A sedan — saloon — is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with separate compartments for engine and cargo. Sedan's first recorded use as a name for a car body was in 1912; the name comes from a 17th century development of a litter, the sedan chair, a one-person enclosed box with windows and carried by porters. Variations of the sedan style of body include: close-coupled sedan, club sedan, convertible sedan, fastback sedan, hardtop sedan, notchback sedan and sedanet/sedanette; the current definition of a sedan is a car with a closed body with the engine and cargo in separate compartments. This broad definition does not differentiate sedans from various other car body styles, but in practice the typical characteristics of sedans are: a B-pillar that supports the roof two rows of seats a three-box design with the engine at the front and the cargo area at the rear a less steeply sloping roofline than a coupé, which results in increased headroom for rear passenger and a less sporting appearance.
A rear interior volume of at least 33 cu ft It is sometimes suggested that sedans must have four doors. However, several sources state that a sedan can have four doors. In addition, terms such as sedan and coupé have been more loosely interpreted by car manufacturers since 2010; when a manufacturer produces two-door sedan and four-door sedan versions of the same model, the shape and position of the greenhouse on both versions may be identical, with only the B-pillar positioned further back to accommodate the longer doors on the two-door versions. A sedan chair, a sophisticated litter, was an enclosed box with windows used to transport one seated person. Porters at the front and rear carried the chair with horizontal poles. Litters date back to long before ancient Egypt and China. Sedan chairs were developed in the 1630s. Reputable etymologists suggest the name of the chair probably came through Italian dialects from the Latin sedere meaning to sit; the same experts report that the first recorded use of sedan for an automobile body occurred in 1912 when a new Studebaker model was described by its manufacturers as a sedan.
The same American dictionary provides this description: "Sedan an enclosed automobile for four or more people, having two or four doors". There were enclosed automobile bodies before 1912. Long before that time the same enclosed but horse-drawn carriages were known as broughams in the United Kingdom, they were berlinas in France and Italy. Both names are still used there for sedans. There is an unsubstantiated claim that the body of a particular 1899 Renault Voiturette Type B was the first motor vehicle, a sedan, it was a two-door two-seater vehicle with an extra external seat for a footman/mechanic. Georgano claims the earliest usage matching a modern definition of a sedan was a 1911 Speedwell sedan manufactured in the United States. In American English and Latin American Spanish, the term sedan is used. In British English, a car of this configuration is called a saloon. Hatchback sedans are known as hatchbacks. Super saloon is used to describe a high performance saloon car where sports saloon would have been used in the past.
Saloon has been used by British car manufacturers in the United States, for example, the Rolls-Royce Park Ward. In Australia and New Zealand sedan is now predominantly used, they were simply cars. In the 21st century saloon is still found in the long-established names of particular motor races. In other languages, sedans are known as berlina though they may include hatchbacks; these names, like sedan, all come from forms of passenger transport used before the advent of automobiles. In German sedans are berlines or limousines and limousines are stretch-limousines. In the United States notchback sedan distinguishes models with a horizontal trunklid; the term is only referred to in the marketing when it is necessary to distinguish between two sedan body styles of the same model range. Several sedans have a fastback profile, but instead of a trunk lid, the entire back of the vehicle lifts up. Examples include the Chevrolet Malibu Maxx, Audi A5 Sportback and Tesla Model S; the names "hatchback" and "sedan" are used to differentiate between body styles of the same model.
Therefore the term "hatchback sedan" is not used, to avoid confusion. There have been many sedans with a fastback style. Hardtop sedans were a popular body style in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Hardtops are manufactured without a B-pillar leaving uninterrupted open space or, when closed, glass along the side of the car; the top was intended to look like a convertible's top but it was fixed and made of hard material that did not fold. All manufacturers in the United States from the early 1950s into the 1970s provided at least a 2-door hardtop model in their range and, if their engineers could manage it, a 4-door hardtop as well; the lack of side-bracing demanded a strong and heavy chassis frame to combat unavoidable flexing. The fashion may have delayed the introduction of unibody construction. In 1973 the US government passed Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 216 creating a standard roof strength test to measure the integrity of roof structure in motor vehicles to come into effect some years later.
Riley was a British motorcar and bicycle manufacturer from 1890. Riley became part of the Nuffield Organisation in 1938 and was merged into the British Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. Ln July 1969 British Leyland announced the immediate end of Riley production, although 1969 was a difficult year for the UK auto industry and many cars from Riley's inventory may have been first registered in 1970. Today, the Riley trademark is owned by BMW; the business began as the Bonnick Cycle Company of England. In 1890 during the pedal cycle craze that swept Britain at the end of the 19th century William Riley Jr. who had interests in the textile industry purchased the business and in 1896 incorporated a company to own it named The Riley Cycle Company Limited. Cycle gear maker Sturmey Archer was added to the portfolio. Riley's middle son, left school in the same year and soon began to dabble in automobiles, he built his first car at 16, in 1898, because his father did not approve. It featured the first mechanically operated inlet valve.
By 1899, Percy Riley moved from producing motorcycles to his first prototype four-wheeled quadricycle. Little is known about Percy Riley's first "motor-car", it is, well attested that the engine featured mechanically operated cylinder valves at a time when other engines depended on the vacuum effect of the descending piston to suck the inlet valve open. That was demonstrated some years when Benz developed and patented a mechanically operated inlet valve process of their own but were unable to collect royalties on their system from British companies. In 1900, Riley sold a single three-wheeled automobile. Meanwhile, the elder of the Riley brothers, Victor Riley, although supportive of his brother's embryonic motor-car enterprise, devoted his energies to the core bicycle business. Riley's founder William Riley remained resolutely opposed to diverting the resources of his bicycle business into motor cars, in 1902 three of his sons, Victor and younger brother Allan Riley pooled resources, borrowed a necessary balancing amount from their mother and in 1903 established the separate Riley Engine Company in Coventry.
A few years the other two Riley brothers and Cecil, having left school joined their elder brothers in the business. At first, the Riley Engine Company supplied engines for Riley motorcycles and to Singer, a newly emerging motorcycle manufacturer in the area, but the Riley Engine Company soon began to focus on four-wheeled automobiles, their Vee-Twin Tourer prototype, produced in 1905, can be considered the first proper Riley car. The Riley Engine Company expanded the next year. William Riley reversed his former opposition to his sons' preference for motorised vehicles and Riley Cycle halted motorcycle production in 1907 to focus on automobiles. Bicycle production ceased in 1911. In 1912, the Riley Cycle Company changed its name to Riley Limited as William Riley focused it on becoming a wire-spoked wheel supplier for the burgeoning motor industry, the detachable wheel having been invented by Percy and distributed to over 180 motor manufacturers, by 1912 the father's business had dropped automobile manufacture in order to concentrate capacity and resources on the wheels.
Exploitation of this new and expanding lucrative business sector made commercial sense for William Riley, but the abandonment of his motor-bicycle and of his automobile business, the principal customer for his sons' Riley Engine Company enforced a rethink on the engine business. In early 1913, Percy was joined by three of his brothers to focus on manufacturing entire automobiles; the works was located near Percy's Riley Engine Company. The first new model, the 17/30, was introduced at the London Motor Show that year. Soon afterwards, Stanley Riley founded yet another business, the Nero Engine Company, to produce his own 4-cylinder 10 hp car. Riley began manufacturing aeroplane engines and became a key supplier in Britain's buildup for World War I. In 1918, after the war, the Riley companies were restructured. Nero joined Riley as the sole producer of automobiles. Riley Motor Manufacturing under the control of Allan Riley became Midland Motor Bodies, a coachbuilder for Riley. Riley Engine Company continued under Percy as the engine supplier.
At this time, Riley's blue diamond badge, designed by Harry Rush appeared. The motto was "As old as the industry, as modern as the hour." Riley grew through the 1920s and 1930s. The Riley Engine Company produced 4-, 6-, 8-cylinder engines, while Midland built more than a dozen different bodies. Riley models at this time included: Saloons: Adelphi,'Continental', Falcon, Mentone, Monaco, Victor Coupes: Ascot, Lincock Tourers: Alpine, Gamecock Sports: Brooklands, Imp, MPH, Sprite Limousines: Edinburgh, WinchesterIntroduced in 1926 in a humble but innovatively designed fabric bodied saloon, Percy Riley's ground-breaking Riley 9 engine- a small capacity, high revving unit- was ahead of its time in many respects. Having hemispherical combustion chambers and inclined overhead valves, it has been called the most significant engine development of the 1920s. With twin camshafts set high in the cylinder block and valves operated by short pushrods, it provided power and efficiency without the servicing complexity of an OHC layout.
It soon attracted the attention of builders of ` specials' intended for sporting purposes. One such was engineer/driver J. G. Pa
BMC C-Series engine
The BMC C-Series was a straight-6 automobile engine produced from 1954 to 1971. Unlike the Austin-designed A-Series and B-Series engines, it came from the Morris Engines drawing office in Coventry and therefore differed in its layout and design from the two other designs which were related; this was due to the C-Series being in essence an enlarged overhead valve development of the earlier 2.2 L Straight-6 overhead camshaft engine used in the post-war Morris Six MS and Wolseley 6/80 from 1948 until 1954, which itself formed the basis of a related 1.5 L 4-cylinder engine for the Morris Oxford MO in side-valve form and the Wolseley 4/50 in overhead camshaft form. Displacement was 2.6 to 2.9 L with an undersquare stroke of 88.9 mm, bored out to increase capacity. The revised engine was required to replace BMC's inherited diverse collection of 2 1⁄2-litre engines made to prewar designs and Austin's wartime designed four-cylinder BS1. A long-stroke engine, though closer to square than BMC contemporaries, with a cast iron block and cylinder head using Weslake patents, its overhead valves were operated by pushrods.
Rileys used high-mounted twin camshafts with short pushrods, Wolseleys used single overhead camshafts. The twin-cam Riley and OHC Wolseley engines were expensive to make, sold in low volumes and both had had reliability problems with overheating valves under sustained high loads; the brief for the C-Series was to be a more conventional design, easy to build and service, more refined than the existing big Austin four-cylinder power units and with an emphasis on reliability and a long service life. At the design stage high performance was not foreseen as BMC had no sporting models of a size requiring an engine like the C-Series; the biggest design difference between the Morris-designed C-Series and the Austin-penned A- and B-Series engines was the position of the camshaft - on the right-hand side of the block rather than the left, although all three engines had their inlet and exhaust ports on the left. This meant that the C-Series didn't require the compound ports of the Austin engines, which were required to provide space in the cylinder head for the pushrods.
This should, have provided the C-Series with superior'breathing' and efficiency than the smaller engines since it still used the same highly-effective heart-shaped Combustion chamber design by Harry Weslake. However this was undermined by the carburettor arrangements; this design was chosen for ease of construction and to allow different carburettor arrangements to be accommodated and the design eliminated carburettor icing. Each cylinder had a generous-sized intake port from the gallery but the restrictive shape of the gallery and the carburettor port limited the engine's maximum power output and speed, as did the four-bearing crankshaft. There appear to have been plans for a twin cam variant of the C-Series, using the same basic head and valve design as the DOHC B-Series in the MGA Twin Cam for use in Rileys and Wolseleys; this explains the unadventurous design of the standard engine. However the reliability problems of the twin-cam B-Series and the mixed reception of the Riley Pathfinder discouraged BMC from pursuing this development and work stopped in 1955.
Other signs of the Morris origins of the design were the crankcase being cast with strengthening ribs and the big end bearings being split diagonally rather than horizontally. The C-Series had a hydraulic tensioning unit for its timing chain and had the oil pump and distributor driven via separate sets of skew-cut gears on the camshaft; this was unusual for mass-produced engines of the time. The C-Series' arrangement reduced load on the gears and therefore wear, preventing the ignition timing falling out of specification over time. Given the design emphasis on durability and ease of manufacture, the C-Series has always been considered an engine, both large and heavy for its capacity and power output proving to have little benefit, aside from the greater refinement of six-cylinders, over the Austin-designed four-cylinder 2.6-litre BS1 engine installed in the Austin A90 Atlantic and Austin-Healey 100. Austin's engineers attributed this to the poor cylinder head design. In 1957 the Healey was given a twelve-port head with a conventional intake manifold, increasing output by 15 bhp or fifteen percent.
In 1959 carburettors were replaced. In 1961 the inlet tract was improved, exhaust timing was adjusted, twin exhausts added. In 1961 the saloon engines were detuned and the Healey version's performance upgraded by Weslake; the Austin Healey Mark III was announced. The C-Series was less efficient than, in engineering terms was a retrograde step from Nuffield's engines: the Riley-designed Riley 2½-litre Big Four twin-cam four-cylinder unit fitted in the Riley RM series, Riley's prewar cars, the Wolseley designed Wolseley 2.2-litre straight six with a single overhead camshaft used in the Morris Six MS version of the Wolseley 6/80 which dated back to the early 1920s. The Austin BS1 had begun as a late wartime Rix and Bareham design, two-thirds of a Bedford-based wartime truck engine, for a 2.2-litre ohv unit intended for a British jeep which became the civilian Austin Champ. Its use spread to Austin's Sixteen, their light commercial vehicles
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
British Motor Corporation
The British Motor Corporation Limited was a UK-based vehicle manufacturer, formed in early 1952 to give effect to an agreed merger of the Morris and Austin businesses. BMC acquired the shares in the Austin Motor Company. Morris Motors, the holding company of the productive businesses of the Nuffield Organisation, owned MG, Wolseley; the agreed exchange of shares in Morris or Austin for shares in the new holding company, BMC, became effective in mid-April 1952. In September 1965, BMC took control of its major supplier of bodies, Pressed Steel, acquiring Jaguar's body supplier in the process. In September 1966, BMC merged with Jaguar Cars. In December 1966, BMC changed its name to British Motor Holdings Limited. BMH merged in May 1968 with Leyland Motor Corporation Limited, which made trucks and buses owned Standard-Triumph International Limited, BMH becoming the major part of British Leyland Motor Corporation. BMC was the largest British car company of its day, with 39% of British output, producing a wide range of cars under brand names including Austin, Morris, MG, Austin-Healey and Wolseley, as well as commercial vehicles and agricultural tractors.
The first chairman was Lord Nuffield, but he was replaced at the end of 1952 by Austin's Leonard Lord, who continued in that role until his 65th birthday in 1961, but handing over, in theory at least, the managing director responsibilities to his deputy George Harriman in 1956. BMC's headquarters were at the Austin Longbridge plant, near Birmingham and Austin was the dominant partner in the group because of the chairman; the use of Morris engine designs was dropped within three years and all new car designs were coded ADO from "Amalgamated Drawing Office". The Longbridge plant was up to date, having been modernised in 1951, compared favourably with Nuffield's 16 different and old-fashioned factories scattered over the Midlands. Austin's management systems, however cost control and marketing, were not as good as Nuffield's and as the market changed from a shortage of cars to competition, this was to tell; the biggest-selling car, the Mini, was famously analysed by Ford Motor Company, which concluded that BMC must have been losing £30 on every one sold.
The result was that although volumes held up well throughout the BMC era, market share fell as did profitability and hence investment in new models, triggering the 1966 merger with Jaguar Cars to form British Motor Holdings, the government-sponsored merger of BMH with Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968. At the time of the mergers, a well established dealership network was in place for each of the marques. Among the car-buying British public was a tendency of loyalty to a particular marque and marques appealed to different market segments; this meant that marques competed against each other in some areas, though some marques had a larger range than others. The Riley and Wolseley models were selling in small numbers. Styling was getting distinctly old-fashioned and this caused Leonard Lord, in an unusual move for him, to call upon the services of an external stylist. In 1958, BMC hired Battista Farina to redesign its entire car line; this resulted in the creation of three "Farina" saloons, each of, badge-engineered to fit the various BMC car lines.
The compact Farina model bowed in 1958 with the Austin A40 Farina. This is considered by many to be the first mass-produced hatchback car: a small estate version was produced with a horizontally split tailgate, its size and configuration would today be considered that of a small hatchback. A Mark II A40 Farina appeared in 1961 and was produced through 1967; these small cars used the A-Series engine. The mid-sized Farinas were launched in 1958 with the Wolseley 15/60. Other members of the group included Austin A55 Cambridge Mk. II, MG Magnette Mk. III, Morris Oxford V. Later, the design was licensed in Argentina and produced as the Siam Di Tella 1500, Traveller station wagon and Argenta pick-up; the mid-size cars used the B-Series straight-4 engine. Most of these cars lasted until 1961, though the Di Tellas remained until 1966, they were replaced with a new Farina body style and most were renamed. These were MG Magnette Mk. IV, Morris Oxford VI, Riley 4/72, Wolseley 16/60 and in 1964 the Siam Magnette 1622 alongside the Siam Di Tella in Argentina.
These remained in production until 1968, with no rear-wheel drive replacement produced. Farina designed a large car. Launched in 1959 as the Austin A99 Westminster, Vanden Plas Princess 3-Litre, Wolseley 6/99, it used the large C-Series straight-6 engine; the large Farinas were updated in 1961 as the Austin A110 Westminster, Vanden Plas Princess 3-Litre Mk. II, Wolseley 6/110; these remained in production until 1968. Austin A125 Sheerline 1947–54 Austin A135 Princess 1947–56 Austin A40 Sports 1950–53 Austin A70 Hereford 1950–54 Austin A30 1951–56 Austin A90 Atlantic 1949–52 Austin A40 Devon 1947–52 MG TD 1949–53 MG Y-type 1947–53 Morris Minor 1948–71 Morris Oxford MO 1948–54 Morris Six MS 1948–53 Riley RM series 1945–55 Wolseley 4/50 1948–53 Wolseley 6/80 1948–54 Nuffield Oxford Taxi 1947–55 Most BMC projects followed the earlier Austin practice of describing vehicles with an'ADO' number. Hence, cars that had more than one marque name would have the same ADO number. Given the complex badge-engineering that BMC undertook, it is common amongst enthusiasts to use the ADO number when referring to vehicles which were a single design (for example, saying'The ADO15 entered production in 1959'- this encompasses the fact that when launched, the ADO15
The Wolseley 6/90 is a car produced by Wolseley Motors Limited in the United Kingdom from 1954 to 1959. Announced on the first day of the October 1954 Motor Show, the 6/90 replaced the 6/80 as the company's flagship model, it was badged with Six-Ninety with 6/90 on the bootlid. Whereas the postwar austerity 6/80 had shared all but its radiator shell and interior finish with the Morris Six, the 6/90 design used the Italian-style body panels of the previous year's Riley Pathfinder, although not Riley's traditional sporting "big four" engine or its suspension; these Morris and Wolseley cars had all been designed by the Nuffield Organisation before it merged with Austin to become BMC. All three marques would soon be involved in BMC's badge engineering. For Wolseley enthusiasts, the 6/90, being visually distinct from contemporary Austin A90 and Morris Isis offerings, in retrospect seemed like the last true Wolseley; the Pathfinder and 6/90 were Nuffield designs. The Wolseley received the new BMC C-Series straight-6, an engine that produced 95 hp coupled to a four-speed manual transmission.
The 6/90 was not given the Pathfinder's sophisticated rear suspension but some versions had Riley refinements like a right-hand gear lever on the floor. It rocked Wolseley traditionalists with a grey striped formica instrument panel and central large chrome mesh "cheese-cutter" speaker grille; the hand brake control was under the dash to the side of the steering column and the gearchange was column mounted opposite the dip switch. The leather trimmed front seats were mounted together and the rear bench had a fold down centre arm rest. 5776 were made. The Motor magazine tested a 6/90 in 1955 and found it to have a top speed of 96 mph and acceleration from 0-60 mph in 17.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 21.6 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1063 including taxes, it is somewhat notorious for leading to the sacking of its designer Gerald Palmer in favour of Alec Issigonis. Series II 6/90s, introduced for 1957, included leaf springs on the live axle in the rear, a more conventional walnut dash and a floor-mounted gear lever — unusually on the right-hand side, on right-hand-drive cars.
Overdrive or automatic transmission were available as options. In production for only 8 months, the Series II gave way to the Series III in 1958 after only 1024 had been made; the Series III included a larger rear window. This design was available, rebadged, as Riley's Pathfinder replacement, the ill-fated Two-Point-Six. 5052 were made.6/90 production ended in 1959 with the introduction of the Pininfarina-designed 6/99. Engine: 2.6 L C-Series I6, 95 hp A model of the 6/90 was produced by Lansdowne in 2007