A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Conrad Indianapolis is a high-rise luxury hotel in Indianapolis, Indiana. It has 23 floors; the building includes street level retail and 247 luxury hotel rooms with 18 residential condominiums. Conrad Hotels is the luxury brand of Hilton Hotels & Resorts, the Conrad Indianapolis is one of four Conrad Hotels in the United States, the other three being located in Miami and New York City. In 2007 and 2008, Conde Nast Traveler ranked Conrad Indianapolis in the top 100 in the world, Expedia Insiders’ 2009 Select list of the world's best hotels named Conrad as number one in the United States; the Conrad Indianapolis is connected to the downtown skywalk system via the Indianapolis Artsgarden. List of tallest buildings in Indianapolis Official website Conrad Indianapolis at Skyscraper Page Conrad Indianapolis at Emporis
James Whitcomb Riley
James Whitcomb Riley was an American writer and best-selling author. During his lifetime he was known as the "Hoosier Poet" and "Children's Poet" for his dialect works and his children's poetry respectively, his poems tended to be humorous or sentimental, of the 1,000 poems that Riley wrote, the majority are in dialect. His famous works include "Little Orphant Annie" and "The Raggedy Man". Riley began his career submitting poetry to newspapers. Thanks in part to an endorsement from poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, he earned successive jobs at Indiana newspaper publishers during the latter 1870s. Riley rose in prominence during the 1880s through his poetry reading tours, he traveled a touring circuit first in the Midwest, nationally, holding shows and making joint appearances on stage with other famous talents. Riley was an alcoholic, never married or had children, caused a scandal in 1888 when he became too drunk to perform, his publicist blamed his alcoholism and depression on his inability to achieve financial success, despite his fame and popularity.
He was able to extricate himself from poorly negotiated contracts that had limited his earnings and as a result, he became wealthy. By the 1890s, Riley became a bestselling author, his children's poems were illustrated by Howard Chandler Christy. Titled Rhymes of Childhood, the book was his sold millions of copies; as a poet, Riley achieved an uncommon level of fame during his own lifetime. He was honored with annual Riley Day celebrations around the United States and was called on to perform readings at national civic events, he continued to write and hold occasional poetry readings until a stroke paralyzed his right arm in 1910. Riley's chief legacy was his influence in fostering the creation of a Midwestern cultural identity and his contributions to the Golden Age of Indiana Literature. With other writers of his era, he helped create a caricature of Midwesterners and formed a literary community that produced works rivaling the established eastern literati. There are many memorials dedicated to Riley, including the James Whitcomb Riley Hospital for Children.
James Whitcomb Riley was born on October 7, 1849 in the town of Greenfield, the third of the six children of Reuben Andrew and Elizabeth Marine Riley. Riley's father was an attorney, in the year before Riley's birth, he was elected a member of the Indiana House of Representatives as a Democrat, he developed a friendship with the governor of Indiana, after whom he named his son. Martin Riley, Riley's uncle, was an amateur poet who wrote verses for local newspapers. Riley was fond of his uncle. Shortly after Riley's birth, the family moved into a larger house in town. Riley was "a quiet boy, not talkative, who would go about with one eye shut as he observed and speculated." His mother taught him to read and write at home before sending him to the local community school in 1852. He found school difficult and was in trouble. Punished, he had nothing kind to say of his teachers in his writings, his poem "The Educator" told of an intelligent but sinister teacher and may have been based on one of his instructors.
Riley was most fond of Lee O. Harris. Harris encouraged him to pursue it further. Riley's school attendance was sporadic, he graduated from grade eight at age 20 in 1869. In an 1892 newspaper article, Riley confessed that he knew little of mathematics, geography, or science, his understanding of proper grammar was poor. Critics, like Henry Beers, pointed to his poor education as the reason for his success in writing. Riley lived in his parents' home. At five years old, he began spending time at the Brandywine Creek just outside Greenfield, his poems "A Barefoot Boy" and "The Old Swimmin' Hole" referred back to his time at the creek. He was introduced in his childhood to many people who influenced his poetry, his father brought home a variety of clients and disadvantaged people to give them assistance. Riley's poem "The Raggedy Man" was based on a German tramp his father hired to work at the family home. Riley picked up the cadence and character of the dialect of central Indiana from travelers along the old National Road.
Their speech influenced the hundreds of poems he wrote in 19th century Hoosier dialect. Riley's mother told him stories of fairies and giants, read him children's poems, she was superstitious, influenced Riley with many of her beliefs. They both placed "spirit rappings" in their homes on places like tables and bureaus to capture any spirits that may have been wandering about; this influence is recognized in many of his works, including "Flying Islands of the Night."As was common at that time and his friends had few toys and they amused themselves with activities. With his mother's aid, Riley began creating plays and theatricals which he and his friends would practice and perform in the back of a local grocery store; as he grew older, the boys named their troupe the Adelphians and began to have their shows in barns where they could fit larger audiences. Riley wrote of these early performances in his poem "When We First Played'Show'," where he referred to himself as "Jamesy." Many of Riley's poems are filled with musical references.
Riley had no musical education, could not read sheet music, but learned from his father how to play guitar, from a friend how to play violin. He performed in two d
Regions Tower (Indianapolis)
Regions Tower known as One Indiana Square, is a 36-story building at 211 North Pennsylvania Street in downtown Indianapolis, United States. It is used by various companies for offices; the building opened in 1970 as the headquarters of Indiana National Bank. The building now serves as the Indiana headquarters for Regions Financial Corporation; the building carries the Regions name and logo. The tower rises from a multi-story base and covers the southern half of the block bounded by Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio streets; the façade is covered by dark-tinted glass beneath the tower and recessed to allow an covered promenade on the west and portions of the north and south sides. The promenade roof is supported by marble-clad square columns on its exterior; the eastern portion of the base houses a parking garage. Original plans called for two additional towers on the northern half of the block, one of twenty stories in the northeast corner and one of twelve stories in the northwest corner, but neither was constructed.
The first block of Massachusetts Avenue ran diagonally through the block, but was vacated for the project. The Knights of Pythias Building, a flatiron-shaped building at the corner of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, was among those demolished to allow for the building's construction. In the mid- to late-1990s, building owners installed a new façade and exterior lighting after weather damage to the building in 1978, 1980, 1990; the building underwent another exterior remodeling after damage by tornado-strength winds on April 2, 2006. Owners of One Indiana Square have invested in new LED lighting system; the latest facade is a light blue curtain wall, by Gensler of San Francisco, transparent. List of tallest buildings in Indianapolis One Indiana Square at SkyscraperPage One Indiana Square at Emporis
A trauma center is a hospital equipped and staffed to provide care for patients suffering from major traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, or gunshot wounds. A trauma center may refer to an emergency department without the presence of specialized services to care for victims of major trauma. In the United States of America, a hospital can receive trauma center status by meeting specific criteria established by the American College of Surgeons and passing a site review by the Verification Review Committee. Official designation as a trauma center is determined by individual state law provisions. Trauma centers vary in their specific capabilities and are identified by "Level" designation: Level-I being the highest, to Level-III being the lowest; the highest levels of trauma centers have access to specialist medical and nursing care including emergency medicine, trauma surgery, critical care, orthopedic surgery and radiology, as well as sophisticated surgical and diagnostic equipment.
Lower levels of trauma centers may only be able to provide initial care and stabilization of a traumatic injury and arrange for transfer of the victim to a higher level of trauma care. The operation of a trauma center is expensive; some areas—especially rural regions—are under-served by trauma centers because of this expense. As there is no way to schedule the need for emergency services, patient traffic at trauma centers can vary widely. A variety of methods have been developed for dealing with this. A trauma center will have a helipad for receiving patients that have been airlifted to the hospital. In many cases, persons injured in remote areas and transported to a distant trauma center by helicopter can receive faster and better medical care than if they had been transported by ground ambulance to a closer hospital that does not have a designated trauma center; the trauma level certification can directly affect the patient's outcome and determine if the patient needs to be transferred to a higher level trauma center.
Trauma centres grew into existence out of the realisation that traumatic injury is a disease process unto itself requiring specialised and experienced multidisciplinary treatment and specialised resources. The world's first trauma centre, the first hospital to be established to treat injured rather than ill patients, was the Birmingham Accident Hospital, which opened in Birmingham, England in 1941, after a series of studies found that the treatment of injured persons within England was inadequate. By 1947, the hospital had three trauma teams, each including two surgeons and an anaesthetist, a burns team with three surgeons; the hospital became part of the National Health Service on its formation in July 1948 and closed in 1993. The NHS now has 27 major trauma centres established across England, 2 in Scotland, one planned in Wales. According to the CDC, injuries are the leading cause of death for American children and adults ages 1–44; the leading causes of trauma are motor vehicle collisions and assaults with a deadly weapon.
In the United States of America, Drs. Robert J. Baker and Robert J. Freeark established the first civilian Shock Trauma Unit at Cook County Hospital in Chicago, IL on March 16, 1966; the concept of a shock trauma center was developed at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, in the 1950s and 1960s by thoracic surgeon and shock researcher R Adams Cowley, who founded what became the Shock Trauma Center in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 1, 1966. The R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center is one of the first shock trauma centers in the world. Cook County Hospital in Chicago trauma center. Dr. David R. Boyd interned at Cook County Hospital from 1963 to 1964 before being drafted into the Army of the United States of America. Upon his release from the Army, Dr. Boyd became the first shock-trauma fellow at the R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, from 1967 to 1968. Boyd returned to Cook County Hospital, where he would serve as resident director of the Cook County Trauma Unit. According to the founder of the Trauma Unit at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Dr. Marvin Tile, "the nature of injuries at Sunnybrook has changed over the years.
When the trauma center first opened in 1976, about 98 percent of patients suffered from blunt-force trauma caused by accidents and falls. Now, as many as 20 percent of patients arrive with gunshot and knife wounds". Fraser Health Authority in British Columbia, located at Royal Columbian Hospital and Abbotsford Regional Hospital, services the BC area, "Each year, Fraser Health treats 130,000 trauma patients as part of the integrated B. C. trauma system" In the United States of America, trauma centers are ranked by the American College of Surgeons, from Level I to Level III. The different levels refer to the types of resources available in a trauma center and the number of patients admitted yearly; these are categories. Level I and Level II designations are given adult and or pediatric designations. Additionally, some states have their own trauma-center rankings separate from the ACS; these levels may range from Level I to Level IV. Some hospitals are less-formally designated Level V; the ACS does not designate hospitals as trauma centers.
Numerous US hospitals that are not verified by ACS claim trauma center designation. Most states have legislation which determines the process for designation of trauma centers within that state; the ACS describes this responsibility as "a geopoliti
Indiana University Health University Hospital
Indiana University Health University Hospital is a teaching hospital in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, affiliated with the Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University Health. With nearly 1,100 physician faculty members at Indiana University Health University Hospital, surgeons and staff care for more than 57,000 patients a year. 52 percent of physicians in Indiana were trained at Indiana University Health University Hospital. In addition, Indiana University Health University Hospital physicians and staff continuously seek advances in medicine; the staff participate in 150 clinical and prevention trials to provide optimal patient treatments. As part of Indiana University Health, the hospital works with nearby Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital and Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health; the Indiana University Health University Hospital Emergency Department closed on June 30, 2014, with its adult emergency room care services moving to the Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital Emergency Medicine and Trauma Center
U.S. News & World Report
U. S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, consumer advice and analysis. Founded as a newsweekly magazine in 1933, U. S. News transitioned to web-based publishing in 2010. U. S. News is best known today for its influential Best Colleges and Best Hospitals rankings, but it has expanded its content and product offerings in education, money, careers and cars; the rankings are popular in North America but have drawn widespread criticism from colleges and students for their dubious and arbitrary nature. The ranking system by U. S. News is contrasted with the Washington Monthly and Forbes rankings. United States News was founded in 1933 by David Lawrence, who started World Report in 1946; the two magazines covered national and international news separately, but Lawrence merged them into U. S. News & World Report in 1948, he subsequently sold the magazine to his employees. The magazine tended to be more conservative than its two primary competitors and Newsweek, focused more on economic and education stories.
It eschewed sports and celebrity news. Important milestones in the early history of the magazine include the introduction of the "Washington Whispers" column in 1934 and the "News You Can Use" column in 1952. In 1958, the weekly magazine's circulation passed one million and reached two million by 1973. Since 1983, it has become known for its influential ranking and annual reports of colleges and graduate schools, spanning across most fields and subjects. U. S. News & World Report is America's oldest and best-known ranker of academic institutions, covers the fields of business, medicine, education, social sciences and public affairs, in addition to many other areas, its print edition was included in national bestseller lists, augmented by online subscriptions. Additional rankings published by U. S. News & World Report include medical specialties and automobiles. In October 1984, publisher and real estate developer Mortimer Zuckerman purchased U. S. News & World Report. Zuckerman is formerly the owner of the New York Daily News.
In 1993, U. S. News & World Report entered the digital world by providing content to CompuServe and in 1995, the website usnews.com was launched. In 2001, the website won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence Online. In 2007, U. S. News & World Report published its first list of the nation's best high schools, its ranking methodology includes state test scores and the success of poor and minority students on these exams, schools' performance in Advanced Placement exams. Starting in June 2008, the magazine reduced its publication frequency in three steps. In June 2008, citing the decline overall magazine circulation and advertising, U. S. News & World Report announced that it would become a biweekly publication, starting January 2009, it hoped advertisers would be attracted to the schedule, which allowed ads to stay on newsstands a week longer. However, five months the magazine changed its frequency again, becoming monthly. In August 2008, U. S. News revamped its online opinion section.
The new version of the opinion page included daily new op-ed content as well as the new Thomas Jefferson Street blog. An internal memo was sent on November 5, 2010, to the staff of the magazine informing them that the "December issue will be our last print monthly sent to subscribers, whose remaining print and digital replica subscriptions will be filled by other publishers." The memo went on to say that the publication would be moving to a digital format but that it would continue to print special issues such as "the college and grad guides, as well as hospital and personal finance guides." Prior to going defunct, U. S. News was the lowest-ranking news magazine in the U. S. after Time and Newsweek. A weekly digital magazine, U. S. News Weekly, introduced in January 2009, continued to offer subscription content until it ceased at the end of April 2015; the company is owned by U. S. News & World Report, L. P. a held company based in the Daily News building in New York City. The editorial staff is headquartered in Washington, D.
C. The company's move to the Web made it possible for U. S. News & World Report to expand its service journalism with the introduction of several consumer-facing rankings products; the company returned to profitability in 2013. The editorial staff of U. S. News & World Report is based in Washington, D. C. and Brian Kelly has been the chief content officer since April 2007. The company is owned by media proprietor Mortimer Zuckerman; the first of the U. S. News & World Report's famous rankings was its "Who Runs America?" surveys. These ran in the spring of each year from 1974 to 1986; the magazine would have a cover featuring persons selected by the USN & WR as being the ten most powerful persons in the United States. Every single edition of the series listed the President of the United States as the most powerful person, but the #2 position included such persons as Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Federal Reserve Chairmen Paul Volcker and Arthur Burns and US Senator Edward Kennedy. While most of the top ten each year were officials in government others were included, including TV anchormen Walter Cronkite and Dan Rather, Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman David Rockefeller, AFL-CIO leader George Meany, consumer advocate Ralph Nader.
The only woman to make the top ten list was First Lady Rosalynn Carter in 1980. In addition to these overall top ten persons, the publication included top persons in each of several fields, including Education, Finance and many other areas; the surv