Ripuarian Franks were one of the two main groupings of early Frankish people mentioned by a number of 6th-century sources. The Ripuarii originally lived on the bank of the Rhine in what is today western Germany. Under pressure from their enemies the Saxons, starting from 274 AD they were able to infiltrate the left bank of the Rhine. The border between the area of the Salian and the Ripurarian Franks was roughly the Silva Carbonaria and the land between the Seine-basin and the upper Meuse river. Its not clear that the whole Seine-basin was Salian, maybe some northern and eastern parts of the Seine-basin were setlled by Ripuarian Franks, the division of the Franks into Ripuarians and Salians would have taken place in the Roman Empire. By the time the Ripuarians are mentioned in the record, they had already lost their independence to the expanding power of the Merovingians. In the 7th century their traditional laws were recorded as the Lex Ripuaria, the name Ripuarii clearly has a meaning of river people, but the exact origin of the name is unclear.
The regular Latin form would be Riparii, meaning of the river bank, other attested forms of the adjective are Riparenses and Riparienses. The form Ripuarii is irregular and has been explained by a native name underlying the Latin. This hypothetical self-designation might be restored as either *hreop-waren, *hrepa-waren river people, the form Ripuarii may be due to a loan of the Latin Riparii into Germanic. It seems to be analogous to the formation, Ribuarius. From the Gallo-Roman came the French rive, and a group of words based on it, the confederacy of the Franks had come into being by the 3rd century on the right bank of the Rhine. Tribes who had lived in the area in Roman times included the Sicambri, Bructeri, Chattuarii. The Franks replaced those older tribes in the record and most probably represent a new alliance of all or some of them and these independent Franks crossed the Rhine frequently to establish bases there from which they raided further into the Roman empire. The Romans eventually bought peace by exchanging freedom to settle on the bank for cooperation in maintaining the peace.
Many of these Franks rose to office in the empire. In the area of the Ripuarii, the Rhine had been defined as a border of the Roman empire under the early emperors, the Romans created two provinces and Lower Germany. The dividing line was marked and maintained by a base at Mainz
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of 19,846 square kilometres and about four million inhabitants, Rhineland-Palatinate is located in western Germany and borders Belgium and France, and the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg and Saarland. The state of Rhineland-Palatinate dates from 30 August 1946, as of 201044. 9% of the population of the state adhered to the Roman Catholic Church,30. 6% to the Evangelical Church in Germany. 22. 0% of the population is irreligious or adheres to other religions, muslims made up 2. 5% of the total. The league of ShUM-cities in the Rhineland-Palatinate comprised the Jewish communities of Mainz, the Takkanot Shum, or Enactments of ShUM were a set of decrees formulated and agreed upon over a period of decades by their Jewish community leaders. Rhineland-Palatinate leads all German states with a rate of approximately 50%. Important sectors are the industry, chemical industry, pharmaceutical industry.
Distinctive regional industries includes gemstone industry and glass industry and medium enterprises are considered the backbone of the economy in Rhineland-Palatinate. The principal employer is the chemical and plastics processing industry which is represented by BASF in Ludwigshafen, Joh. A. Benckiser, SGE Deutsche Holding, Schott Glassworks concludes the top 5 companies in the state. Rhineland-Palatinate is Germanys leading producer of wine in terms of grape cultivation, of thirteen wine regions producing quality wine in Germany, six are located in Rhineland-Palatinate, with 65% to 70% of the production of wine grapes in Germany having their origin within the state. 13,000 wine producers generate 80% to 90% of the German wine export, traditional grape varieties and a wide range of varieties developed during the last 125 years are characteristic for the region. Classical white varieties are cultivated at 63,683 hectares and these comprise the famous Rieslings 14,446 hectares, Müller-Thurgau and Kerner.
The share of red varieties grew constantly during the last decades, dornfelder, a new cultivar, is the leading red grape cultivated on 7,626 hectares, which is more than a third. Blauer Portugieser and Spätburgunder show appreciable cultivated shares, the state supports the wine industry by providing a comprehensive consultancy and education program in the service supply centers of the land. The Geilweilerhof Institute for Grape Breeding is fully financed by the state, many well known new breeds, such as Morio-Muskat, Bacchus and Regent have been created in these institutes. The worldwide leader in sparkling wine production, producing 245 million bottles in 2006, is the renowned Schloss Wachenheim Group and this company is headquartered in Trier, with operations in several locations in Rhineland-Palatinate
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf, the most populous city is Cologne, four of Germanys ten largest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf and Essen—are located within the state, as well as the largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine and Westphalia, the state has been run by a coalition of the Social Democrats and Greens since 2010. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior, North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri. By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany. But at the time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south. The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks eventually built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Ottonian dynasty had both Saxon and Frankish ancestry.
As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes. Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military, Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked largely in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the bank of the Rhine was resigned to France. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium, around 1 AD there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts and his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today.
Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, Widukind was buried in Enger, which is a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony, in 1180 Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only an area south of the Lippe River. Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years War
Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands. It is descended from Old Saxon in its earliest form, as an Ingvaeonic language, Low German is quite distinct from the Irminonic languages like Standard German. It is closely related to Anglo-Frisian group of languages and more distantly to Dutch and this difference resulted from the High German consonant shift, with the Uerdingen and Benrath lines being two notable linguistic borders. Dialects of Low German are widely spoken in the area of the Netherlands and are written there with an orthography based on Standard Dutch orthography. Small portions of northern Hesse and northern Thuringia are traditionally Low Saxon-speaking too, Low German was spoken in formerly German parts of Poland as well as in East Prussia and the Baltic States of Estonia and Latvia. Under the name Low Saxon, there are speakers in the Dutch north-eastern provinces of Groningen, Stellingwerf, German speakers in this area fled the Red Army or were forcibly expelled after the border changes at the end of World War II.
Today, there are still speakers outside Germany and the Netherlands to be found in the areas of present-day Poland. In some of these countries, the language is part of the Mennonite religion, there are Mennonite communities in Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia and Minnesota which use Low German in their religious services and communities. The type of Low German spoken in communities and in the Midwest region of the United States has diverged since emigration. The survival of the language is tenuous in many places and has died out in places where assimilation has occurred. Mennonite colonies in Paraguay and Chihuahua, Mexico have made Low German a co-official language of the community, in Germany, native speakers of Low German call it Platt, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch. In the Netherlands, native speakers refer to their language as dialect, nedersaksies, or the name of their village, Low German is called Niederdeutsch by the German authorities and Nedersaksisch by the Dutch authorities. Plattdeutsch/Niederdeutsch and Platduits/Nedersaksisch are seen in texts from the German.
In Danish it is called Plattysk, Nedertysk or, Mennonite Low German is called Plautdietsch. Etymologically Platt meant clear in the sense of a language the people could understand. In Dutch, the word Plat can mean improper, or rude, the ISO 639-2 language code for Low German has been nds since May 2000. The question of whether Low German should be considered a separate language, linguistics offers no simple, generally accepted criterion to decide this question. Scholarly arguments have been put forward in favour of classifying Low German as a German dialect, as said, these arguments are not linguistic but rather socio-political and build mainly around the fact that Low German has no official standard form or use in sophisticated media
Cologne is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth-largest city in Germany. It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, one of the major European metropolitan areas, and with more than ten million inhabitants, Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River, less than eighty kilometres from Belgium. The citys famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne, the University of Cologne is one of Europes oldest and largest universities. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the first century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the French version of the citys name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior, during the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval.
Up until World War II the city had several occupations by the French. Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany during World War II, the bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many buildings as possible. Cologne is a cultural centre for the Rhineland, it hosts more than thirty museums. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics, the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, in 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD, considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.
From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, in 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it one of the most important trade. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462, parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire, Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period, under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop
Bocholtz is a town in the Dutch province of Limburg. It is a part of the municipality of Simpelveld, and lies about 7 km southwest of Kerkrade, until 1982, it was a separate municipality. In January 2007, Bocholtz had 5,573 inhabitants, the built-up area of the town was 0.76 km², and contained 1,810 residences. Bocholtz dates back to the Roman era, a Roman villa was found in the Vlengendaal, a street of Bocholtz, in 1911. A farmer plowing his land found a Roman sarcophagus in October 2003, the Castle De Bongard dates from the 16th century. The current building only represents 1/4 of the original building, the rest was destroyed during the invasion by the French during the Napoleonic Wars. Hoeve Overhuizen is a farm with roots dating back as far as the 13th century. From 2015 Rabobank moves in after redecorating the interior of the building to make it their regional headquarters, the James the Greater Church was built between 1869 and 1873 by architect Pierre Cuypers. While expanding the church in 1953, they found the remains of a building from the medieval period.
The patron saint is St. Jacob, Bocholtz is part of The Netherlands and therefore the official language is Dutch. A lot of people speak Bocholtzer, a language that depending of the definition belongs to Ripuarian or Limburgish. It is referred to as Southeast Limburgish, J. Kuyper, Gemeente Atlas van Nederland, 1865-1870, Bocholtz. Map of the municipality, around 1868
The Saarland is one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. With its capital at Saarbrücken, it has an area of 2,570 km², in terms of both area and population size – apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg – it is Germanys smallest state. Prior to its creation as the Territory of the Saar Basin by the League of Nations after World War I, until then, some parts of it had been Prussian while others belonged to Bavaria. The inhabitants voted to rejoin Germany in a referendum held in 1935, from 1947 to 1956 the Saarland was a French-occupied territory separate from the rest of Germany. Between 1950 and 1956, Saarland was a member of the Council of Europe, in 1955, in another referendum, the inhabitants were offered independence, but voted instead for the territory to become a state of West Germany. From 1920 to 1935, and again from 1947 to 1959, Saarland is the result of a regulation of the treaty of Versailles and was created in 1919. Prior to this creation, there never existed a comparable administrative unit or a feeling of togetherness, the region of the Saarland was settled by the Celtic tribes of Treveri and Mediomatrici.
The most impressive relic of their time is the remains of a fortress of refuge at Otzenhausen in the north of the Saarland, in the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire made the region part of its province of Belgica. The Celtic population mixed with the Roman immigrants, the region gained wealth, which can still be seen in the remains of Roman villas and villages. Roman rule ended in the 5th century, when the Franks conquered the territory, for the next 1,300 years the region shared the history of the Kingdom of the Franks, the Carolingian Empire and of the Holy Roman Empire. The region of the Saarland was divided into small territories. Most important of the rulers were the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken. It was not the king of France but the armies of the French Revolution who terminated the independence of the states in the region of the Saarland, after 1792 they conquered the region and made it part of the French Republic. While a strip in the west belonged to the Département Moselle, the centre in 1798 became part of the Département de Sarre, after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, the region was divided again.
Most of it part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Another part in the east, corresponding to the present Saarpfalz district, was allocated to the Kingdom of Bavaria, a small part in the northeast was ruled by the Duke of Oldenburg. On 31 July 1870, the French Emperor Napoleon III ordered an invasion across the River Saar to seize Saarbrücken, the first shots of the Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 were fired on the heights of Spichern, south of Saarbrücken. The Saar region became part of the German Empire which came into existence on 18 January 1871, in 1920 the Saargebiet was occupied by Britain and France under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287. About 24 km south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr region, Germanys largest metropolitan area, the title of Federal City reflects its particular political status within Germany. Founded in the 1st century BC as a Roman settlement, Bonn is one of Germanys oldest cities, from 1597 to 1794, Bonn was the capital of the Electorate of Cologne, and residence of the Archbishops and Prince-electors of Cologne. Composer Ludwig van Beethoven was born here in 1770, from 1949 to 1990, Bonn was the capital of West Germany, and it is here where Germanys present constitution, the Grundgesetz, was declared in 1949. From 1990 to 1999, Bonn served as the seat of government, two DAX-listed corporations, Deutsche Post DHL and Deutsche Telekom, have headquarters in Bonn. The city is the location of the University of Bonn, spanning an area of more 141.2 km2 on both sides of the River Rhine, almost three quarters of the city lie on the rivers left bank.
To the south and to the west, Bonn is bordering the Eifel region which encompasses the Rhineland Nature Park, to the north, Bonn borders the Cologne Lowland. Natural borders are constituted by the River Sieg to the north-east, the largest extension of the city in north-south dimensions is 15 km and 12.5 km in west-east dimensions. The city borders have a length of 61 km. The geographical centre of Bonn is the Bundeskanzlerplatz in Bonn-Gronau, the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia is divided into five governmental districts, and Bonn is part of the governmental district of Cologne. Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an district in its own right. The urban district of Bonn is divided into four administrative municipal districts. These are Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg, in 1969, the independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, the history of the city dates back to Roman times.
In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city, even earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn. The Latin name for that settlement, may stem from the population of this and many other settlements in the area. The Eburoni were members of a tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Caesars War in Gaul. After several decades, the gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement
828 First mentioned by Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne. For some centuries part of the Duchy of Jülich,1678 Completely destroyed except one house and the valuable leather Pietà. 1800 French municipal rights and capital of the Canton of Eschweiler in the French Département de la Roer, the French Cantons of Burtscheid and Eschweiler are put together to form the Prussian Kreis Aachen. 1838 Foundation of the first joint stock company in the Kingdom of Prussia and its quarters Hehlrath, Kinzweiler and St. Jöris are released in order to form the new municipality of Kinzweiler. 1932 Hastenrath and Nothberg become a part of Eschweiler,1944 Heavily destroyed in World War II, the last coal mine was flooded during the war and never been re-opened. Part of the land of North Rhine-Westphalia. 1960s Complete modernization of Eschweilers downtown and regulation of the Inde in order to prevent the regular inundations, after 114 years, comes back. 1970s Eschweiler loses seven quarters because of the brown-coal opencast mining, Hausen, Laurenzberg, Lohn, Lürken, every summer the Eschweiler Music Festival EMF takes place.
People go to the numerous pubs around the Market Place and in the old-town alley Schnellengasse as well as to the large-scale discothèque Klejbors, Eschweiler is a center of Rhineland carnival. It has more than 20 active carnival clubs, and every Monday before Lent it has the third of Germanys longest carnival processions, antonius Hospital with 443 beds and 13 departments. Every year, there are some 15,000 in-patients and 25,000 out-patients, the Euregio Breast Centre is part of the hospital. Soccer, ice hockey, open-air swimming pool, indoor swimming pool, horse sports and metal industries, logistics and a lignite power plant. The lignite deposits in the region are former Miocene swamp forest dominated by Castanopsis, such plants do not occur naturally in Europe. A type of wood has been described from logs found in Eschweiler mines. Eschweiler has six stations, Eschweiler Hauptbahnhof, Eschweiler-Aue, Eschweiler-West, Eschweiler-Talbahnhof, Eschweiler-Nothberg, Eschweiler-Weisweiler. Eschweiler has two bus terminals and bus lines in quarter and in its whole vicinity.
Autobahn exits on the A4 include Eschweiler-West, Eschweiler-Ost and Weisweiler, the city can be reached by three exits on the A44, Aldenhoven and Broichweiden. in Duisburg in 1867, and on other steelworks
German-speaking Community of Belgium
The German-speaking Community of Belgium is one of the three federal communities of Belgium. Covering an area of 854 km2 within the province of Liège in Wallonia, traditionally speakers of Low Dietsch and Moselle Franconian varieties, the local population numbers over 75, 000—about 0. 70% of the national total. Bordering the Netherlands and Luxembourg, the area has its own parliament and government at Eupen, the German-speaking Community of Belgium is composed of the German-speaking parts of the lands that were annexed in 1920 from Germany. However, in these localities, the German language is declining due to the expansion of French, the area known today as the East Cantons consists of the German-speaking Community and the municipalities of Malmedy and Waimes, which belong to the French Community of Belgium. The East Cantons were part of the Rhine Province of Prussia in Germany until 1920, but were annexed by Belgium following Germanys defeat in World War I, thus they became known as the cantons rédimés, redeemed cantons.
The peace treaty of Versailles demanded the questioning of the local population, in the mid-1920s, there were secret negotiations between Germany and the kingdom of Belgium that seemed to be inclined to sell the region back to Germany as a way to improve Belgiums finances. A price of 200 million gold marks has been mentioned, at this point the French government, fearing for the complete postwar order, intervened at Brussels and the Belgian-German talks were called off. The new cantons had been part of Belgium for just 20 years when in 1940 they were retaken by Germany in World War II, the majority of people of the east cantons welcomed this as they considered themselves German. In 1973, three communities and three regions were established and granted internal autonomy, the legislative Parliament of the German-speaking Community, Rat der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, was set up. Today the German-speaking Community has a degree of autonomy, especially in language and cultural matters. One of the proponents of full autonomy for the German-speaking Community is Karl-Heinz Lambertz.
Especially regional autonomy for spatial planning, city building and housing should be considered, the German-speaking Community has its own government, which is appointed for five years by its own parliament. The Government is headed by a Minister-President, who acts as the minister of the Community. Compare to a total of 73,675 on 1 January 2007, in 1989, there was a call for proposals for a flag and arms of the Community. In the end the coat of arms of the Community was designed by merging the arms of the Duchy of Limburg, the coat of arms, in heraldic blazon, is, Argent, a lion rampant gules between nine cinquefoils azure. The flag shows a red lion together with nine blue cinquefoils on a white field, the colours of the German-speaking Community are white and red in a horizontal position. Government website Parliament website KOKAISL, Petr, KOKAISLOVÁ, journal of Social Research & Policy, Vol.6, Issue 1, July 2015