impetus was the expulsion of Venstres antimilitarist wing from the party in January 1905, the expelled members held a founding conference for the new party in Odense, on 21 May 1905. In addition to the differences over military spending, the social liberals took a positive view than Venstre towards measures that aimed to reduce social inequality. The party became the political leg of the radical movement. The party was open to aspects of the welfare state, and advocated reforms to improve the position of smallholders. The partys social-liberal ideals are said to have inspired by the political economists Henry George. The literal translation radical left is nowadays somewhat misleading, as the party is described as being in the centre of the left-right political scale.
The use of the word for left in the name of the parent party Venstre. Venstre originally was to the left of the conservative and aristocratic right, the party president is Klaus Frandsen and it has eight members in the Folketing. The partys political leader is Morten Østergaard, the party performed well at the 2005 elections. It came out with 9. 2% of the vote and 17 seats in Parliament. In the 2007 elections, the party share of the vote fell to 5. 1% and it lost 8 seats. In the subsequent 2011 elections, the party rose to 9. 5%. Around 2005 the party was inspired by Richard Floridas book The Rise of the Creative Class, the party released their own book/political program called Det kreative Danmark. Current issues high on the agenda for the party are, Strong opposition to the immigration policies of the former Liberal-Conservative government. A major tax reform, which should simplify the tax system in such a way that taxes will be reduced in favour of more environmental taxes, less tax deductions.
The point of this is to make working more attractive and the hiring of service more attractive
This is a list of Members of the Riksdag, the national parliament of Sweden. The Riksdag is an assembly with 349 Members of Parliament. In the Riksdag, Members are seated per constituency and not party, the following MPs were elected in the Swedish general election,2006 and will serve until the Swedish general election,2010. Members of the center-right Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt, the coalition during this term, are marked in bold. Members of the Riksdag in alphabetical order
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments, in the separation of model, they are often contrasted with the executive. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation, legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators, each chamber of legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a number of legislators present to carry out these activities. Some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of small selections of the legislators. The members of a legislature usually represent different political parties, the members from each party generally meet as a caucus to organize their internal affairs, the internal organization of a legislature is shaped by the informal norms that are shared by its members.
Legislatures vary widely in the amount of power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries, militaries. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures, such a system renders the legislature more powerful. Legislatures will sometime delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies, legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators, who vote on proposed laws. For example, a legislature that has 100 seats has 100 members, by extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a seat, as, example, in the phrases safe seat and marginal seat. In parliamentary systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature which may remove it with a vote of no confidence, names for national legislatures include parliament, congress and assembly. A legislature which operates as a unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, and one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house. In federations, the upper house typically represents the component states. This is a case with the legislature of the European Union. Tricameral legislatures are rare, the Massachusetts Governors Council still exists, tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were previously used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary widely in their size, among national legislatures, Chinas National Peoples Congress is the largest with 2987 members, while Vatican Citys Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7
Justice Party of Denmark
Danmarks Retsforbund was founded in 1919 as an association and transformed into a political party in 1922. The partys platform is based upon the principles of U. S. economist Henry George - who advocated a tax on all land -. In 1960 they dropped out of the parliament, however in the 1973 Danish parliamentary election the party won 5 seats in Folketinget, because of their opposition to Danish membership of the European Economic Community. They lost their seats in the election in 1975. They had a seat in the European Parliament 1978–79. 3% of the votes and they have decided to try to collect the 20000 signatures necessary to participate in the next election to the Folketing. 5%. Their youth organization Retsforbundets Ungdom has been reinvigorated
Communist Party of Denmark
The Communist Party of Denmark is a communist political party in Denmark. The party assumed its present name in November 1920, when it joined the Comintern, the DKP is represented in the Danish parliament through the Red-Green Alliance. DKP is one of four active communist parties in Denmark, in particular, they opposed cooperation with the Radical Liberal Party, with whom the Social Democrats allied themselves in general elections. The Socialist Labour Party of Denmark began laying the foundations for a new party in March 1918, the party participated in the 2nd Comintern Congress in 1920. The party approved the admission requirements, and changed its name to the Communist Party of Denmark and this, led to a split within the party, with the syndicalist faction, led by FS, withdrawing the party. Following a rapprochement between the two groups, and with the approval of the USSR, the DKP and FS formed a joint federation in 1921, the cooperation would be short lived. During this period, the party made little electoral or popular advancement, declining from 0. 5% of the vote in 1924, to 0. 4% in 1926, and 0. 3% in 1929.
In 1929, the Comintern intervened, by means of a letter to the party. For the next 18 months, the party was placed under the administration of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The new leadership that was appointed consisted of pro-Soviet hardliners, with Aksel Larsen becoming the new Chairman of the Central Committee and this intervention resulted in DKP making an ultra-left turn. Concurrently, the Great Depression was reaching its peak in Denmark, the party grew in popularity amongst the unemployed. The party grew in popularity amongst students and intellectuals for its anti-fascist activities, in the 1932 elections, DKP achieved parliamentary representation for the first time, obtaining 1. 1% of the vote and 2 seats. This increased to 1. 9% of the vote in 1935, the 1930s was a period of constant advancement for the party. On 9 April 1940 Germany invaded Denmark, the party was subsequently outlawed when the Communist Law was signed into law two months on 22 August 1941. A national unity government was formed by the major parties.
DKP continued to operate underground, and was a force of the Danish resistance. Members of DKP sat on the Danish Freedom Council, the largest underground resistance force against the German occupation, following the collapse of the national unity government on 29 August 1943, the DKP, along with other non-socialist resistance forces, became the informal government of the country. The Social Democrats experienced a decline in influence during this period
Social Democrats (Denmark)
The Social Democrats is a social-democratic political party in Denmark. It was the coalition partner in government from the 2011 parliamentary election. After the 2015 parliamentary election, the party is no longer in government, though it is still the largest party in the Danish parliament, founded by Louis Pio in 1871, the party first entered the Folketing in 1884. By the early 20th century it had become the party with the largest representation in the Folketing and it first formed a government in 1924 under Thorvald Stauning, the longest-serving Danish Prime Minister of the 20th century. During Staunings government, the Social Democrats exerted an influence on Danish society. From 2002 to 2016 the party used the name Socialdemokraterne in some contexts, a member of the Party of European Socialists, the Social Democrats have three MEPs in the European Parliament. Since its foundation the lemma of the party has been Liberty and Brotherhood, the leader of the party is Mette Frederiksen. She succeeded Helle Thorning-Schmidt, who stepped down after the left blocs defeat in the 2015 General Election, deputy leaders are Frank Jensen, Lord Mayor of Copenhagen, and Mogens Jensen.
The secretary general is Henrik Dam Kristensen, the party secretary is Lars Midtiby, in the Cabinet of Helle Thorning-Schmidt, the party had ten ministers including the Prime Minister. The party was founded in 1871 by Louis Pio, Harald Brix og Paul Geleff, the goal was to organize the emerging working class on a democratic and socialist basis. The industrialization of Denmark had begun in the mid 19th century, the social democratic movement emerged from the desire to give this group political rights and representation in parliament. In 1876 the Party held a conference, adopting the first party manifesto. In the 1924 parliamentary elections the Social democratic party won the majority with 36.6 percent of the vote, the same year he appointed the worlds first female minister Nina Bang, nine years after womens suffrage had been given in Denmark. Stauning stayed in power until his death in 1942, his party laying the foundations for the Danish welfare state, in January 1933 Staunings government entered into what was the most extensive settlement yet in Danish politics — the Kanslergade settlement — with the liberal party Venstre.
In 1935, Stauning was reelected with the famous slogan Stauning or Chaos, through the 1940s and until 1972 Denmark was governed by the following Social Democratic prime ministers. 1939 –1955, Hans Hedtoft 1955 –1960, H. C, the Cabinets of Poul Nyrup Rasmussen maintained a parliamentary majority during the period from 1993 to 2001 by virtue of their support from the Socialist Peoples Party and the Red-Green Alliance. Towards the end of the 1990s, a surplus of 30 billion kroner turned into a deficit. To combat this, the government increased taxes, limiting private consumption, after being defeated by the Liberal Party in the 2001 election, the party chairmanship went to former finance and foreign minister Mogens Lykketoft
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Venstre, full name Venstre, Danmarks Liberale Parti, is a conservative-liberal and agrarian political party in Denmark. Founded as part of a movement against the landed aristocracy. Venstre is the party of the centre-right in Denmark. The party has produced many Prime Ministers, Denmarks current government is a minority government consisting of Venstre alone, supported by the other right wing parties. In the 2015 parliamentary elections, Venstre received 19. 5% of the vote and it is led by Lars Løkke Rasmussen, who took over as party leader and Prime Minister from Anders Fogh Rasmussen when the latter became Secretary General of NATO in 2009. The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals, one of Denmarks thirteen MEPs are from Venstre in the 2014-19 term of office, and they sit with the ALDE Group in the European Parliament. Venstre is categorised as centre-right on the political spectrum and it is a market liberal party within the Nordic agrarian tradition, and today is notably more pro-free market than its sister parties.
Some describe it as liberal, since its leader from 1998 to 2009. His book advocated a reform of the Danish welfare state along classical liberal lines, including lower taxes and less government interference in corporate. Since the elections in 2001, Venstre has enacted a tax stop in order to halt the growth in taxes seen during the previous eight years under the Social Democrats. This tax stop has been under fire from the parties on the left wing of Danish politics, allegedly for being asocial. Venstre, or the Left in English, was founded in 1870 under the name Det Forenede Venstre and it was formed through the merger of three parliamentary factions, all of whom had identified as leftist in the context of the time. From 1895 to 1910 it was known as Venstrereformpartiet, and after that simply as Venstre, Venstre was traditionally a party advocating free trade and farmers interests as opposed to the interests of the aristocracy which were the platform of the conservative party, Højre. This traditional landed basis resulted in a decline in influence due to the rapidly accelerating urbanisation of Danish society.
Starting in the 1880s, the party began expanding into urban regions as well, after the 1960s these developments reoriented Venstre from a classical liberal party to conservative liberalism. During the leadership of Anders Fogh Rasmussen, the party turned further to the right, the name has, its historical explanation. At the time of its foundation, Venstre affirmed progressive ideas in the Danish parliament and their opponents, Højre, the forerunner of the present-day Conservative Peoples Party, advocated for established interests, particularly the Church of Denmark and the landed gentry. In current Danish politics there is a distinction between the concepts of Venstre and venstrefløj
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Prime Minister of Denmark
The Prime Minister of Denmark is the head of government in the Kingdom of Denmark. Before the creation of the office, Denmark did not initially have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the Monarch. The Constitution of 1849 established a monarchy by limiting the powers of the Monarch. The inaugural holder of the office was Adam Wilhelm Moltke, the Prime Minister presides over a cabinet that is formally appointed by the Monarch. In practice, the appointment of the Prime Minister is determined by their support in the Folketing. Since the beginning of the 20th century no single party has held a majority in the Folketing, so the Prime Minister must head a coalition of political parties, as well as their own party. Additionally, only four coalition governments since World War II have enjoyed a majority in the Folketing, the current Prime Minister of Denmark is Lars Løkke Rasmussen. He leads a government consisting of Venstre with parliamentary support from the Danish Peoples Party, Liberal Alliance, from approximately 1699 to 1730, the highest ranking non-monarchial government official was titled the Grand Chancellor and from 1730 until 1848, this office was titled Minister of State.
These titles foreshadowed the modern office of Prime Minister, unlike the current office, the King held executive authority as absolute ruler from 1661 until the enactment of a liberal Constitution in the early nineteenth century. The office of Prime Minister was introduced as a part of the constitutional monarchy outlined in 1848, the new Constitution established a parliamentary system by creating a new bicameral parliament and a Council Presidum, headed by a Council President. The Council Presidium is regarded as the predecessor of the modern Prime Ministers Office, the first Council President was Adam Wilhelm Moltke, who came to power on 22 March 1848. Molte and his two successors held the title of premierminister, which translates as prime minister. From 1855 onwards the Prime Minister was known simply as the Council President, Carl Christian Hall became the first Prime Minister/Council President to lead a political party. The title of the Prime Minister changed again in 1918 under the Premiership of Carl Theodor Zahle, becoming titled the Minister of State, by the mid-nineteenth century a strong party-system had developed, with most Prime Ministers being the leader of either Venstre or Højre.
However, by 1924 the Social Democrats had become the largest party, during the first years of Occupation of Denmark, the governments of Prime Ministers Vilhelm Buhl and Erik Scavenius cooperated with the Nazi occupiers. On 29 August 1943, the Danish government resigned, refusing to grant further concessions to Nazi Germany, all government operations were assumed by the permanent secretaries of the individual departments, and this arrangement lasted until the Liberation of Denmark on 5 May 1945. Since King Christian X never accepted the resignation of the government, the twentieth century was dominated by Social Democratic Prime Ministers leading left-wing coalitions, Social Democratic Prime Ministers were in power nearly continuously from 1924 until 1982. The first Prime Minister from the Conservative Peoples Party, Poul Schlüter, the centre-right coalition ruled in 1993, last for eleven years, made it became the longest centre-right government in Denmark history since 1920s