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Rio de Janeiro (state)

Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis.

Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil. It is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross; the original demonym for the State of Rio de Janeiro is "fluminense", from Latin flumen, meaning "river". While "carioca" is an older term, first attested in 1502, "fluminense" was sanctioned in 1783, a few years after the city had become the capital of the Brazilian colonies, as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro and subsequently of the Province of Rio de Janeiro. From 1783 through the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained an unofficial term which other Brazilians used for the inhabitants of the city as well as the province. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" came to be the name given to those who lived in the city's slums or a pejorative used to refer to the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District.

Only when the city lost its status as Federal District and became the State of Guanabara in 1960 did "carioca" become an official demonym along with "guanabarino". In 1975, Guanabara State was incorporated into Rio de Janeiro State, becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro. "Carioca" became the demonym of the city, while fluminense continues to be used for the state as a whole. Although "carioca" refers only to the city, the term is used to refer to the entire state. Contemporary social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the state. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.

In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.

In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeiro. The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome and is made up of two distinct morphological areas: a coastal plain, known as baixada, a plateau, which are disposed in parallel fashion from the shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean inland t

Lai Min

Lai Min, courtesy name Jingda, was an official and scholar of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Lai Min was from Xinye County, Yiyang Commandery, present-day Xinye County, Henan, he was born sometime in the 160s during the Eastern Han dynasty. His ancestor was Lai Xi, an official who served under Emperor Guangwu, the first Eastern Han emperor, his father, Lai Yan, was known for being studious and hospitable towards retainers. Lai Yan served as a government official and rose to the position of Minister of Works during the reign of Emperor Ling; when chaos broke out towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Lai Min and his elder sister fled south to Jing Province to evade trouble. Lai Min's elder sister married Huang Wan, a nephew of the grandmother of Liu Zhang, the Governor of Yi Province; when Liu Zhang heard that they were in Jing Province, he sent people to fetch them to Yi Province. Lai Min followed his sister and brother-in-law to Yi Province, where Liu Zhang treated him like a guest.

Lai Min was known for being well read, well-versed in the Zuo Zhuan, for specialising in lexicographical works such as the Cangjiepian and Erya. In particular, he enjoyed studying ancient Chinese script styles, he debated with Meng Guang, another guest scholar living in Yi Province, over the Spring and Autumn Annals as each of them preferred a different commentary on the Chunqiu: Lai Min and Meng Guang specialised in the Zuo Zhuan and Gongyang Zhuan respectively. Meng Guang was notorious for being annoying during his debates with Lai Min. In 214, after the warlord Liu Bei seized control of Yi Province from Liu Zhang, he recruited Lai Min to serve in the education office of his administration. During this time, Lai Min worked with a group of scholars on the codification of procedures and rituals. However, the project ended up dissolving into squabbles. Following the end of the Eastern Han dynasty in 220, Lai Min served in the state of Shu Han, founded by Liu Bei in 221, during the Three Kingdoms period.

Liu Bei appointed him as Household Steward to take care of the Crown Prince. When Liu Bei died in 223, Liu Shan succeeded his father as the emperor of Shu. After his coronation, Liu Shan appointed Lai Min as a General of the Household in the Huben division of the imperial guards. Between 227 and 234, Zhuge Liang, the Imperial Chancellor of Shu, launched a series of military campaigns against Shu's rival state, Wei. Hanzhong Commandery served as the base for launching each campaign. During this time, Zhuge Liang summoned Lai Min to Hanzhong Commandery and appointed him as an Army Libationer and General Who Assists the Army to assist him in the campaigns. Lai Min was stripped of his appointments for committing an offence. Zhuge Liang wrote in a memo why he decided to fire Lai Min: General Lai Min once told his superior:'What achievements have the newcomers made to give them the right to steal the glory away from me? If they all hate me, so be it.' In his old age, he turned insolent and rebellious, started voicing out such perceived grievances.

In the past, when the Late Emperor first settled in Chengdu, many officials accused Lai Min of stirring up dissent. However, as the Late Emperor was concerned about maintaining political stability in the newly established administration, he tolerated Lai Min but did not put him in any key appointments; when Liu Zichu recommended Lai Min to be the Crown Prince's Household Steward, the Late Emperor was unhappy but he could not bear to reject Liu Zichu's recommendation so he agreed. After His Majesty came to the throne, I heard of Lai Min and decided to let him serve as a General and Libationer under me – despite having heard negative views of Lai Min from many colleagues. I chose not to be swayed by how the Late Emperor treated Lai Min, as I believed that I could positively influence Lai Min and change him for the better. Now that I have failed to do so, I have no choice but to strip him of his appointments and send him home to reflect on his behaviour. Following Zhuge Liang's death in 234, Lai Min returned to Chengdu, the Shu imperial capital, to serve as the Empress's Chamberlain.

He was fired again later. After some time, he was recalled back to serve as a Household Counsellor, but was removed from office again shortly after. Throughout his career, he was demoted or fired several times, either because he had no filter when he spoke or because he behaved inappropriately. At the time, Lai Min's old debating rival, Meng Guang, was as notorious for being unbridled in his speech and was, in some ways, worse than Lai Min in this regard. Meng Guang not only carelessly divulged state secrets, but discussed politics in an inappropriate setting. Both of them got off because they held much prestige among the literati for their status as learned Confucian scholars. Lai Min, in particular, came from an elite family background and had served as an attendant to the Shu emperor Liu Shan when the emperor was still crown prince, therefore he was able to return to service every time after he got fired. After Lai Min's string of incidents, the Shu government specially appointed him as General Who Behaves Cautiously.

The name of his position was meant to remind him to be mindful of his conduct. He died sometime between 258 and 263 at the age of 97. Lai Min's son, Lai Zhong, was known for being well-versed in Confucian studies and resembling his father in character. Lai Zhong and Xiang Chong once praised the Shu general Jia

Emma Langdon Roche

Emma Langdon Roche was an American writer and artist, best known for her work Historic Sketches of The South. She was the first writer to publish a book based on interviews with Cudjoe Lewis known as Kazoola, a survivor of the Middle Passage, he was a captive on the last known slave ship, which a group of Americans used to illegally import slaves to Alabama in 1860 from present-day Benin, decades after the 1807 prohibition of the Atlantic trade. Her book included an original photograph of Lewis and his wife, as well as her drawings of him and other of the survivors. Emma Langdon Roche was born in 1878 in Mobile, Alabama as the third of four surviving children of Thomas T. and Annie Laura Roche. Her father was born in Ireland and had been brought to the US at the age of two in 1845 by his immigrant parents, to escape the Great Famine, he became a funeral director in Mobile. Her mother was born in Alabama. Emma had Edward J. Frank L. and the younger Thomas Sheppard Roche. Two other children had died young.

Their maternal aunt, Margaret James lived with the family. Visits to nearby Africatown prompted Roche to interview the residents. Here, Roche met one of the founders of Africatown, he was born in Africa and had been taken captive, sold into slavery and transported to Alabama onboard the Clotilde, the last known illegal Atlantic slaver to bring slaves to the United States. Roche published a two-volume work known as Historic Sketches of The South, it includes photographs of the residents of Africatown. The book features Roche's discussion of the development of slavery in the United States from the colonial period, it features material from her interviews with Cudjoe Lewis, among the survivors of Africans taken captive and sold into slavery in 1860, brought to Alabama on board the Clotilda. Lewis recounted elements of his village life among the Tarkar people, his village was attacked by the Dahomey people, he and other captives were sold into slavery. Roche included a drawing of a map indicating, it showed the path the captives were forced to take to the coastal city where they were sold and put on the Clotilda.

Roche’s book is part of the collection of the Mobile Historical Society. It has been used by researchers and writers as a resource about the residents of Africatown and the history of the Clotilde. For instance, Zora Neale Hurston a student in anthropology, interviewed Cudjo Lewis and other Africans in Alabama as part of her research, she published an article in 1927, “Cudjo’s Own Story of the Last African Slaver,” purportedly based on her interviews with Lewis. It was found to consist of plagiarized portions of Roche's text, whom Hurston did not credit. At the time, Hurston had to acknowledge her failure in writing her own work with her adviser, Dr. Franz Boas. While he did not condone her action, he gave her another chance and supported her continuing her studies. In 1972 another scholar publicly noted the plagiarism in Hurston's article. In 1980, Robert E. Hemenway's biography of Hurston addressed this issue further, he compared the texts at length, giving full credit to Roche for her account.

Scholar Genevieve Sexton has noted Hurston's plagiarism, that in places, "Hurston removed Roche's racist hand, replaced it with her empowering one." Emma Langdon Roche, Historic Sketches of The South, New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1914.