Rioja is a wine region in Spain, with Denominación de Origen Calificada. Rioja wine is made from grapes grown in the autonomous communities of La Rioja and Navarre, the Basque province of Álava. Rioja is further subdivided into three zones: Rioja Oriental and Rioja Alavesa. Many wines have traditionally blended fruit from all three regions, though there is a slow growth in single-zone wines; the harvesting of wine in La Rioja has an ancient lineage with origins dating back to the Phoenicians and the Celtiberians. The earliest written evidence of the existence of the grape in La Rioja dates to 873, in the form of a document from the Public Notary of San Millán dealing with a donation to the San Andrés de Trepeana Monastery; as was the case in many Mediterranean lands in mediaeval times, monks were the main practitioners of winemaking in La Rioja and great advocates of its virtues. Vineyards occupied the usual part of rural landscapes in medieval Rioja during the High Middle Ages In the year 1063, the first documented report of viticulture in La Rioja appears in the "Carta de población de Longares".
The King of Navarra and Aragon gave the first legal recognition of Rioja wine in 1102 There are proofs of Rioja wine export towards other regions as early as the late 13th century, which testifies the beginnings of a commercial production. In the thirteenth century, Gonzalo de Berceo, clergyman of the Suso Monastery in San Millán de la Cogolla and Spain's earliest known poet, mentions the wine in some of his works. From the 15th century on, the Rioja Alta specialized in wine growing. In 1560, harvesters from Longares chose a symbol to represent the quality of the wines. In 1635, the mayor of Logroño prohibited the passing of carts through streets near wine cellars, in case the vibrations caused a deterioration of the quality of the wine. In 1650, the first document to protect the quality of Rioja wines was drawn up. In 1790, at the inaugural meeting of the Real Sociedad Económica de Cosecheros de La Rioja, many initiatives as to how to construct and maintain the roads and other forms of access for transportation of wine were discussed.
The Society was established to promote the cultivation and commercialisation of Rioja wines and 52 Rioja localities participated. In 1852, Luciano Murrieta created the first fine wine of the Duque de la Victoria area, having learned the process in Bordeaux. In 1892, the Viticulture and Enology Station of Haro was founded for quality-control purposes. In 1902, a Royal Decree determining the origin of Rioja wines is promulgated; the Consejo Regulador was created in 1926 with the objective of limiting the zones of production, expanding the warranty of the wine and controlling the use of the name "Rioja". This Council became structured in 1945 and was inaugurated in 1953. In 1970 the Regulations for Denominación de Origen were approved as well as Regulations for the Regulating Council. In 1991, the prestigious "Calificada" nomination was awarded to La Rioja, making it Spain's first Denominación de Origen Calificada. In 2008, the Regulating Council for the La Rioja Denomination of Origin created a new logo to go on all bottles of wine produced under this designation.
From now on bottles of wine from the La Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin will no longer bear the familiar logo. In an attempt to appeal to younger wine-lovers, the long-standing logo will now be replaced with a brighter, more modern logo with cleaner lines; the aim is to reflect the new, modern aspects of wine-growing in La Rioja without detracting from the traditional wines. In theory, the new logo represents a Tempranillo vine symbolising "heritage and dynamism". In 2017, the DOCa Rioja, in this process of continuous improvement, enriched its current offer by regularizing and incorporating new indications with the traditional aging ones. In 2018, Rioja launched its new global brand message,'Saber quién eres', where tradition and origin become protagonist attributes; the traditional varieties authorized by the Regulating Council of the D. O. Ca. Rioja since its foundation in 1925 have been seven, four red and three white: Red varieties: Tempranillo, Garnacha tinta and Graciano. White varieties: Viura, Malvasía and Garnacha blanca.
In 2007, the Regulating Council of the D. O. Ca. Rioja authorized, for the first time since 1925, the incorporation of some additional varieties within the limits of the denomination, changes that were reflected in two modifications of the existing Regulation approved in 2004: BOE-A-2008-4991 and BOE -A-2009-8950, but this has been subject to subsequent amendment; the permitted additional varieties are the following: Indigenous red varieties: Maturana tinta, White varieties: Autochthonous varieties: Maturana blanca, Tempranillo blanco and Turruntés or Torrontés. Foreign varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and Verdejo; these new authorized varieties can only be planted in substitution, so as not to increase the vegetable mass of the Denomination. In the case of the new autochthonous varieties, both red and white, no limit is set on the percentage that the wines must carry, why the production of single varietal wines of these grapes is allowed. On the contrary, in the foreign white varieties it is established that they can not be the
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Laguardia is a town and municipality located in the southern province of Álava, in the north of Spain. It has a population of 1500; the place lies over a hill and it is surrounded by a wall that the King Sancho the Strong ordered to build. There are still preserved five different entries to access the city, their names are: Santa Engracia. Additionally, the streets and surroundings of Laguardia still keep a medieval atmosphere that give the city an ancient touch. Regarding the economy, its main strength is the wine industry. Indeed, the wine is processed in numerous wineries. During the Middle Ages, it appeared with names such as Leguarda, Guard, Guoardia and Laguoardia until the current name was fixed. Indeed, the full and complete name with which the town is known is La Guardia de Navarra Sonsierra. There has been some controversy about the Basque name of the town. In the late nineteenth century, the belief that before granting the "letter of villazgo" in 1164, the population of Laguardia was called Biasteri had spread.
Many people saw "Biasteri" as a name of Basque origin and folk etymologies such as "bi haitz herri" became popular. As a consequence, the term Biasteri was used as the Basque name of the town until recently. In the late twentieth century and historians reached the conclusion after some research that Biasteri was the ancient name given to the nearby town of Viñaspre, not of Laguardia. Therefore, the association made until that date was not correct, the Basque Language Academy, ruled that the Basque standard name of the town is Guardia. Laguardia has three separate neighborhoods: The Campillar, it is 7.5 km from the city center, near the Ebro River and it has 28 inhabitants. Laserna: It is 11 km from the city center and it is separated from the rest of the municipality by a meander of the river Ebro, it has 43 inhabitants. Páganos: It is 3.5 km away and it has 87 inhabitants. Laguardia possesses a rich historical past. At a place called La Hoya, there is an important archaeological site, it is a pre-Roman settlement of Celtiberian of Berona ethnic and it covers an extensive period of more than a thousand years or so since the twelfth century BC to the second century BC.
Additionally, the town received certain privileges regarding jurisdiction during the reign of the king of Navarre Sancho VI "El Sabio" in 1164. The initial demarcation covered areas from "Las Conchas de Haro" to "Soto Inigo Galindez", in the current term of Viana, it was the beginning of the community of "Villa y Tierra". New villas were created in the surroundings changing the focus of attention to other territories such as San Vicente and Viana. In any case, it was the main square of the Sonsierra of Navarra during most part of the medieval period; as mentioned above, the core of the economy in Laguardia focuses on the world of viticulture. Laguardia is the capital of one of the most famous wine regions of Rioja Alavesa. Additionally, both in Laguardia and its surroundings, a wine known as the Denominación de Origen Calificada Rioja, useful to distinguish particular vines produces in some specific regions; the Wall: the high walls surrounding the town are about two meters high, They are made of stone.
It has five doors. The Church of Santa Maria de los Reyes, which in the past was a Templar monastery. Next to it, there is a tower called the Tower of Santa Torre abbey; the tower has a remarkable Gothic façade with a portico, conserved intact, the carving was finished in the fourteenth century and it was polychromed in the seventeenth. It is one of the few preserved polychrome portals in Spain; the sizes of the archivolts represent the porch tells the story of the Holy Virgin. The Church of San Juan, built in Romanesque style and completed in the Gothic style, it has an attached chapel of the eighteenth century, dedicated to the Virgin of Pilar. Its bell tower belonged to a castle; the Hermitage of Santa María de Berberana. It is Romanesque and the only church in the whole Rioja Alavesa. Plaza Mayor: It is in the center of the town. Tourists can find there both the old townhall; the latter shows on its facade the shield of the villa and a chiming clock with automata that at 12, 14, 17 and 20 hours dance to the rhythm of a typical parade of the celebrations of the town.
Renaissance Old Town Hall: It has an imperial shield of Charles V. The Capuchin convent. Prehistoric remains of a Celtic village in the town of La Hoya. Furthermore, there is a Celtic pond; the Birthplace of the fabulist Félix María de Samaniego. It is a seventeenth-century palace. Blanche of Navarre, Queen of Castile. Felix Maria Samaniego, a writer of fables, his birthplace is a house of the seventeenth century, still preserved and dedicated to wine museum. Óscar de Marcos, professional footballer. The town of Laguardia has always been known for having among its inhabitants talented musicians in all its aspects. Thus, several generations of bagpipers have led to the Day of the Piper, one of the most important festivals, held in honor of illustrious pipers of this town and its surroundings, they are an important part of the musical history of the people and their municipal band, active for 130 years. Several rock
Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree