The Paranaíba River is a Brazilian river whose source lies in the state of Minas Gerais in the Mata da Corda mountains, municipality of Rio Paranaíba, at an altitude of 1,148 meters. The length of the river is 1,000 kilometres up to the junction with the Grande River, both of which form the Paraná River, at the point that marks the borders of the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul; the main tributaries of the Paranaíba are the São Marcos, the Corumbá, the Meia Ponte, the Bois. Major dams on its course are the Barragem de Emborcação, Barragem Itumbiara and Barragem de São Simão. Cachoeira Dourada near Itumbiara is one of the most important hydroelectric power stations in Brazil, providing energy to Goiânia and Brasília; the Paranaíba is navigable only in the artificial lake of Ilha Solteira with an extension of 180 km as far as the dam of São Simão. Because of the great pressure to use its resources it shows serious environmental problems. In addition to the erosion of its banks caused by sand extraction and cutting down of the original forest growth 100% of the towns that form its basin dump their sewage "in natura", including the capital of Goiânia, which dumps 95% of its sewage, directly into the Meia Ponte river, which flows into the Paranaíba.
The Paranaíba river is the most important source of the Paraná river, her source lies in the serra of Mata da Corda, municipality "Rio Paranaiba" at a height of 1,148 metres. On the other side of these serra is the source of the Abaete, a tributary of the São Francisco; the confluence of the Paranaíba with the Grande river is situated about 1,000 kilometres from the source of the Paranaíba. At the unison there is a bridge, a border point between three states: São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso do Sul; the Paranaíba river is famous for the rich diamond deposits of her tributaries and her huge hydroelectric potential. The Paranaíba may best be studied in three separate parts, the high-, the middle- and the lower Paranaiba. NB: of each segment the start km-point beginning with 1,070, the length, the slope etc. will be mentioned. From its headwaters at 1,000 km, a length of 370 km, to km 700, runs with a northerly orientation through the whole extent of the region Minas Gerais at an average height of 760 m, with a slope of 25 cm/km, goes through the town Patos of Minas at a height of 770 m, obtains water from a number of small tributaries that descend from the Magalhães-peak and from the Serra of Barbaça, on the other side of the Serra da Mata da Corda.
At a height of km 729, at a bridge, she receives the water of a small river, the Verde river, close to the place Contendas and bends under the bridge perpendicularly to the southeast and takes the border between Minas and Goias. Between km 700 and 800 the slope is 50 cm/km, running in a valley of average width, with broken strictures between km 730 and 732 and between km 783 and 790; the terrains along the river are poorly cultivated. From km 700 to the reservoir of the Dourada. Between km 575 and 700 the Paranaíba receives the following tributaries: At km 661, right bank the São Marcos, at km 633, left bank, the Perdizes river, at km 596, right bank, the Bagagem river. In this segment the river has a slope of 1.2 m/km in a region with narrow valleys, steeply sloping banks, rising up to 25 and 60 m. The tributaries of this segment cross diamond containing layers in the "zones of the triangle" Minas Gerais and Goias. Between km 313 and 575 the Paranaíba receives the water of the following tributaries: On the right bank the Verissimo.
And the Corumba river and the Santa Maria river. And on the right side the Jordao river, the Araguari river and the small river Piedade; this stretch has a slope of 50 cm/km and runs through the cities Itumbiara and Anhanguera, both in the territory of Goias, through the city of Araporã in the mine region. In this segment the Itumbiara Dam, situated in the municipality of gemeente Araporã, belonging to the Furnas Centrais Elétricas, operating since 1981 with a power of 2.800MW, being the most power generating hydro-station of the Furnas complex, of the state Minas Gerais and of the Paranaiba river. The river presents a wide bed, cultivated for 20% to 50% of the area and at km 400 starts to run on the well known extensive basalt plate of the Paraná River. From the reservoir of the waterfall Dourada up to the unison with the Grande river, with 330 km length. Between km 199 and 330 there is a slope of 33 cm/km. At the limit of this stretch, using the available energy, a hydroelectric power station "of the waterfall Dourado" was built.
This station used to belong to Centrais Elétricas de Goias, was privatised and now belongs to "Empresa Endesa Cachoeira" with a generator of 658,000 kW and a waterfall of 19 m providing energy to CELG. Her reservoir takes up about 78 km of the middle Paranaíba. On the stretch from here to km 195 we find the so-called canal of São Simão, a narrow canal cut out of the basalt, 23 km long and 35 m deep situated on the border of Minas en Goias. In this stretch we find the São Simão Dam, operating with a power of 2.680MW At 3 km higher up from the bridge in Highway BR-31 the Paranaíba, now 3,500 m wide, rushes into a canal 300 m wide that further downstream is narrowed to scarcely 80 m, creating a high turbulence and speed. The river is navigable from the dam of the island Solteira over a length of 180 km up to the dam of São Simão; as with the Grande river, there are problems increasing the navigability, such as h
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Goiás is a state of Brazil, located in the Center-West region of the country. The name Goiás comes from the name of an indigenous community; the original word seems to have been guaiá, a compound of gua e iá, meaning "the same person" or "people of the same origin." It borders the Federal District and the states of Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso. The most populous state of its region, Goiás is characterized by a landscape of chapadões. In the height of the drought season, from June to September, the lack of rain makes the level of the Araguaia River go down and exposes 2 kilometres of beaches, making it the main attraction of the State. At the Emas National Park in the municipality of Mineiros, it is possible to observe the typical fauna and flora from the region. At the Chapada dos Veadeiros the attractions are the canyons, valleys and waterfalls. Other attractions are the historical city of Goiás, 132 km from Goiânia, established in the beginning of 18th Century, Caldas Novas, with its hot water wells attracting more than one million tourists per year.
In Brazil's geoeconomic division, Goiás belongs to the Centro-Sul, being the northernmost state of the southern portion of Brazil. Located in the east of the Center-West region, adjacent to Brazil's Southeastern region, Goiás lies on the southern portion of the Brazilian Highlands, which are located in the center of the country, it occupies a large plateau, the vast level surface of which stands between 750 and 900 m above sea level and forms the divide between three of Brazil's largest river systems: to the south. Goiás is drained by a tributary of the Paraná River. Other major rivers in the state are the Meia Ponte, Aporé, São Marcos, Corumbá River, Maranhão, Paranã and Preto. None of these rivers is navigable except for short distances by small craft; the state's highest point is Pouso Alto, at 1,676 metres above sea level, in the Chapada dos Veadeiros. Goiás is covered with a woodland savanna known in Brazil as campo cerrado, although there are still tropical forests along the rivers; this cerrado has been diminished in recent years due to cattle raising and soybean farming with great loss of animal life and forest cover.
The climate of the plateau is tropical. Average monthly temperatures vary from 26 °C in the warmest month to 22 °C in the coldest; the year is divided into a dry season. Average annual rainfall is about 1,700 millimetres, but this varies due to elevation and microclimate; some parts of the state, have small remnants of tropical Atlantic forest, that appears around rivers and valleys. The Great Central West Region, consisting of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, the Federal District, is among the fastest-growing regions of Brazil; the population of Goiás state tripled in size in the period from 1950 to 1980 and is still growing quickly. However, outside the Federal District and the Goiânia metropolitan region most of Goiás is thinly populated; the chief concentration of settlement is in the southeast, in the area of Goiânia, across the border from Minas Gerais, around the Federal District. See also: History of Goiás The first European exploration of this interior part of Brazil was carried out by expeditions from São Paulo in the 17th century.
Gold was discovered in the gravel of a tributary of the Araguaia River by the bandeirante Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva in 1682. The settlement he founded there, called Santa Anna, became the colonial town of Goiás Velho, the former state capital. In 1744 the large inland area, much of it still unexplored by Europeans, was made a Captaincy General, in 1822 it became a province of the empire of Brazil, it became a state in 1889. The Brazilian constitution of 1891 specified that the nation's capital should be moved to the Brazilian Highlands, in 1956 Goiás was selected as the site for the federal district and capital national, Brasília; the seat of the federal government was moved to Brasília in 1960. Goiânia, the largest city and capital was planned in 1933 to replace the old, inaccessible former state capital of Goiás, 110 kilometres northwest. In 1937 the state government moved there, in 1942 the official inauguration was held. Goiânia is now one of the fastest growing cities in Brazil and one of the most livable cities in the country..
It stands out as both an industrial center and as a cultural center for country culture and music, known as Sertanejo. Due to the large territory of the state, over 600,000 square kilometres, communications were very difficult; the northern part of the state began to feel abandoned by the southern government and began a movement for separation. Local political leaders, many of whom were large landowners and were eager to gain important positions such as governor or senator and financial gain with the construction of a new capital encouraged the movement. In 1989 the northern half of Goiás became. According to the IBGE of 2010, there were 6,004,045 people residing in the state; the population density was 16.9 inh./km2. Ur
The Paraná River is a river in south Central South America, running through Brazil and Argentina for some 4,880 kilometres. It is second in length only to the Amazon River among South American rivers; the name Paraná is an abbreviation of the phrase "para rehe onáva", which comes from the Tupi language and means "like the sea". It merges first with the Paraguay River and farther downstream with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata and empties into the Atlantic Ocean; the first European to go up the Paraná River was the Venetian explorer Sebastian Cabot, in 1526, while working for Spain. The course is formed at the confluence of the Rio Grande rivers in southern Brazil. From the confluence the river flows in a southwestern direction for about 619 km before encountering the city of Saltos del Guaira, Paraguay; this was once the location of the Guaíra Falls (Sete Quedas waterfalls, where the Paraná fell over a series of seven cascades. This natural feature was said to rival the world-famous Iguazu Falls to the south.
The falls were flooded, however, by the construction of the Itaipu Dam, which began operating in 1984. For the next 200 km the Paraná flows southward and forms a natural boundary between Paraguay and Brazil until the confluence with the Iguazu River. Shortly upstream from this confluence, the river is dammed by the Itaipu Dam, the second largest hydroelectric power plant in the world, creating a massive, shallow reservoir behind it. After merging with the Iguazu, the Paraná becomes the natural border between Paraguay and Argentina. Overlooking the Paraná River from Encarnación, across the river, is downtown Posadas, Argentina; the river continues its general southward course for about 468 km before making a gradual turn to the west for another 820 km, encounters the Paraguay River, the largest tributary along the course of the river. Before this confluence the river passes through a second major hydroelectric project, the Yaciretá Dam, a joint project between Paraguay and Argentina; the massive reservoir formed by the project has been the source of a number of problems for people living along the river, most notably the poorer merchants and residents in the low-lying areas of Encarnación, a major city on the southern border of Paraguay.
River levels rose upon completion of the dam, flooding out large sections of the city's lower areas. From the confluence with the Paraguay River, the Paraná again turns to the south for another 820 km through Argentina, making a slow turn back to the east near the city of Rosario for the final stretch of less than 500 km before merging with the Uruguay River to form the Río de la Plata; this flows into the Atlantic Ocean. During the part of its course downstream from the city of Diamante, Entre Ríos, it splits into several arms and it forms the Paraná Delta. Together with its tributaries, the Rio Paraná forms a massive drainage basin that encompasses much of the southcentral part of South America including all of Paraguay, much of southern Brazil, northern Argentina, the southeastern part of Bolivia. If the Uruguay River is counted as a tributary to the Paraná, this watershed extends to cover most of Uruguay as well; the volume of water flowing into the Atlantic Ocean through the Río de la Plata equals the volume at the Mississippi River delta.
This watershed contains a number of large cities, including São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Asunción, Brasília, La Plata. The Paraná and its tributaries provide a source of income and of daily sustenance for fishermen who live along its banks; some of the species of fish are commercially important, they are exploited for heavy internal consumption or for export. The Parana River delta ranks as one of the world's greatest bird-watching destinations. Much of the length of the Paraná is navigable, the river serves as an important waterway linking inland cities in Argentina and Paraguay with the ocean, providing deepwater ports in some of these cities; the construction of enormous hydroelectric dams along the river's length has blocked its use as a shipping corridor to cities further upstream, but the economic impact of those dams offsets this. The Yacyretá Dam and the Itaipu Dam on the Paraguay border have made the small undeveloped nation of Paraguay the world's largest exporter of hydroelectric power.
Due to its use for oceangoing ships, measurements of the water tables extend back to 1904. The data correlates with the solar cycle; the course of the Paraná is crossed by the following bridges, beginning upstream: Tributaries of the Río de la Plata Paraná River steamers Information and a map of the Paraná's watershed "Paraná". New International Encyclopedia. 1905