The Maroon Bells are two peaks in the Elk Mountains, Maroon Peak and North Maroon Peak, separated by about half a kilometer. The mountains are on the border between Pitkin County and Gunnison County, United States, about 12 miles southwest of Aspen. Both peaks are fourteeners. Maroon Peak, at 14,163 feet, is the 27th highest peak in Colorado. North Maroon Peak, at 14,019 feet, is the 50th highest; the view of the Maroon Bells to the southwest from the Maroon Creek valley is photographed. The peaks are located in the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest. Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness was one of five areas in Colorado designated as wilderness in the original Wilderness Act of 1964; the Wilderness area surrounds the popular Maroon Bells Scenic Area, a major access point for Wilderness travel. Unlike other mountains in the Rockies that are composed of granite and limestone, the Bells are composed of metamorphic sedimentary mudstone that has hardened into rock over millions of years.
Mudstone is weak and fractures giving rise to dangerously loose rock along any route. A US Forest Service sign on the access trail warns would-be climbers of "downsloping, loose and unstable" rock that "kills without warning"; the mudstone is responsible for the Bells' distinctive maroon color. The Bells got their "deadly" reputation in 1965. Maroon Lake elevation 9,580 ft occupies a basin, sculpted by Ice-Age glaciers and dammed by a landslide and rockfall debris from the steep slopes above the valley floor; the Maroon Bells are an popular destination for the day and overnight visitors. Due to the volume of people, a bus service runs everyday from 8am-5pm from mid-June through the first weekend in October. During these times, with just a few exceptions, personal vehicle access is limited to those with handicap placards or disability license plates; the bus runs from Aspen Highlands to Maroon Lake every 20 minutes. The Maroon Bells scenic area features several hiking trails ranging from short hikes near Maroon Lake to longer hikes into the Maroon-Snowmass Wilderness.
Not only is the use of trails and other outdoor recreational space growing, the overall population of Colorado is growing as well. It is expected. By 2050,the population of Colorado is expected to increase from 5.5 million to 8.5 million,and with this population growth recreational tourism will continue to grow. In 2017, 1 in 4 of Colorado’s 86 million visitors spent most of their trip in mountain towns and resorts; this rapid growth poses challenges for Forest Services to properly maintain natural areas, if changes are not made to how the recreational space is utilized, wilderness areas like the Maroon Bells–Snowmass Wilderness trails will feel the impacts of human traffic. Because the Maroon Bells area receives such high levels of visitor use, the USFS has established a long-term plan to protect and preserve the scenic area and larger wilderness areas. Solutions include the required use of bear canisters for backcountry campers, management of day and overnight use, leashed dog education and ticketing, reduction of heavy horse use in high use areas, prohibiting overnight camping and excessive day use at particular sites.
The US Forest Service has come up with a paid permit plan to aid preservation efforts. The permit system was created to allow visitors to stay overnight while mitigating environmental damage and preserving the visited area. A permit is required year-round, limits campers to stay in the Conundrum Creek Valley area from Silver Dollar Pond to Triangle Pass. Campsite limits range depending on the campsite location; the USFS limits the number of permits to 2 permits per person per calendar year and the maximum stay from June 1- September 1 is 3 nights. The Conundrum Hot Springs alone can attract up to 300 people a night. Specific environmental impacts can occur due to the high number of visitors the Maroon Bells experiences each year. See below for more information; the Maroon Bells Recreation area is surrounded by Maroon Creek, which feeds into Crater Lake and Maroon Lake. These natural freshwater ecosystems fill from snowmelt from the surrounding peaks and precipitation, are major sources of water for the city of Aspen,CO.
According to the study Environmental Impacts of Tourism on Lakes, water pollution can occur through indirect and direct methods. Direct pollution to these natural bodies of water occurs when visitors choose to wade or throw items into these bodies of water, disrupting the fragile biodiversity. An increase in human-traffic,such as the increase in the number of visitors who drive up Maroon Creek Road, is an example of indirect pollution; this constant vehicular traffic releases pollutants such as nitrogen and sulfur dioxide into the water and air. U. S. Forest Service officials were concerned about the high nitrogen compound levels in the waters at the Maroon Bells in 2003. Officials mentioned that the increase in population and recreation in Colorado as well as an increase in the number of vehicles could be a cause of the elevated nitrogen compound levels, as these sources emit pollutants; when precipitation forms over peaks like the Maroon Bells, these pollutants fall back to the Earth’s surface and can travel into the river and lakes negatively impacting fish and plants due to high levels of nitrogen.
The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency further supports the relationship bet
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Flat Tops (Colorado)
Flat Tops is a mountain range located in Colorado within the Routt and White River National Forests. The area is home to 110 Lakes. Much of the range is within the boundary of the Flat Tops Wilderness Area; the Flat Tops Wilderness Area can be accessed by Colorado Rd 7 through the town of Yampa, in Routt County Colorado. The Flat Tops range is home to a wide variety of plants and animals, including many large mammals such as Moose, Mule deer, Black bear, Cougars; this area has been affected by Yellow toadflax. Mountain ranges of Colorado U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: The Flat Tops
The Front Range is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America located in the central portion of the U. S. State of Colorado, southeastern portion of the U. S. State of Wyoming, it is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north across the Great Plains of North America. The Front Range runs north-south between Casper and Pueblo, Colorado and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, Pikes Peak are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25 corridor; the area is a popular destination for mountain biking, hiking and camping during the warmer months and for skiing and snowboarding during winter. Millions of years ago, the present-day Front Range was home to ancient mountain ranges, deserts and oceans; the name "Front Range" is applied to the Front Range Urban Corridor, the populated region of Colorado and Wyoming just east of the mountain range and extending from Cheyenne, Wyoming south to Pueblo, Colorado.
This urban corridor benefits from the weather-moderating effect of the Front Range mountains, which help block prevailing storms. About 1 billion years ago, the earth was producing massive amounts of molten rock that would one day amalgamate, drift together and combine, to form the continents we live on today. In the Colorado region, this molten rock spewed and cooled, forming what we now know as the Precambrian Pikes Peak Granite. Over the next 500 million years, little is known about changes in the sedimentation after the granite was produced. However, at about 500–300 million years ago, the region began to sink and sediments began to deposit in the newly formed accommodation space. Eroded granite produced sand particles that began to form strata, layers of sediment, in the sinking basin. Sedimentation would continue to take place until about 300 million years ago. Around 300 million years ago, the sinking reversed, the sediment-covered granite began to uplift, giving rise to the Ancestral Rocky Mountains.
Over the next 150 million years, during uplift the mountains would continue to erode and cover themselves in their own sediment. Wind, rainwater and ice-melt supplied rivers that carved through the granite mountains and led to their end; the sediment from these mountains lies in the Fountain Formation today. Red Rocks Amphitheatre outside of Denver, Colorado, is set into the Fountain Formation. At 280 million years ago, sea levels were low and present-day Colorado was part of the super-continent Pangaea. Sand deserts covered most of the area spreading as dunes seen in the rock record, known today as the Lyons Sandstone; these dunes appear to be cross-bedded and show various fossil footprints and leaf imprints in many of the strata making up the section. 30 million years the sediment deposition was still taking place with the introduction of the Lykins Formation. This formation can be best attributed to its wavy layers of muddy limestone and signs of stromatolites that thrived in a smelly tidal flat at present-day Colorado.
250 million years ago, the Ancestral Rockies were burying themselves while the shoreline was present during the break-up of Pangaea. This formation began right after Earth's largest extinction 251 million years ago at the Permian–Triassic Boundary. Ninety percent of the planet's marine life was a great deal on land as well. After 100 million years of deposition, a new environment brought rise to a new formation, the sandstone Morrison Formation; the Morrison Formation contains some of the best fossils of the Late Jurassic. It is known for its sauropod tracks and sauropod bones among other dinosaur fossils; as identified by the fossil record, the environment was filled with various types of vegetation such as ferns and Zamites. While this time period boasts many types of plants, grass had not yet evolved; the Dakota Sandstone, deposited 100 million years ago towards Colorado's eastern coast, shows evidence of ferns, dinosaur tracks. Sheets of ripple marks can be seen on some of the strata. Over the next 30 million years, the region was taken over by a deep sea, the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway, deposited mass amounts of shale over the area known as the Pierre Shale.
Both the thick section of shale and the marine life fossils found. Colorado drained from being at the bottom of an ocean to land again, giving yield to another fossiliferous rock layer, the Denver Formation. At about 68 million years ago, the Front Range began to rise again due to the Laramide Orogeny in the west; the Denver Formation contained fossils and bones from dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops. While the forests of vegetation and other organisms thrived, their reign would come to an end at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. In an instant, millions of species are obliterated from a meteor impact in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula. While this extinction led to the demise of the dinosaurs and other organisms, some life did prevail to repopulate the earth as it recovered from this tremendous disaster; the uplifted Front Range continued to erode and, by 40 million years ago, the range was once again buried in its own rubble. 37 million years ago, a great volcanic eruption took place in the Collegiate Range and covered the landscape in molten hot ash that torched and consumed everything across the landscape.
An entire lush environment was capped in a matter of minutes with 20 feet of extr
Hahns Peak is a summit in Routt County, Colorado, in the United States. With an elevation of 10,774 feet, Hahns Peak is the 1855th highest summit in the state of Colorado. Hahns Peak was named after businesspeople in the mining industry. Hahns Peak Village is named after the peak. An old lookout tower remains on the peak's summit. After falling into disrepair, it was restored in the summer of 2016 and 2017
Capitol Peak (Colorado)
Capitol Peak is a high and prominent mountain summit in the Elk Mountains range of the Rocky Mountains of North America. The 14,137-foot fourteener is located in the Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness of White River National Forest, 8.7 miles east by south of the community of Redstone in Pitkin County, United States. Capitol Peak lies on the long ridge connecting the heart of the Elk Mountains with Mount Sopris to the northwest. Capitol Peak is notable for its impressive vertical relief, rising nearly 9,000 feet above the Roaring Fork Valley. Capitol Peak is one of the most difficult of Colorado's fourteeners to climb; the only non-technical route, the Northeast Ridge, requires crossing the famously exposed "Knife Edge," the northeast ridge of Capitol. Fatalities have occurred on this route. Other routes require technical rock climbing, for the Northwest Buttress Route; these routes have significant rockfall danger due to a great deal of loose rock. Capital Peak Capitol Peak - by Hayden Survey who thought it looked similar to the U.
S. Capitol building List of mountain peaks of North America List of mountain peaks of the United States List of mountain peaks of Colorado List of Colorado fourteeners Borneman, Walter R.. A Climbing Guide to Colorado's Fourteeners. Pruett Publishing Company. ISBN 0-87108-751-0. Photo Journal of a trip up Snowmass Mountain and Capitol Peak "Capitol Peak". Colorado Fourteeners Initiative. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-11-30. "Northeast Ridge from Capitol Lake". Capitol Peak. 14ers.co. Retrieved 2008-11-30
San Juan Mountains
The San Juan Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. The area is mineralized and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range; the last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s. Famous old San Juan mines include the Camp Bird and Smuggler Union mines, both located between Telluride and Ouray; the Summitville mine was the scene of a major environmental disaster in the 1990s when the liner of a cyanide-laced tailing pond began leaking heavily. Summitville is in the Summitville caldera, one of many extinct volcanoes making up the San Juan volcanic field. One, La Garita Caldera, is 35 miles in diameter.
Large beds of lava, some extending under the floor of the San Luis Valley, are characteristic of the eastern slope of the San Juans. Tourism is now a major part of the regional economy, with the narrow gauge railway between Durango and Silverton being an attraction in the summer. Jeeping is popular on the old trails which linked the historic mining camps, including the notorious Black Bear Road. Visiting old ghost towns is popular, as is wilderness trekking and mountain climbing. Many of the old mining camps are now popular sites of summer homes. Though the San Juans are steep and receive a lot of snow, so far only Telluride has made the transition to a major ski resort. Purgatory Resort, once known as Durango Mountain Resort, is a small ski area 26 miles north of Durango. There is skiing on Wolf Creek Pass at the Wolf Creek ski area. Silverton Mountain ski area has begun operation near Silverton; the Rio Grande drains the east side of the range. The other side of the San Juans, the western slope of the continental divide, is drained by tributaries of the San Juan and Gunnison rivers, which all flow into the Colorado River.
The San Juan and Uncompahgre National Forests cover a large portion of the San Juan Mountains. The San Juan Mountains are distinctive for their high altitude plateaus and peaks; as a result, facilities in the towns and cities of the region are among the highest in the nation. Telluride Airport, at an elevation of 9,070 feet, is the highest in the United States with scheduled commercial service. Note: This is only a partial list of important peaks in the San Juans, listing peaks by prominence only. There are dozens more summits over 12,000 feet. Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters; the new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. The SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike.
Southern Rocky Mountains Sneffels Range Cimmaron Range Needle Mountains La Garita Mountains Cochetopa Hills La Plata Mountains Mountain ranges of Colorado Bove, D. et al.. Geochronology and geology of Late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Lippman, P. W.. Geologic map of southwestern Colorado. Reston, VA: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Widerange.org: Photos of the San Juan Mountains San Juan Mountains @ Peakbagger Southern Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger