A ringtone or ring tone is the sound made by a telephone to indicate an incoming call or text message. Not a tone nor an actual ring any more, the term is most used today to refer to customizable sounds used on mobile phones. A telephone rings when the telephone network indicates an incoming call, so that the recipient is alerted of the call attempt. Landline telephones receive an electric alternating current signal, called power ringing or ringing signal, generated by the telephone exchange to which the telephone is connected; the ringing current operated an electric bell. For mobile phones, the network sends a message to the recipient's device, which may activate a sound, or a visual or vibrating indication. On a POTS interface, this signal is created by superimposing ringing voltage atop the −48 VDC on the line; this is done at the Central Office, or a neighborhood multiplexer called a "SLC" for Subscriber Line Carrier. Telephones with electromagnetic ringers are still in widespread use; the ringing signal in North America is specified at ca. 90 volts AC with a frequency of 20 hertz.
In Europe it is around 60–90 VAC with a frequency of 25 Hz. Some non-Bell Company system party lines in the US used multiple frequencies for selective ringing. Ringing voltage is produced by various sources. Large central offices used motor-driven generator sets for both ringing and other signals such as dial tone and busy signals. In smaller offices, special sub-cycle magnetic oscillators were used. Solid-state oscillators have replaced them; this voltage was used to trigger an electromagnet to ring a bell installed inside the telephone, or in a nearby mounted ringer box. Fixed phones of the late 20th century and detect this ringing current voltage and trigger a warbling tone electronically. Mobile phones have been digital since the early 1990s second-generation devices, hence are signaled to ring as part of the protocol they use to communicate with the cell base stations. While the sound produced is still called a "ring", more-recently manufactured telephones electronically produce a warbling, chirping, or other sound.
Variation of the ring signal can be used to indicate characteristics of incoming calls. For example, ringing bursts with a shorter interval between them might be used to signal a call from a given number. In POTS switching systems, ringing is said to be "tripped" when the impedance of the line reduces to about 600 ohms when the telephone handset is lifted off the switch-hook; this signals that the telephone call has been answered, the telephone exchange removes the ringing signal from the line and connects the call. This is the source of the name of the problem called "ring-trip" or "pre-trip", which occurs when the ringing signal on the line encounters excessively low resistance between the conductors, which trips the ring before the subscriber's actual telephone has a chance to ring; the ringing pattern is known as ring cadence. This only applies to POTS fixed phones, where the high voltage ring signal is switched on and off to create the ringing pattern. In North America, the standard ring cadence is "2-4", or two seconds of ringing followed by four seconds of silence.
In Australia and the UK, the standard ring cadence is 400 ms on, 200 ms off, 400 ms on, 2000 ms off. These patterns may vary from region to region, other patterns are used in different countries around the world; some central offices offer distinctive ring to identify which of multiple numbers on the same line is being called, a pattern once used on party line. In many systems, including North America Bellcore standards, Caller ID signals are sent during the silent interval between the first and second bursts of the ringing signals; the caller is informed about the progress of the call by the audible ringing signal called ringback tone. Power ringing and audible ringing are not synchronized. AT&T offered seven different gong combinations for the "C" type ringer found in the model 500 and 2500 landline telephone sets; these gongs provided "distinctive tones" for hearing-impaired customers and made it possible to distinguish the specific telephone, ringing when several telephones were placed in close proximity.
A "Bell Chime" was offered, which could be set to sound like a doorbell or to ring like a standard telephone. While rings, ring signals, or what might be viewed as the call signals which are the predecessors of ringtones, date back to the beginnings of telephony, modern ringtones appeared in the 1960s and have expanded into tunes and many customizable tones or melodies. Arguably the first ringtone appeared in the movie Our Man Flint in 1966, where the head of the secret government agency had a red phone that connected directly to the President and rang with a distinctive musical ringtone. Following a 1975 FCC ruling which permitted third-party devices to be connected to phone lines, manufacturers produced accessory telephone ringers which rang with electronic tones or melodies rather than mechanical bells. People made their own ringers which used the chip from a musical greeting card to play a melody on the arrival of a call. One such ringer, described in a 1989 book features a toy dog which barks and wags its tail when a call arrives.
Electronic telephone ringers became the norm. Some of these ringers produced a single tone, but others produced a sequence of two or three tones or a musical melody; some novelty phones have a ringer to match, such as a car that honks its horn. The firs
Ring Ring (album)
Ring Ring is the debut studio album by the Swedish group credited to Björn Benny & Agnetha Frida, who became the pop group ABBA. It was released in Scandinavia and a limited number of other territories, including Germany, South Africa and Mexico, on 26 March 1973 through Polar Music; the album was a chart-topping album in Belgium, a big success in the Netherlands and South Africa. The album was re-released in Australasia in 1975, but was not released in the United Kingdom until 1992, the United States until 1995; when the first song "People Need Love" was recorded in the spring of 1972, the group was just one of many projects the four members were involved in. Only after the title track, "Ring Ring" became a hit, did the four decide to go on working together as a permanent group; the original 1973 Polar version of the album opens with "Ring Ring", the Swedish version of the track, places the English-language version as track four on side two. The track "She's My Kind of Girl", included on the international editions, is in fact a song by Björn & Benny which dates back to 1969, a hit in Japan, had been included on the b-side of the English version of the "Ring Ring" single in Scandinavia.
Ring Ring features a song co-written by Agnetha Fältskog. Although she had composed much of her Swedish solo output, the song "Disillusion", for which she wrote the music, is the only song released on an ABBA album to feature a songwriting contribution from her. Ring Ring was first released on CD in Sweden in 1988; the album has been reissued in digitally remastered form three times. All tracks written by Björn Ulvaeus except where noted. Notes All reissues above uses the international edition tracklisting. Agnetha Fältskog – lead vocals, co-lead vocals, backing vocals Anni-Frid Lyngstad – lead vocals, co-lead vocals, backing vocals Benny Andersson – piano, mellotron, co-lead vocals, backing vocals Björn Ulvaeus – acoustic guitar, lead vocals, co-lead vocals, backing vocals Ola Brunkert – drums Rutger Gunnarsson – electric bass Roger Palm – drums Janne Schaffer – acoustic guitar, electric guitar Mike Watson – electric bass Benny Andersson. Tretow – engineer Björn Almstedt. Tretow – remastering for the 1997 remasters Jon Astley.
Tretow – remastering for the 2001 remasters Henrik Jonsson – remastering for The Complete Studio Recordings box set Ring Ring at Discogs
Life in Cartoon Motion
Life in Cartoon Motion is the debut album released by British recording artist Mika. The album was produced by Greg Wells and Mika himself, mixed by Wells, with co-production on two songs by Jodi Marr and John Merchant; the album was released via Island Records on 5 February 2007 in the United Kingdom, via Casablanca Records on 27 March 2007 in the United States. The album's lead single, "Grace Kelly", stayed at number one on the UK Singles Chart for five weeks straight and became a number-one hit in many countries; the album debuted at number 1 in the United Kingdom, selling 7.8 million copies worldwide since its release. The Life in Cartoon Motion album cover has since been used in a commercial for the iPod Touch, it was the ninth-best-selling album in the world during 2007. Prior to obtaining his record deal, Mika sent demos to many record companies in Britain, but was never signed. One record label in particular claimed that Mika had a good voice, but insisted he write more conventional songs like Robbie Williams in order to become more commercial.
Mika rejected this advice. The song "Grace Kelly" was inspired by these problems. In 2006 Mika began recording his debut album, his musical influences are based in classical music. Before Mika released his debut album he promised the media that "It was a magical world that you could live in. A parallel universe for people, illusory and enchanting and amazing." Some songs on the album are sexually ambiguous, prompting some questioning regarding Mika's sexuality. On this, Mika comments that he has no taboos about what he can use to tell a story or what stories he can tell, he believes that sexualizing music is great, but politically sexualizing music and making the artist's sexuality the defining point of someone's music is "boring". He says about his own sexuality: "...laying myself out on the table to a tabloid level and kind of sharing my entire personal life, I'm not into that." The songs on the album have different subjects. "Grace Kelly", as stated before, is about the struggle of getting a record deal.
Mika stated that the song is a important song on the album because:"...it's a flagpole for the record in terms of lyrical content and the whole pop vision I wanted to get across." The cover for the album and booklet was designed by Mika's sister, who works under the pen name DaWack, Richard Hogg and Mika himself. In March 2007 the album was released in the United States. Before its release there was much publicity about the album due to its success in Europe. Mika commented on the hype by saying: "I think. Hype can be good and hype can be bad; the good thing that's happening to me is that the hype is about the project, it's about the music... I'm not the son of anyone famous, I haven't slept with anyone well known... it's just about music, that's something I think is healthy." Initial critical response to Life in Cartoon Motion was mixed. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album has received an average score of 55, based on 23 reviews.
In January 2007 it was considered the best new talent in the BBC's Sound of 2007 music poll. About 130 music critics and broadcasters from the UK agreed that Mika was the sound of 2007, it has received polarized reviews, earning one star from The Guardian and four stars in the London Evening Standard. The album received 1 out of 10 from the Drowned in Sound website, prompted Brian May of Queen, a fan of Mika, to criticise the website for making unnecessary personal attacks at Mika; the original version of the album, released in the United Kingdom and Europe on 5 February 2007, contains a total of twelve tracks, including the hidden track "Over My Shoulder" and the bonus track "Ring Ring". It includes an enhanced section, with links to music videos and live performances, as well as other exclusive content; the version released via the iTunes Store in Europe featuring three additional acoustic recordings as bonus tracks. The American version of the album, released on 27 March 2007, is the same as the British release, however, it includes the exclusive bonus track "Erase", not included on the original release.
American versions of the album bought at Best Buy stores carry two exclusive bonus tracks - acoustic versions of "Love Today" and "Satellite", while the American iTunes Store version includes an exclusive acoustic version of "Grace Kelly". The version of the album released in Japan is the same as the original British release, however, it includes the American exclusive track "Erase", as well as the Japanese exclusive track "Your Sympathy", as well an enhanced element containing the music video for "Grace Kelly"; the demo version of the album, issued to media journalists and critics, has a different track listing than any of the main versions of the albums. It does not include the tracks "Lollipop", "Big Girl" and "Over My Shoulder", but does include the Japanese only bonus track "Your Sympathy", as well as including "Gave It All Away", Mika's original version of the track, before it was given to Boyzone. Mika's version had never appeared on any other release, until the release of the Asian Tour Edition in March 2008, which includes the eleven standard tracks from the British album, the European bonus track "Ring Ring", "Gave It All Away" from the demo version, "Erase" from the American version, "Your Sympathy" from the Japanese edition, the B-side recordings "Satellite", "One Lonely One" and "Instant Martyr".
The album was packed with a bonus disc, including six acoustic recordings, four live recordings, the single mix of "Happy Ending". The album had a lot of success in Europe, it charted in all the c