A weathering rind is a discolored, chemically altered, outer zone or layer of a discrete rock fragment formed by the processes of weathering. The inner boundary of a weathering rind parallels the outer surface of the rock fragment in which it has developed. Rock fragments with weathering rinds are discrete clasts, ranging in size from pebbles to cobbles or boulders, they occur either lying on the surface of the ground or buried within sediments such as alluvium, colluvium, or glacial till. A weathering rind represents the alteration of the outer portion of a rock by exposure to air or near surface groundwater over a period of time. A weathering rind may be enriched with either iron or manganese, silica, oxidized to a yellowish red to reddish color. A weathering rind exhibits multiple bands of differing colors. Although sometimes confused with weathering rinds, spheroidal weathering is a different type of chemical weathering in which spherical layers of weathered material progressively develop in situ around blocks of jointed bedrock beneath the Earth's surface, rather than in reworked and transported clasts such as cobbles and boulders.
Weathering rinds have a long history of being used to determine the relative age of either Quaternary sediments or landforms. This is done by comparing the thickness of weathering rinds of gravel composed of similar rock types. Deposits containing gravel with thicker weathering rinds are interpreted to be older than deposits containing rocks with thinner weathering rinds. Sedimentary deposits containing gravel with weathering rinds of the same thickness are interpreted to be contemporaneous in age; the use of weathering rinds in relative dating is used in Arctic and alpine regions and in the correlation of glacial moraines and tills and fluvial sediments and terraces. In addition, weathering rinds have been used to determine the absolute amount of time gravel-size rock has been exposed to the weathering processes; this technique was proposed by Cernohouz and Solc who first argued that the relationship between the thickness of a weathering-rind thickness and the time it took to form is expressed by a logarithmic function.
This is done by determining the absolute age of sedimentary deposits containing either gravel-size rocks or artifacts using absolute dating methods such as C14 and measuring the weathering-rind thickness of rocks of similar lithology. The dates obtained from absolute dating techniques and measurements of weathering rind thicknesses are used to construct an age versus thickness curve for dating rocks in other sedimentary deposits; this dating method has been applied to glacial deposits in alpine regions. Obsidian hydration dating is a type of dating that uses the weathering rind that develops within artifacts or gravel that are composed of obsidian; when fresh obsidian is exposed to air it contains less than 1% water. Over time, a weathering rind, known as an obsidian hydration band and composed of hydrated glass forms, as water diffuses from a broken surface, associated with manufacture of an artifact, into the obsidian; the thickness of this band can be seen, measured, using various techniques such as a high-power microscope with 40-80 power magnification, depth profiling with SIMS, IR-PAS.
The determination of absolute age from the thickness of an obsidian hydration band is complicated and problematic. First, the rate at which the hydration of glass occurs varies with temperature; the rate at which the obsidian hydration band forms increases with temperature. Second, the rate of hydration and obsidian hydration band formation varies with the geochemistry of the obsidian, including the intrinsic water content, seems to affect the rate of hydration. Water vapor pressure may affect the rate of obsidian hydration. If the rate of obsidian hydration band can be controlled for the obsidian's geochemistry and other factors, it might be possible to date an artifact using the obsidian hydration technique; the presence or absence of an obsidian hydration band has been used to distinguish prehistoric obsidian debitage from obsidian debitage produced by modern flintknappers. This distinction can be made because it takes about 70 years for a band to enlarge sufficiently so that it is detectable on a freshly flaked surface of a piece of obsidian.
For example, the basis of the lack of development of obsidian hydration bands, it was concluded that modern flintknappers brought specimens of obsidian to the Poverty Point Site in Louisiana. Liesegang rings
Rind is a town in the Vayots Dzor Province of Armenia. Vayots Dzor Province Rind, Armenia at GEOnet Names Server World Gazeteer: Armenia – World-Gazetteer.com Report of the results of the 2001 Armenian Census, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia Kechichian, Joseph. Oman and the World: The Emergence of an Independent Foreign Policy
Clementina Rind was a Colonial American woman, known as being the first female newspaper printer and publisher in Virginia. Living and working in Williamsburg, she took over the printing press after her husband's death in 1773. Clementina continued to print The Virginia Gazette and published Thomas Jefferson's tract A Summary View of the Rights of British America. Little is known about Clementina's early life, she was born around 1740 in Maryland. Sometime between 1762 and 1765, she married William Rind, a printer in Maryland who worked in partnership with Annapolis printer, Jonas Green on the Maryland Gazette. William Rind and Jonas Green worked together until publication of The Maryland Gazette was suspended in October 1765 as a protest to the Stamp Act of 1765. Afterwards, the Rinds moved to Williamsburg sometime between late 1765 and early 1766 in response to an invitation William Rind had received to start The Virginia Gazette. On May 16, 1766, the first issue of William Rind's The Virginia Gazette was printed, accompanied with the motto, "Open to ALL PARTIES, but Influenced by NONE."
Within this newspaper, William Rind printed local publications advertisements as well as information from the Virginia House of Burgesses, a practice Clementina Rind would continue. As the printing press flourished, so too did their lives in Williamsburg. By 1767, they were living on the Duke of Gloucester Street, in a brick building that served as both a work space and a family residence. Together and William Rind, built a life and family consisting of five children all of whom were born in Williamsburg, with the exception of the eldest, born in Maryland. Following the death of her husband in August 1773, Clementina Rind edited and published The Virginia Gazette until 1774, she managed the press out of her brick home, now the Ludwell-Paradise House in Colonial Williamsburg. Rind printed submissions from female readers. In 1774, Rind was the first to print Thomas Jefferson's A Summary View of the Rights of British America. Rind died the following month in Williamsburg, she had five children: William, Charles and Maria.
She was honored as part of the first class of Virginia Women in History in 2000
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk, produced in a wide range of flavors and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk the milk of cows, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is acidified, adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation; the solids are pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature. Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced, their styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk, whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents; the yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, chives or cranberries. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid the addition of rennet completes the curdling.
Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, lower shipping costs. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, high content of fat, protein and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese. Speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese; the long storage life of some cheeses when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable. There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, the outside has a layer of wax; this specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping.
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine; the cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, receiving and ripening. The word cheese comes from Latin caseus, from which the modern word casein is derived; the earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour". The word cheese comes from cīese or cēse. Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languages—West Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi—all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kāsī, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin; the Online Etymological Dictionary states that "cheese" comes from "Old English cyse, cese...from West Germanic *kasjus, from Latin caseus "cheese"." The Online Etymological Dictionary states. Compare fromage.
Old Norse ostr, Danish ost, Swedish ost are related to Latin ius "broth, juice.'"When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese". It is from this word that the French fromage, standard Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj, Occitan fromatge are derived. Of the Romance languages, Portuguese, Romanian and Southern Italian dialects use words derived from caseus; the word cheese itself is employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense; the term "cheese" is used as a noun and adjective in a number of figurative expressions. Cheese is an ancient food. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, whether in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.
Earliest proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE, when sheep were first domesticated. Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach. There is a legend—wit
Succade is the candied peel of any of the citrus species from the citron or Citrus medica, distinct with its extra-thick peel. However, the term is occasionally applied to the peel, root, or entire fruit or vegetable like parsley and cucurbita which have a bitter taste and are boiled with sugar to get a special "sweet and sour" outcome. Fruits which are candied include dates, pineapple and the rind of watermelon; the word succade is most derived from the Latin succidus, but according to others the name may have originated from the Hebrew word sukkah, the temporary booth that Jews build on the holiday of Sukkot. The citron, known in Hebrew as an etrog, is one of the symbolic Four Species used on that holiday. After Sukkot, some Jews make marmalade from it. While the word Succade was used in German, today it is called Zitronat; the French called it fruit glacé or fruit confit, is known as candied fruit or crystallized fruit. It has been around since the 14th century; the citron fruits are halved, immersed in seawater or ordinary salt water to ferment for about 40 days, the brine being changed every two weeks.
After partial de-salting and boiling to soften the peel, it is candied in a strong sugar solution. The candied peel put up in jars for future use. Candying is traditionally done in Livorno, where they gathered the Corsican citrons from Corsica, the Diamante citrons from Liguria, Naples and Sicily, the Greek citron from Greece through Trieste; the continual process of drenching the fruit in syrup causes the fruit to become saturated with sugar, thereby preventing the growth of spoilage microorganisms. In the Eastern Bloc, ersatz succade and orangeat were prepared from unripe tomatoes and carrots as citrus fruits were scarce goods that could not be produced domestically. Succade is sometimes used in cakes, as a filling for pound cake, plum pudding, sfogliatelle, fruitcake or ontbijtkoek, it is added to raisin bread. Succade is combined with currants, raisins and hazelnuts. Candied citron peel is coated in chocolate and eaten as confectionery. Chopped succade is used in cannoli. Recipes vary from region to region, but the general principle is to boil the fruit, steep it in strong sugar solutions for a number of weeks, dry off any remaining water.
The high sugar content of finished glacé fruits inhibits the growth of microorganisms, glacé fruits will keep for a number of years without any additional methods of preservation. Fruits that hold up well to being preserved in this manner include cherries, peaches, pears, pineapple, oranges, lemons and clementines. Angelica is seen in Western cooking except as a glacé fruit. Candied fruit Chenpi Fruit anatomy Mincemeat Orangeat Historic Food
Pork rind is the culinary term for the skin of a pig. It can be used in many different ways, it can be fried or roasted in pork fat to produce the snack called pork rinds in American English and pork greaves, pork scratchings, or pork cracklings in the UK. The frying renders much of the fat attached to the uncooked rind, causing the size of the cooked product to be reduced considerably. A byproduct of the rendering of lard, it is a way of making the tough skin of a pig edible. In many ancient cultures, animal fats were the only way of obtaining oil for cooking and they were common in many people's diets until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Microwaveable pork rinds are sold in bags that resemble microwaveable popcorn and can be eaten still warm. Pickled pork rinds, are enjoyed refrigerated and cold. Unlike the crisp and fluffy texture of fried pork rinds, pickled pork rinds are rich and buttery, much like foie gras. For the large-scale production of commercial pork rinds, dried pork skin pellets are used.
They are first rehydrated in water with added flavoring, fried in pork fat at 200–210 °C. Cooking makes the rinds float on the oil surface; the rinds are removed from the fat and air dried. Antioxidants may be added to improve stability. Like many snack foods, pork rinds can be high in fat. According to Men's Health, a one-ounce serving contains nine times the protein and less fat than is found in a serving of potato chips, which are much higher in carbohydrates, they add that 43% of pork rind's fat is unsaturated, most of, oleic acid, the same healthy fat found in olive oil. Another 13% of its fat content is stearic acid, a type of saturated fat, considered harmless because it does not raise cholesterol levels. A 60 g serving of pork rind contains 29 g of 375 kcal and 0.65 g of sodium. However, pork rinds are considered an incomplete source of protein because they contain low amounts of some essential amino acids, including methionine and histidine. Torresmo known as toicinho de porco, is a popular bar snack in Brazil served in bite-sized chunks.
It is a common accompaniment to typical dishes such as feijoada and virado. Chicharrones is the term for pork rinds in Colombia. Two kinds of chicharrón exist: chicharrón toteado, which has no meat in it and is similar to the lighter, commercial version, chicharrón cocho, made with part of the pork meat attached to the skin; this makes for a soft, juicy meat. It is traditionally served with beans, fried eggs and plantain in a typical plate called bandeja paisa. Scrunchions is a Newfoundland term for small pieces of pork rind or pork fatback fried until rendered and crispy, they are used as a flavoring over other foods, such as salt fish and potatoes, used as a condiment for fish and brewis. In Quebec, they are called oreilles de Christ and are eaten exclusively as part of traditional cabane à sucre meals. Chicharrones are served in homes or snack in bars and restaurants, little sodas adds in their menu Vigoron or empanadas with chicharrones and famous snack dish called chifrijo. Preparation could change from using pig fat as base and frying, but many prefer using a wok-like pot and wood-fire cooking.
Mexico is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of pork rinds, known as chicharrón or chicharra. It may still have fat attached, called in Spanish chicharrón con gordo in central México, it is served in homes across Mexico. It can be served in a soup sometimes called chicharrón con salsa de chicharrón, it is served as an appetizer, or offered as snack at family reunions. However, chicharrones can be purchased on the street and are eaten with hot sauce and lime juice. One popular breakfast is salsa de chicharron, cooked in green tomato or tomato salsa spiced with epazote. If liquid is drained, the pork rind can be used in tacos, either as fast-food products or kitchen made; the dryness in pork rind pairs with humidity and softness in pico de gallo and both fill a corn tortilla as taco. A byproduct in frying rinds is the decanted residues in fryer called asiento or boronas; the process requires uniformly cooking rinds, while the product dehydrates, it cracks, losing small pieces, which are collected afterwards and become a thick, fatty salsa, that can be mixed as an ingredient in other salsa de chicharrón recipes or used for its flavor and fat in pan frying.
A second byproduct in frying rinds is lard. Cueritos are the same as pork rinds, but are soft and translucent, as they are not cooked unlike the chicharrón, crispy, they are available in Mexico as antojo and sold on the streets by butchers, oftentimes served fresh, but one can find them marinated with vinegar and onion at tienditas, popular convenience stores where the clerk is the owner. If marinated, they are served with lemon and salt, powdered chili and with salsa Valentina. Another vatiety is duritos called chicharrones de harina; these are similar to traditional chicharrones, only made with fried flour leavened with baking s
A millrind or rind is an iron support four-armed or cross-shaped, for the upper stone in a pair of millstones. The rind is affixed to the top of the square-section main shaft or spindle and supports the entire weight of the runner stone, which can be as much as several tons; the face of a runner stone has a carved depression, called the "Spanish cross", to accommodate the millrind. The rind is necessary because the grain is fed through the runner stone's central hole, so the spindle cannot be inserted through it like a cartwheel on an axle. A refinement, replacing the cross, was to mount a mace onto the spindle, which fitted into a gimbal let into the runner stone; the device allowed the runner stone to move in two planes and thus follow the nether stone more but great care had to be taken to ensure that its weight was properly balanced. The separation of the nether stone from the runner, controlling the fineness of the grind, was adjusted by the tenter mechanism: a screw jack to raise or lower the bearing carrying the base of spindle.
The millrind appears as a charge in heraldry, in which it is known by the French name fer-de-moline. Like real millrinds, the fer-de-moline is variable in form; the 16th century writer Bossewell characterized it as a symbol fit for judges and magistrates, who keep men on a straight course just as a millrind does with a runner stone. However it is more found in canting arms of families with names such as Miller and Mills. Another charge based on the millrind is the cross moline, which takes the form of a cross with bifurcated ends. In early blazons the term fer-de-moline refers to the cross moline