The Loire is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world. With a length of 1,012 kilometres, it drains an area of 117,054 km2, or more than a fifth of France's land area, while its average discharge is only half that of the Rhône, it rises in the highlands of the southeastern quarter of the French Massif Central in the Cévennes range at 1,350 m near Mont Gerbier de Jonc. Its main tributaries include the rivers Nièvre and the Erdre on its right bank, the rivers Allier, Indre and the Sèvre Nantaise on the left bank; the Loire gives its name to six departments: Loire, Haute-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, Saône-et-Loire. The central part of the Loire Valley, located in the Pays de la Loire and Centre-Val de Loire regions, was added to the World Heritage Sites list of UNESCO on December 2, 2000. Vineyards and châteaux are found along the banks of the river throughout this section and are a major tourist attraction; the human history of the Loire river valley begins with the Middle Palaeolithic period of 90–40 kya, followed by modern humans, succeeded by the Neolithic period, all of the recent Stone Age in Europe.
Came the Gauls, the historical tribes in the Loire during the Iron Age period 1500 to 500 BC. Gallic rule ended in the valley in 56 BC when Julius Caesar conquered the adjacent provinces for Rome. Christianity was introduced into this valley from the 3rd century AD, as missionaries, converted the pagans. In this period, settlers began producing wines; the Loire Valley has been called the "Garden of France" and is studded with over a thousand châteaux, each with distinct architectural embellishments covering a wide range of variations, from the early medieval to the late Renaissance periods. They were created as feudal strongholds, over centuries past, in the strategic divide between southern and northern France; the name "Loire" comes from Latin Liger, itself a transcription of the native Gaulish name of the river. The Gaulish name comes from the Gaulish word liga, which means "silt, deposit, alluvium", a word that gave French lie, as in sur lie, which in turn gave English lees. Liga comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *legʰ-, meaning "to lie, lay" as in the Welsh word Lleyg, which gave many words in English, such as to lie, to lay, law, etc.
Studies of the palaeo-geography of the region suggest that the palaeo-Loire flowed northward and joined the Seine, while the lower Loire found its source upstream of Orléans in the region of Gien, flowing westward along the present course. At a certain point during the long history of uplift in the Paris Basin, the lower, Atlantic Loire captured the "palaeo-Loire" or Loire séquanaise, producing the present river; the former bed of the Loire séquanaise is occupied by the Loing. The Loire Valley has been inhabited since the Middle Palaeolithic period from 40–90 ka. Neanderthal man navigated the river. Modern man inhabited the Loire valley around 30 ka. By around 5000 to 4000 BC, they began clearing forests along the river edges and cultivating the lands and rearing livestock, they built megaliths to worship the dead from around 3500 BC. The Gauls arrived in the valley between 1500 and 500 BC, the Carnutes settled in Cenabum in what is now Orléans and built a bridge over the river. By 600 BC the Loire had become a important trading route between the Celts and the Greeks.
A key transportation route, it served as one of the great "highways" of France for over 2000 years. The Phoenicians and Greeks had used pack horses to transport goods from Lyon to the Loire to get from the Mediterranean basin to the Atlantic coast; the Romans subdued the Gauls in 52 BC and began developing Cenabum, which they named Aurelianis. They began building the city of Caesarodunum, now Tours, from AD 1; the Romans used the Loire as far as Roanne, around 150 km downriver from the source. After AD 16, the Loire river valley became part of the Roman province of Aquitania, with its capital at Avaricum. From the 3rd century, Christianity spread through the river basin, many religious figures began cultivating vineyards along the river banks. In the 5th century, the Roman Empire declined and the Franks and the Alemanni came to the area from the east. Following this there was ongoing conflict between the Franks and the Visigoths. In 408, the Iranian tribe of Alans crossed the Loire and large hordes of them settled along the middle course of the Loire in Gaul under King Sangiban.
Many inhabitants around the present city of Orléans have names bearing witness to the Alan presence – Allaines. In the 9th century, the Vikings began invading the west coast of France, using longships to navigate the Loire. In 853 they attacked and destroyed Tours and its famous abbey destroying Angers in raids of 854 and 872. In 877 Charles the Bald died. After considerable conflict in the region, in 898 Foulques le Roux of Anjou gained power. During the Hundred Years' War from 1337 to 1453, the Loire marked the border between the French and the English, who occupied territory to the north. One-third of the inhabitants died in the epidemic of the Black D
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours was a Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours, which made him a leading prelate of the area, referred to as Gaul by the Romans. He was born Georgius Florentius and added the name Gregorius in honour of his maternal great-grandfather, he is the primary contemporary source for Merovingian history. His most notable work was his Decem Libri Historiarum, better known as the Historia Francorum, a title that chroniclers gave to it, but he is known for his accounts of the miracles of saints four books of the miracles of Martin of Tours. St. Martin's tomb was a major pilgrimage destination in the 6th century, St. Gregory's writings had the practical effect of promoting this organized devotion. Gregory was born in the Auvergne region of central Gaul, he was born into the upper stratum of Gallo-Roman society as the son of Florentius, Senator of Clermont, by his wife Armentaria II, niece of Bishop Nicetius of Lyons and granddaughter of both Florentinus, Senator of Geneva, Saint Gregory of Langres.
Gregory had several noted bishops and saints as close relatives, according to Gregory, he was connected to thirteen of the eighteen bishops of Tours preceding him by ties of kinship. Gregory's paternal grandmother, descended from Vettius Epagatus, the illustrious martyr of Lyons, his father evidently died while Gregory was young and his widowed mother moved to Burgundy where she had property. Gregory went to live with his paternal uncle St. Gallus, Bishop of Clermont), under whom, his successor St. Avitus, Gregory had his education. Gregory received the clerical tonsure from Gallus. Having contracted a serious illness, he made a visit of devotion to the tomb of St. Martin at Tours. Upon his recovery, he was ordained deacon by Avitus. Upon the death of St. Euphronius, he was chosen as bishop by the clergy and people, charmed with his piety and humility, their deputies overtook him at the court of King Sigebert of Austrasia, being compelled to acquiesce, though much against his will, Gregory was consecrated by Giles, Bishop of Rheims, on 22 August 573, at the age of thirty-four.
He spent most of his career at Tours, although he assisted at the council of Paris in 577. The rough world he lived in was on the cusp of the dying world of Antiquity and the new culture of early medieval Europe. Gregory lived on the border between the Frankish culture of the Merovingians to the north and the Gallo-Roman culture of the south of Gaul. At Tours, Gregory could not have been better placed to hear everything and meet everyone of influence in Merovingian culture. Tours lay on the watery highway of the navigable Loire. Five Roman roads radiated from Tours, which lay on the main thoroughfare between the Frankish north and Aquitania, with Spain beyond. At Tours the Frankish influences of the north and the Gallo-Roman influences of the south had their chief contact; as the center for the popular cult of St Martin, Tours was a pilgrimage site, a political sanctuary to which important leaders fled during periods of violence and turmoil in Merovingian politics. Gregory struggled through personal relations with four Frankish kings, Sigebert I, Chilperic I, Childebert II and he knew most of the leading Franks.
Gregory wrote in Late Latin which departed from classical usage in syntax and spelling with few changes in inflection. The Historia Francorum is in ten books. Books I to IV recount the world's history from the Creation but move to the Christianization of Gaul, the life and times of Saint Martin of Tours, the conversion of the Franks and the conquest of Gaul under Clovis, the more detailed history of the Frankish kings down to the death of Sigebert I in 575. At this date Gregory had been bishop of Tours for two years; the second part, books V and VI, closes with Chilperic I's death in 584. During the years that Chilperic held Tours, relations between him and Gregory were tense. After hearing rumours that the Bishop of Tours had slandered his wife, Chilperic had Gregory arrested and tried for treason—a charge which threatened both Gregory's bishopric and his life; the most eloquent passage in the Historia is the closing chapter of book VI, in which Chilperic's character is summed up unsympathetically through the use of an invective.
The third part, comprising books VII to X, takes his personal account to the year 591. An epilogue was written in 594, the year of Gregory's death. Readers of the Historia Francorum must decide whether this is a royal history and whether Gregory was writing to please his patrons, it is that one royal Frankish house is more generously treated than others. Gregory was a Catholic bishop, his writing reveals views typical of someone in his position, his views on perceived dangers of Arianism led him to preface the Historia with a detailed expression of his orthodoxy on the nature of Christ. In addition, his ridiculing of pagans and Jews reflected how his works were used to spread the Christian faith. For example, in book 2, chapters 28-31, he describes the pagans as incestuous and weak and describes the process by which newly converted King Clovis leads a much better life than that of a pagan and is healed of all the conundrums he experienced as a pagan. Gregory's education was the standard Latin one of Late Antiquity, focusing on Virgil's Aeneid and Martianus Capella's Liber de Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae, but other key texts such as Orosius' Chronicle
Jordanes written Jordanis or, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history in life. Jordanes wrote Romana, about the history of Rome, but his best-known work is his Getica, written in Constantinople about AD 551, it is the only extant ancient work dealing with the early history of the Goths. Jordanes was asked by a friend to write Getica as a summary of a multi-volume history of the Goths by the statesman Cassiodorus that had existed but has since been lost. Jordanes was selected for his known interest in history, his ability to write succinctly and because of his own Gothic background, he had been a high-level notarius, or secretary, of a small client state on the Roman frontier in Scythia Minor, modern south-eastern Romania and north-eastern Bulgaria. Other writers, e.g. Procopius, wrote works which are extant on the history of the Goths; as the only surviving work on Gothic origins, the Getica has been the object of much critical review.
Jordanes wrote in Late Latin rather than the classical Ciceronian Latin. According to his own introduction, he had only three days to review what Cassiodorus had written, meaning that he must have relied on his own knowledge; some of his statements are laconic. Jordanes writes about himself in passing: The Sciri and the Sadagarii and certain of the Alani with their leader, Candac by name, received Scythia Minor and Lower Moesia. Paria, the father of my father Alanoviiamuth, was secretary to this Candac as long. To his sister's son Gunthigis called Baza, the Master of the Soldiery, the son of Andag the son of Andela, descended from the stock of the Amali, I Jordanes, although an unlearned man before my conversion, was secretary. In the Mommsen text edition of 1882, it was suggested that the long name of Jordanes' father should be split into two parts: Alanovii Amuthis, both genitive forms. Jordanes' father's name would be Amuth; the preceding word should belong to Candac, signifying that he was an Alan.
Mommsen, dismissed suggestions to emend a corrupt text. Paria was Jordanes' paternal grandfather. Jordanes writes that he was secretary to Candac, dux Alanorum, an otherwise unknown leader of the Alans. Jordanes was notarius, or secretary to Gunthigis Baza, a magister militum, nephew of Candac, of the leading Ostrogoth clan of the Amali; this was ante conversionem meam. The nature and details of the conversion remain obscure; the Goths had been converted with the assistance of Ulfilas, made bishop on that account. However, the Goths had adopted Arianism. Jordanes' conversion may have been a conversion to the trinitarian Nicene creed, which may be expressed in anti-Arianism in certain passages in Getica. In the letter to Vigilius he mentions that he was awakened vestris interrogationibus - "by your questioning". Alternatively, Jordanes' conversio may mean that he had become a monk, or a religiosus, or a member of the clergy; some manuscripts say that he was a bishop, some say bishop of Ravenna, but the name Jordanes is not known in the lists of bishops of Ravenna.
Jordanes wrote his Romana at the behest of a certain Vigilius. Although some scholars have identified this person with pope Vigilius, there is nothing else to support the identification besides the name; the form of address that Jordanes uses and his admonition that Vigilius "turn to God" would seem to rule out this identification. In the preface to his Getica, Jordanes writes that he is interrupting his work on the Romana at the behest of a brother Castalius, who knew that Jordanes had had the twelve volumes of the History of the Goths by Cassiodorus at home. Castalius would like a short book about the subject, Jordanes obliges with an excerpt based on memory supplemented with other material he had access to; the Getica sets off with a geography/ethnography of the North of Scandza. He lets the history of the Goths commence with the emigration of Berig with three ships from Scandza to Gothiscandza, in a distant past. In the pen of Jordanes, Herodotus' Getian demi-god Zalmoxis becomes a king of the Goths.
Jordanes tells how the Goths sacked "Troy and Ilium" just after they had recovered somewhat from the war with Agamemnon. They are said to have encountered the Egyptian pharaoh Vesosis; the less fictional part of Jordanes' work begins when the Goths encounter Roman military forces in the third century AD. The work concludes with the defeat of the Goths by the Byzantine general Belisarius. Jordanes concludes the work by stating that he writes to honour those who were victorious over the Goths after a history of 2030 years. Several Romanian and American historians wrote about Jordanes' error when considering that Getae were Goths. A lot of historical data of Dacians and Getae were wrongly attributed to Goths. Christensen A. S. Troya C. and Kulikowski M. demonstrated in their works that Jordanes developed in Getica the history of Getic and Dacian peoples mixed with a lot of fantastic deeds. Caracalla received "Geticus Maximus" and "Quasi Gothicus" titles following battles with Getae and Goths. History of the Roman Empire Mierow, Charles Christopher, The Gothic History of Jordanes: In English with an Introduction and a Commentary, 1915.
Reprinted 2006. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-77-0. Carlo Troya. Storia d'Italia del medio-evo. Tip. del Tasso stamp. Reale. Pp. 1331–. Retrieved 5 April 2013. Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars, p. 130. Arne Søby Christensen, Cassiodorus and the History of the Goths. Studies in a Migration Myth, 2002, ISBN 978-87-7289-710-3 Kai Brodersen, Könige im Karpatenbogen: Z
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast. The toponym is based on the Gaulish phrase are-mori "on/at sea", made into the Gaulish place name Aremorica "Place by the Sea"; the suffix -ika was first used to create adjectival forms and names. The original designation was vague, including a large part of what became Normandy in the 10th century and, in some interpretations, the whole of the coast down to the Garonne; the term became restricted to Brittany. In Breton, which belongs to the Brythonic branch of the Insular Celtic languages, along with Welsh and Cornish, "on sea" is war vor, but the older form arvor is used to refer to the coastal regions of Brittany, in contrast to argoad for the inland regions; the cognate modern usages suggest that the Romans first contacted coastal people in the inland region and assumed that the regional name Aremorica referred to the whole area, both coastal and inland.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, claims that Armorica was the older name for Aquitania and states Armorica's southern boundary extended to the Pyrenees. Taking into account the Gaulish origin of the name, correct and logical, as Aremorica is not a country name but a word that describes a type of geographical region, one, by the sea. Pliny lists the following Celtic tribes as living in the area: the Aedui and Carnuteni as having treaties with Rome. Trade between Armorica and Britain, described by Diodorus Siculus and implied by Pliny was long-established; because after the campaign of Publius Crassus in 57 BC, continued resistance to Roman rule in Armorica was still being supported by Celtic aristocrats in Britain, Julius Caesar led two invasions of Britain in 55 and 54 in response. Some hint of the complicated cultural web that bound Armorica and the Britanniae is given by Caesar when he describes Diviciacus of the Suessiones, as "the most powerful ruler in the whole of Gaul, who had control not only over a large area of this region but of Britain" Archaeological sites along the south coast of England, notably at Hengistbury Head, show connections with Armorica as far east as the Solent.
This'prehistoric' connection of Cornwall and Brittany set the stage for the link that continued into the medieval era. Still farther East, the typical Continental connections of the Britannic coast were with the lower Seine valley instead. Archaeology has not yet been as enlightening in Iron-Age Armorica as the coinage, surveyed by Philip de Jersey. Under the Roman Empire, Armorica was administered as part of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis, which had its capital in Lugdunum; when the Roman provinces were reorganized in the 4th century, Armorica was placed under the second and third divisions of Lugdunensis. After the legions retreated from Britannia the local elite there expelled the civilian magistrates in the following year. At the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains in 451 a Roman coalition led by General Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic King Theodoric I clashed violently with the Hunnic alliance commanded by King Attila the Hun. Jordanes lists Aëtius' allies as including German tribes; the "Armorican" peninsula came to be settled with Britons from Britain during the poorly documented period of the 5th-7th centuries.
In distant Byzantium Procopius heard tales of migrations to the Frankish mainland from the island legendary for him, of Brittia. These settlers, whether refugees or not, made the presence felt of their coherent groups in the naming of the westernmost, Atlantic-facing provinces of Armorica and Domnonea; these settlements are associated with leaders like Saints Samson of Dol and Pol Aurelian, among the "founder saints" of Brittany. The linguistic origins of Breton are clear: it is a Brythonic language descended from the Celtic British language, like Welsh and Cornish one of the Insular Celtic languages, brought by these migrating Britons. Still, questions of the relations between the Celtic cultures of Britain— Cornish and Welsh— and Celtic Breton are far from settled. Martin Henig suggests that in Armorica as in sub-Roman Britain: There was a fair amount of creation of identity in the migration period. We know that the mixed, but British and Frankish population of Kent repackaged themselves as'Jutes', the British populations in the lands east of Dumnonia seem to have ended up as'West Saxons'.
In western Armorica the small elite which managed to impose an identity on the population happened to be British rather than'Gallo-Roman' in origin, so they became Bretons. The process may have been the same." According to C. E. V. Nixon, the collapse of Roman power and the depredations of the Visigoths led Armorica to act "like a magnet to peasants, coloni and the hard-pressed" who deserted other Roman territories, further weakening them. Vikings settled in the Cotentin peninsula and the lower Seine
Syagrius was the last Gallic military commander of a Roman rump state in northern Gaul, now called the Kingdom of Soissons. Gregory of Tours referred to him as King of the Romans. Syagrius's defeat by king Clovis I of the Franks is considered the end of Western Roman rule outside of Italy, he inherited his position from his father, the last Roman magister militum per Gallias. Syagrius preserved his father's territory between the Somme and the Loire around Soissons after the collapse of central rule in the Western Empire, a domain Gregory of Tours called the "Kingdom" of Soissons. Syagrius governed this Gallo-Roman enclave from the death of his father in 464 until 486, when he was defeated in battle by Clovis I. Historians have mistrusted the title "rex Romanorum" that Gregory of Tours gave him, at least as early as Godefroid Kurth, who dismissed it as a gross error in 1893; the common consensus has been to follow Kurth, based on the historical truism that Romans hated kingship from the days of the expulsion of Tarquin the Proud.
However, S. Fanning has assembled a number of examples of rex being used in a neutral, if not favorable and argues that "the phrase Romanorum rex is not peculiar to Gregory of Tours or to Frankish sources", that Gregory's usage may indeed show "that they were, or were seen to be, claiming to be Roman emperors." Despite being isolated from the surviving portions of the Roman Empire, Syagrius managed to maintain a degree of Roman authority in northern Gaul for twenty years, his state outlived the end of the Western Empire itself, the last Emperors being overthrown or killed in 476 and 480. Syagrius managed to hold off the neighbouring Salian Franks, who were internally divided under kings including Childeric. However, it is known that Childeric had come to the aid of the Gallo-Romans, joining a certain officer named Paul in operations against Saxons who at one point seized Angers. Upon Childeric's death in 481 his son Clovis succeeded him. While Childeric had seen no need to overthrow the last Roman foothold in the west, Clovis assembled an army, issued a challenge, met Syagrius's forces.
Few details are known of the subsequent clash, the Battle of Soissons, but Syagrius was decisively defeated and fled. His domain passed to the Franks; as Edward Gibbon wrote, "It would be ungenerous, without some more accurate knowledge of his strength and resources, to condemn the rapid flight of Syagrius, who escaped after the loss of a battle to the distant court of Toulouse." Toulouse was the capital of king of the Visigoths. Intimidated by the victorious Franks, the Visigoths imprisoned Syagrius surrendered him to Clovis, he died not long after. Despite the assassination of Syagrius, the family evidently prospered under Frankish rule. King Guntram sent a Count Syagrius on a diplomatic mission to the Byzantine Empire in 585. A descendant, made a large donation of land to the monks of Novalesa Abbey in 739. "The last known member of the Syagrii was an abbot of Nantua, mentioned in 757." Last of the Romans Neustria Fleuriot, Léon, Les origines de la Bretagne, 1980. Gregory of Tours, History of the Franks, book II
Childeric I was a Frankish leader in the northern part of imperial Roman Gaul and a member of the Merovingian dynasty, described as a King, both on his Roman-style seal ring, buried with him, in fragmentary records of his life. He was father of Clovis I, who acquired lordship over all or most Frankish kingdoms, a significant part of Roman Gaul. Childeric's father is recorded by several sources including Gregory of Tours to have been Merovech, whose name is the basis of the Merovingian dynasty. Gregory reports that Merovech was reputed by some to be a descendant of Chlodio, an earlier Frankish king who had conquered Roman Gaulish areas in the Silva Carbonaria in Tournai, Cambrai and as far south as the Somme; this is the definition of the Roman province of Belgica Secunda and a letter of Saint Remigius to Childeric's son Clovis I implies that Childeric had been the administrative chief of this Roman province. In records from Childeric's own lifetime, he is associated with the Roman military actions around the Loire river, where he appears in records involving the Gallo-Roman general Aegidius.
According to Gregory of Tours, Childeric was exiled at some point, the reason being given as Frankish unhappiness with Childeric's debauchery and seduction of the daughters of his subjects. Childeric spent eight years in exile in "Thuringia" waiting to make a return. In the meantime, according to Gregory, Aegidius himself took up the title of king of the Franks. Upon his return Childeric was joined by the wife of his host, Queen Basina, who bore Childeric his son Clovis. Guy Halsall connects the story to Roman politics, Aegidius being an appointee of Majorian: "Although this is only one interpretation of the fragmentary sources, an eight-year period ending with Aegidius' death would allow us to associate Childeric's expulsion with Majorian's accession and appointment of Aegidius." "Majorian's commander on the Loire, refused to accept Severus as emperor. It is possible that, to legitimise his position, he took the title king of the Franks."Halsall speculates that Childeric began a Roman military career in the service of Flavius Aetius who defeated Attila in Gaul, he points out that much of his military career appears to have played out far from the Frankish homelands.
Ulrich Nonn, following his teacher Eugen Ewig, believes that the exile story reflects a real sequence of events whereby Childeric was a leader of "Salian" or "Belgian" Franks based in the Romanized areas conquered by Chlodio, who were allies under the lordship of Aegidius, but able to take over his power when he and his imperial patron died. In a passage considered to have come from a lost collection of Annals, Gregory gives a sequence of events which are difficult to interpret. In 463 Childeric and Aegidius repelled the Visigoths of Theodoric II from Orleans on the Loire. After the death of Aegidius soon after, Childeric and a Comes Paul are recorded defending the Loire region from Saxon raiders, who were coordinating with the Goths now under Euric. Childeric and Paul fought Saxons under the command of a leader named "Adovacrius"; the origin of these "Saxons" is however unclear, they are described as being based upon islands somewhere in the region. Soon after this passage, Gregory of Tours reports that Childeric coordinated with "Odovacrius", this time assumed to be the King of Italy, against Allemani who had entered Italy.
While some authors interpret these Allemani to be Alans, a people established in the Loire region in this period, there is no consensus on this, because the reference in this case is not to events near the Loire. Gregory of Tours, in his History of the Franks, mentions several siblings of Clovis within his narrative, meaning that the following list of children of Childeric is known. Clovis I, whose mother was Basina. Audofleda, Queen of the Ostrogoths, wife of Theodoric the Great. Gregory III.31 mentions their daughter Amalasuntha. Lanthechild. Gregory II.31 mentions she had converted to Catholicism with Clovis. Albofleda. Gregory II.31 mentions. Childeric is considered to have died in 481 or 482 based on Gregory's reports that his son Clovis died in 511 and ruled 30 years. Childeric's tomb was discovered in 1653 not far from the 12th-century church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, now in Belgium. Numerous precious objects were found, including jewels of gold and garnet cloisonné, gold coins, a gold bull's head, a ring with the king's name inscribed.
Some 300 golden winged insects were found, placed on the king's cloak. Archduke Leopold William, governor of the Southern Netherlands, had the find published in Latin; the treasure went first to the Habsburgs in Vienna as a gift to Louis XIV, not impressed with the treasure and stored it in the royal library, which became the Bibliothèque Nationale de France during the Revolution. Napoleon was more impressed with Childeric's bees and when he was looki