Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food and shelter; the threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person's permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not enjoy a certain minimum level of "living standards" as compared to the rest of the population of that country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government's ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals.
Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services. Poverty reduction is still a major issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Bank, United States Agency for International Development, Oxfam, CARE, World Vision International, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Red Cross among a plethora of others. In 2012 it was estimated that, using a poverty line of $1.25 a day, 1.2 billion people lived in poverty. Given the current economic model, built on GDP, it would take 100 years to bring the world's poorest up to the poverty line of $1.25 a day. UNICEF estimates; the World Bank forecasted in 2015 that 702.1 million people were living in extreme poverty, down from 1.75 billion in 1990. Extreme poverty is observed in all parts including developed economies. Of the 2015 population, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia.
According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the world's population living in extreme poverty fell from 37.1% to 9.6%, falling below 10% for the first time. The People's Republic of China accounts for over three quarters of global poverty reduction from 1990 to 2005. Though, as noted, China accounted for nearly half of all extreme poverty in 1990. In public opinion around the world people surveyed tend to incorrectly think extreme poverty hasn't decreased. During the 2013 to 2015 period The World Bank reported that extreme poverty fell from 11% to 10%, however they noted that the rate of decline had slowed by nearly half from the 25 year average with parts of sub-saharan Africa returning to early 2000 levels; the World Bank attributed this to increasing violence following the Arab Spring, population increases in Sub-Saharan Africa, general African inflationary pressures and economic malaise were the primary drivers for this slow down. There is disagreement among experts as to what would be considered a realistic poverty rate with one considering it "an inaccurately measured and arbitrary cut off".
Some contend that a higher poverty line is needed, such as a minimum of $7.40 or $10 to $15 a day. They argue that these levels would better reflect the cost of basic needs and normal life expectancy. One estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. It has been argued by some academics that the neoliberal policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank are exacerbating both inequality and poverty. Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money; the word poverty comes from Latin paupertās from pauper. There are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty: a family's income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries. United Nations: Fundamentally, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of basic capacity to participate in society. It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one's food or a job to earn one's living, not having access to credit, it means insecurity and exclusion of individuals and communities. It means susceptibility to violence, it implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank: Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, comprises many dimensions, it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one's life. Poverty is measured as either absolute or relative. In the United Kingdom, the second Cameron ministry came under attack for their redefinition of poverty.
Considering that two-thirds of people who found work were accepting wages that are below the living wage t
Rubi Rebelde is a 1989 Venezuelan telenovela produced by Radio Caracas Televisión based on the radionovelas La gata and Enamorada by Cuban author Inés Rodena. This version was written by Perla Farías, María Antonieta Gómez and Boris Izaguirre; this telenovela was distributed internationally by RCTV International. Mariela Alcalá and Jaime Araque starred as the main protagonists with Joana Benedek, Adolfo Cubas as the main antagonists; the slums held no apparent future for a young girl abandoned and exploited. Victor lives on the other side of town from Rubi. A minor accident brings sparking an instant attraction. Víctor's family is torn by secret ambitions and bitterness, his mother is an angry woman full of resentment. She battles a hostile relationship with Victor's paternal grandmother, who controls the family's wealth. Victor's brother, with his villainous ideas and evil notions, is much like his mother, his younger sister, the sweet Virginia, is blind. Victor is outstanding, both kind and warmhearted, Rubi is induced by him to enter the family home.
His concern is misinterpreted by Rubi as love for her. To make matters worse, Rubi is despised by Victor's mother, his grandmother, finds her charm and innocence touching. To avenge her spiteful daughter-in-law, the grandmother changes her will to name Rubi sole benefactor. Now wealthy, Rubi is thrust into an unknown world, one in which she will again be compelled to fight to survive. Nathalie Lartilleux remade Rubi Rebelde in 2014 along with the 1970 Mexican telenovela La Gata into a new telenovela called La Gata, Maite Perroni and Daniel Arenas starred as the protagonists. Rubi Rebelde at the Internet Movie Database
María Mercedes (Mexican TV series)
María Mercedes is a Mexican telenovela produced by Valentín Pimstein for Televisa in 1992. It was the first of the "Marías" telenovela trilogy, being followed by Marimar and María la del barrio. María Mercedes based on radionovela Enamorada original story by Inés Rodena. Thalía and Arturo Peniche starred as protagonists. Fernando Ciangherotti starred as special participation. Maria Mercedes is a poor young woman who lives with her father and three siblings after being abandoned by her ambitious mother; because of the lack of support from her perennially drunk father, she is forced to raise her brothers and sister on her own, working in the streets of Mexico City selling lottery tickets and juggling in a clown costume. Santiago del Olmo is sick and knows that he is dying. One morning when he is in the garden, he sees María selling lottery tickets in the street, he comes up with the idea to marry her just to upset his avaricious aunt Malvina after his death as a personal revenge. He gains Maria's trust and friendship, proposes to her, she agrees.
When Santiago dies, María becomes the head of the family. According to Santiago's will, her son Jorge Luis, her daughter Digna must live there in his house with Maria if they want to inherit any of his fortune. Since the murder of his wife on their wedding day, Jorge Luis has become a pessimistic young man, in contrast to his younger sister, a religious and fearful woman, who has never dated a man. After María moves into the del Olmo household, she falls in love with Jorge Luis, weak and does not oppose his mother's will, always doing as she wants. Malvina makes it her life's mission to antagonize María; when she finds out that María loves her son, she pushes him to marry her in order to get the inheritance back. She plans that after a few weeks Jorge Luis could make Maria give him control over the whole fortune and after that get divorced. Jorge Luis and María get married but they do not share a room nor do they live like a traditional married couple. Over time, Jorge Luis starts to develop a passionate love for María.
María has another foe, Mistica, a sultry and selfish woman who used to be Jorge Luis' girlfriend, but left him heartbroken in order to marry a wealthy older man, Sebastian Ordoñez. She realizes that she still loves Jorge Luis and is furious to learn that he is married and falling in love with Maria, she promises herself that she starts to help Malvina get rid of María. María meets Maria Magnolia, a beautiful and sophisticated woman, revealed to be her real mother. Maria Magnolia has now remarried and has another son, but she regrets having left her family, she gains María's trust and starts to help her children Guillermo, in jail and is the only one who knows the truth about her. Maria Magnolia's true identity remains a secret however for María and her other siblings and Andres, all the things she does for them have to be hidden from her new husband and their son Gustavito. Maria Magnolia how to seduce her husband. Not long after, Sebastian Ordoñes throws a high class party where he gives a prize to Jorge Luis and tries to seduce María.
Jorge Luis, moved by jealousy and by the sight of the beautifully well-dressed María starts to fall for her and sleeps with her. Soon María learns. After María's father passes away and Jorge Luis go on a vacation that goes awry because of the intervention of both Mistica and a local lifeguard who hits on María. Jorge Luis impulsively makes up his mind because of this and asks María for a divorce as soon as they arrive in Mexico City. However, Malvina has other plans, she tries to drive María crazy with the help of Cordelio, the butler, puts her in an asylum. María manages to escape from the asylum and hides from the police in the house of Doña Filo, a good friend from her poverty-stricken days, until Jorge Luis asks the police not to pursue her any more. With Cordelio as her ally, Malvina tries to kill María but it all fails. Malvina begins to wonder if she could be María's mother, she tells this to Magnolia's new husband, Rodolfo Mancilla, who in turn goes to María's old house and asks to see a picture of their mother.
He at once recognizes her and confronts her, arguing with her and throwing her out. Maria Magnolia survives by helping out a French tailor who once recognized her talent and pushed her ambitions. Meanwhile, Jorge Luis realizes that his feelings for Maria have grown so strong that he can’t live without her any more, he asks for forgiveness and she returns to the house where they live as a real married couple. Nine months María gives birth to twin girls, one of whom dies a few days later. Jorge Luis puts an end to Mistica's interference for good after she attempts to pin a pregnancy on him; when he discovers that his mother still hates María, he decides that it is time to leave his mother and raise his family with Maria. He stands up for himself for the first time against his mother's wishes and leaves. Malvina goes crazy and dresses as María used to in her impoverished past and runs to the street where she starts to sell lottery tickets and clean windshields, she is put in an asylum. Maria Mag
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will. A forced marriage differs from an arranged marriage, in which both parties consent to the assistance of their parents or a third party such as a matchmaker in choosing a spouse. There is a continuum of coercion used to compel a marriage, ranging from outright physical violence to subtle psychological pressure. Forced marriage is still practised in various cultures across the world in parts of South Asia and Africa; some scholars object to use of the term "forced marriage" because it invokes the consensual legitimating language of marriage for an experience, the opposite. A variety of alternative terms exist, including "forced conjugal association" and "conjugal slavery"; the United Nations views forced marriage as a form of human rights abuse, since it violates the principle of the freedom and autonomy of individuals. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that a person's right to choose a spouse and enter into marriage is central to his/her life and dignity, his/her equality as a human being.
The Roman Catholic Church deems forced marriage grounds for granting an annulment — for a marriage to be valid both parties must give their consent freely. The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery prohibits marriage without right to refuse of herself out of her parents', family's and other persons' will and requires the minimum age for marriage to prevent this. In 1969, the Special Court for Sierra Leone's Appeals Chamber found the abduction and confinement of women for "forced marriage" in war to be a new crime against humanity; the SCSL Trial Chamber in the Charles Taylor decision found that the term'forced marriage' should be avoided and rather described the practice in war as'conjugal slavery'. In 2013, the first United Nations Human Rights Council resolution against child and forced marriages was adopted. Marriages throughout history were arranged between families before the 18th century; the practices varied by culture, but involved the legal transfer of dependency of the woman from her father to the groom.
The emancipation of women in the 19th and 20th centuries changed marriage laws especially in regard to property and economic status. By the mid-20th century, many Western countries had enacted legislation establishing legal equality between spouses in family law; the period of 1975-1979 saw a major overhaul of family laws in countries such as Italy, Austria, West Germany, Portugal. In 1978, the Council of Europe passed the Resolution 37 on equality of spouses in civil law. Among the last European countries to establish full gender equality in marriage were Switzerland, Spain, the Netherlands, France in the 1980s. An arranged marriage is not the same as a forced marriage: in the former, the spouse has the possibility to reject the offer; the line between arranged and forced marriage is however difficult to draw, due to the implied familial and social pressure to accept the marriage and obey one's parents in all respects. In Europe, during the late 18th century and early 19th century, the literary and intellectual movement of romanticism presented new and progressive ideas about love marriage, which started to gain acceptance in society.
In the 19th century, marriage practices varied across Europe, but in general, arranged marriages were more common among the upper class. Arranged marriages were the norm in Russia before early 20th century. Child marriages were common but began to be questioned in the 19th and 20th century. Child marriages are considered to be forced marriages, because children are not able to make a informed choice whether or not to marry, are influenced by their families. In Western countries, during the past decades, the nature of marriage—especially with regard to the importance of marital procreation and the ease of divorce—has changed which has led to less social and familial pressure to get married, providing more freedom of choice in regard to choosing a spouse. Forced marriage was used to require a captive to integrate with the host community, accept his or her fate. One example is the English blacksmith John R. Jewitt, who spent three years as a captive of the Nootka people on the Pacific Northwest Coast in 1802–1805.
He was ordered to marry, because the council of chiefs thought that a wife and family would reconcile him to staying with his captors for life. Jewitt was given a choice between forced marriage for himself and capital punishment for both him and his "father". "Reduced to this sad extremity, with death on the one side, matrimony on the other, I thought proper to choose what appeared to me the least of the two evils". Forced marriage was practiced by authoritarian governments as a way to meet population targets; the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia systematically forced people into marriages, in order to increase the population and continue the revolution. These marriage
Inocente de ti
Inocente de Ti is a Mexican telenovela produced by Nathalie Lartilleux for Televisa in 2004. On Monday, November 8, 2004, Canal de las Estrellas started broadcasting Inocente de Ti weekdays at 5:00pm, replacing Amar otra vez; the last episode was broadcast on Friday, May 6, 2005 with Piel de otoño replacing it the following day. Camila Sodi and Valentino Lanús starred as protagonists, while Helena Rojo and Carolina Tejera starred as antagonists. Lupita Ferrer and Ricardo Blume starred as stellar performances. Florecita travels from Mexico to USA, with her grandmother Clotilde and her sister Isela, in order for the girls to reunite with their father Ruben and two brothers Rodrigo and Victor, who live in Miami. During the trip, Clotilde dies in the desert; the girls bury their grandmother in the desert and continue to Miami, only to find out that their father is an alcoholic. Flor's mother, lives in Miami, although her children believe her to be dead. Gabriela has remarried and now is a famous television director.
One day Gabriela meet without recognising each other. Flor begins selling flowers on the street and cleaning cars. One day, she meets his girlfriend Gloria, who are preparing for their wedding. Julio Alberto buys Gloria a flower from Flor. Gloria dies at the wedding, Julio Alberto is overwhelmed with grief. After a while, he starts to spend time in the park where he and Gloria walked together and where they used to be so happy, he sometimes starts talking to her. Julio Alberto's mother, lives with her three children in the house of her twin sister Raquel; the sisters hate each other and Rebeca is silently waiting Raquel's death from cancer. Raquel plans to leave her fortune to Flor. Believing that money is rightfully hers, she makes her son seduce Flor, comes up with a plan to steal the money from the young girl and throw her out on the streets. Flor doesn't care about losing her fortune because she was never rich in the first place, but she is disappointed that Julio Alberto lied to her and betrayed her, she believed in him.
She decides to find a job as a maid, with the Dalmacci family, where Sergio, the trouble-making son, falls in love with Flor, fascinated by the goodness of her heart. Julio Alberto re-enters Flor's life, realizing that he is in love with her, he begs Flor to return to him. Whom does her heart belong to now? Is it Julio Alberto or Sergio? Inocente de ti on IMDb
Enrique Álvarez Félix
For the politician, see Enrique Álvarez. Enrique Álvarez Félix was a Mexican actor, known for his roles in telenovelas and in films, such as "The Monastery of the Vultures" and "The House of the Pelican". Enrique Álvarez Félix was the son of Mexican actress María Félix and her first husband, Enrique Álvarez Alatorre; when his parents divorced in 1938, his mother lived for a time at home with her own parents until 1939, when she traveled with Enrique to Mexico City. Soon after, her ex-husband took Álvarez Félix; when his mother married Jorge Negrete he became the stepbrother of Diana Negrete. Álvarez Félix never married, according to Mexican novelist and essayist Carlos Fuentes, he was sexually frustrated, had an Oedipus complex. Enrique Álvarez Félix died from a heart attack in the early morning of Friday, May 24, 1996, aged 62. A telenovela is a type of long miniseries which tells one self-contained story within the span of a year or less. However, they are much longer than the typical miniseries.
The Golden Woman House of neighborhood Valeria Soul of my soul Wild Heart Between shadows Scam of love The portrait of de Dorian Gray I know never The constitution The twins The carriage The building opposite My rival The spring of the miracle The unforgivable Rina The Sin of love Colorina What the sky does not forgive ] Thoroughbred As we are Light and shadow The Devil's smile Marisol Álvarez's last acting role was "Leonardo" in Marisol. The title character, Leonardo's niece, was played by Erika Buenfil, he died two days after the episode in which his character, was killed off. The Immortal Charro Simon of the Desert The Crows are in Mourning The Two Elenas House of Women Requiem for a scoundrel The riders of the witch The Outsiders The Green Years Three nights of madness Chronicle of a coward Trap for a cadaver Narda or summer The Angels of the Afternoon The spring of the scorpions Victoria The disturbed The Monastery of the Vultures Love does not have a woman's face Labyrinth of passions The House of the Pelican Enrique Álvarez Félix filmography María Félix filmography Enrique's stepfathers:Agustín LaraJorge Negrete María Teresa Lara, step-aunt of Enrique Enrique Álvarez Félix on IMDb Enrique Álvarez Félix profile with dates of birth and death, Find a Grave A short documentary film on Álvarez on YouTube
María Rubio was a Mexican television and stage actress. She worked with Televisa as an actress on telenovelas, she was well-known for her role as iconic villain "Catalina Creel" in Cuna de Lobos. María Rubio on IMDb