Aulnay-sous-Bois is a commune in the Seine-Saint-Denis department in the Île-de-France region in the north-eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 13.9 km from the Kilometre zero. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aulnaysiennes; the commune has been awarded four flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located in the Paris area and is 19 km north-east of Notre-Dame Cathedral, 1 km east of Le Bourget Airport, 5 km south-west of Charles de Gaulle Airport; the commune stretches over a length of 6.5 km from north to south and a width ranging from 1.4 to 4.3 km from east to west and covers an area of 1,620 hectares. The town is surrounded by the A3 autoroute in the west. Route nationale 2 passes through the heart of the commune from west to east with the N370 coming from the south-east along the eastern border to join the N2; the D44 passes through from north-west to south-east and the D115 from Bobigny in the south-west passes through the centre and continues to Villepinte in the east.
The Ourcq Canal passes through the south-eastern end, adjacent to Livry-Gargan. Distribution of urban zones is: Residential: 44% Industrial: 30% Housing Estates: 11% Natural areas: 15% The north of Aulnay-sous-Bois consists of large housing estates, industrial areas, parks: The Rose des Vents The Etangs The Merisier The City of Emmaus Balagny La Garenne Ambourget Savigny The Gros Saule The central area, called the district of Vieux Pays, is older with its Church of Saint-Sulpice built in the 12th century and its farm, it includes La Roseraie, Maximilien Robespierre, Le Vieux Pays, Tour Eiffel, Hotel de Ville. The south, across the railway line, is residential in nature, it is bordered by the Canal de l'Ourcq. It includes Chanteloup, Central Station, Pont de l'Union, Nonneville; when the construction of Clos Saint-Lazare at Stains ended, urbanization of the northern districts of Aulnay-sous-Bois began. The idea was to create an area of factories, it was on this basis that the area of Rose des Vents was built in 1969 in the northern part of Aulnay-sous-Bois.
This "Great Housing Estate" was built on former agricultural land. Its mission was to provide shelter for workers and managers for a new Citroën plant to be located a few hundred metres away. Beyond the Rose des Vents, known as the City of 3000, all of the housing estates in the northern districts total 6,500 housing units including 745 detached houses. 24,000 people, or 30% of the population of Aulnay-sous-Bois, are housed on 4% of the territory. The city is served by: Autoroutes: A1, A3, A104 National Roads: N2 and N370 Departmental Routes: D115, D44, D40, D401 The commune is traversed by the main railway line from Paris to Soissons and Hirson which serves the Aulnay-sous-Bois railway station where all buses and semi-direct services of and the Transilien Paris to Crépy-en-Valois stop and it is the terminus of the line; the station has a ride with a parking fee. Since November 2006, the classic commuter train the Ligne des Coquetiers between Aulnay-sous-Bois to Bondy has been replaced by a Tram-train that takes the same route and allows connection to the and.
Two branches are planned: the first to Clichy-sous-Bois and Montfermeil on the Gargan heights. Between September 2009 to January 2011, the Aulnay-sous-Bois station has had work done to allow access to all platforms for disabled persons including: the development of four lifts, the rehabilitation of the railway station and underpasses, the installation of new lighting. Aulnay-sous-Bois station is served by bus routes: RATP 251 TRA 605 607a 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 637 680 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 15 RATP N140Villepinte Station is located halfway between Aulnay-sous-Bois and Villepinte and it provides access to the district of Rose des Vents. Villepinte station is served by buses: TRA 609 615 617 642 683 In 2023 a station on line 16 in the Grand Paris Express project is planned north of the commune on the embankment of the former N2 road, its platforms will be at a depth of 15 metres. The city is served by various bus networks: RATP 148 251 350 TRA 605 607a 607b 609 610 613 614 615 616a 616b 617 618 627 634 637 680 683 684 686 Autobus du Fort 702 CIF 1 15 32A 43 44 45 93 100 RATP N42 N140In the medium term, it is proposed the creation of a "transverse" line by merging TRA 614 627 637 lines.
In addition, it is planned to create a circular line to connect different parts of the city to avoid "reloading" for trips between all economic areas of the city and its public facilities. There is a taxi rank at Aulnay-sous-Bois station. Aulnay-sous-Bois is located 5 km from Charles de Gaulle Airport; the airport can be reached by the A1 and A3 autoroutes. "Aulnay" is a common French toponym and may derive from the Medieval Latin alnetum meaning "alder grove" after the alder trees which covered Aulnay-sous-Bois in ancient times. An alternative derivation is th
Créteil is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.5 km from the centre of Paris. Créteil is the préfecture of the Val-de-Marne department as well as the seat of the Arrondissement of Créteil; the city is, the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese and of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education. The name Créteil was recorded for the first time as Cristoilum in the martyrology written by a monk named Usuard in 865; the name Cristoilum is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a pre-Latin radical crist- whose meaning is still unclear. Some believe crist is a Celtic word meaning "ridge", a cognate of Latin crista and modern French crête, in which case the meaning of Cristoilum would be "clearing on the ridge" or "place on the ridge." A more traditional etymology was that crist referred to Jesus Christ, due to the ancient presence of Christianity in Créteil and the veneration of Saint Agoard and Saint Aglibert, martyred in Créteil around AD 400.
Créteil is a city in the south-eastern suburbs of Paris. It is watered by the Marne river which carries out its last loop before the junction with the Seine at the Charenton-le-Pont; the area is an alluvial plain eroded by the action of the Seine. Bordering communes include Maisons-Alfort, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, Bonneuil-sur-Marne, Limeil-Brévannes, Choisy-le-Roi and Alfortville; the climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Créteil has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; some rare flints from the Palaeolithic age are still being found in modern times in the area. It is, however, a two-ton, Neolithic-era polishing machine, the prehistoric pride of Créteil; the first documents referring to Créteil are from the Merovingian era, when it was known as Vicus Cristoilum' The name comes from the prefix crist and oilum. These two terms are thought to be Gallic: "clearing" for oilum and "ridge" for crist.
The "clearing" of the "ridge" of the Mont-Mesly is on the road connecting Paris and Sens. In 1406, the place name "Créteil" makes its appearance after successive deformations from Cristoill, Cresteul Creteuil. During the French Wars of Religion, the Huguenots plundered the church and burned the local charters. New disorders in 1648 forced the evacuation of the inhabitants of Créteil; the end of Louis XIV's reign was marked by a great food shortage throughout the whole of France after a terrible winter in 1709 that resulted in 69 recorded deaths in Créteil. Registers of grievances from the French Revolution in 1789 mention Créteil 15 times. At the beginning of the 18th century, construction of the first middle-class "Parisian" houses began. In 1814, the east of Créteil was taken by Russian troops; the bridge which spans the Marne between Creteil and Saint-Maur-des-Fossés was inaugurated on 9 April 1841, replacing an ancient ferry. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 was cruel for Créteil; the borough was plundered and left in ruins by the Prussians, while the nearby battle of Mont-Mesly on 30 November 1870, left 179 dead.
Créteil gave up its pastoral character after World War II. The population subsequently rose from 13,800 in 1954 to 30,654 in 1962. In 1965, the city became a Préfecture of the new department of the Val-de-Marne. Créteil Lake began as a gravel quarry. Once the groundwater was reached, forming deep ponds, the quarry was abandoned and allowed to fill with water; the lake area is now a popular recreational site attracting fishermen, wind surfers, etc... As of 1 January 2006, 27 pharmacies, about 60 dentists, about 60 general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, a half-dozen ophthalmologists and dermatologists constitute the general medical staff of the city. Health facilities include: CHU Henri Mondor, a publicly owned hospital inaugurated on 2 December 1969. Conceived for 1,300 beds, its capacity today is 958 beds, it employs more than 3,000 people including more than 2,600 looking after patients. Its expenditure in 2004 was 241M€. Centre hospitalier intercommunal de Créteil, inaugurated on 3 November 1937.
Capacity of reception of 530 in-patients as against 264 in 1937. The construction of this establishment was decided in 1932 by grouping the communes of the Bonneuil-sur-Marne and Joinville-le-Pont within an inter-communal syndicate. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés joined this syndicate later. A number of the hospital personnel were religious sisters. In 2004, 38,037 hospitalizations were listed, with 2,551 childbirths and 12,838 surgical interventions. ] It employs 2,000 people with about 1,600 of them caring for patients in medical or other capacities. Centre de Transfusion sanguine; the Blood Transfusion Centre of Creteil is run by the inter-communal Hospital. This service treats from 600 to 1,000 requests per day. Albert Chenevier Hospital. A publicly owned hospital, with a 463-bed capacity. There are 118 beds in the psychiatric ward. Public schools: 24 preschools 24 elementary schools Eight junior high schools: Clément Guyard, Victor Hugo, Louis Issaurat, Amédée Laplace, Louis Pasteur, Albert Schweitzer, Simone-de-Beauvoir Four high schools: Lycée Léon Blum, Lycée Édouard Branly, Lycée Gutenberg, Lycée Antoine de Saint-ExuperyPrivate schools: Ozar Hatorah De Maillé Lycée général et technologique de l'ensemble Sainte-Marie Lycée d'enseignement supé
Rueil-Malmaison is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, in the Hauts-de-Seine department of France. It is located 12.6 kilometres from the centre of Paris. It is one of the wealthiest suburbs of Paris. Rueil-Malmaison was called Rueil. In medieval times the name Rueil was spelled either Roialum, Rotoialum, Ruolium, or Ruellium; this name is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a radical meaning "brook, stream", or maybe to a radical meaning "ford". In 1928, the name of the commune became Rueil-Malmaison in reference to its most famous tourist attraction, the Château de Malmaison, home of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais; the name Malmaison comes from Medieval Latin mala mansio, meaning "ill-fated domain", "estate of ill luck". In the Early Middle Ages Malmaison was the site of a royal residence, destroyed by the Vikings in 846. Rueil is famous for the Château de Malmaison where Napoleon and his first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais lived. Upon her death in 1814, she was buried at the nearby Saint-Pierre-Saint-Paul church, which stands at the centre of the city.
The Rueil barracks of the Swiss Guard were constructed in 1756 under Louis XV by the architect Axel Guillaumot, have been classified Monument historique since 1973. The Guard was formed by Louis XIII in 1616 and massacred at the Tuileries on 10 August 1792 during the French Revolution. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, Rueil was located on the front line. At the end of the 19th century, Impressionist painters like Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Édouard Manet and Claude Monet came to paint the Seine River which crosses the town. Rueil is the principal location of the novel Loin de Rueil by the French novelist Raymond Queneau; the town is twinned with Surrey, in the United Kingdom. The Château de Malmaison, the residence of Napoléon's first wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, is located in Rueil-Malmaison, it is home to a Napoleonic museum. The main campus of the French Institute of Petroleum research organisation is in Rueil; the city has become home to many large companies moving out of La Défense business district, located only 5 km from Rueil, a trend first established by the move of Esso headquarters to Rueil.
There are about 850 service sector companies located in Rueil, 70 of which employ more than 100 people. A business district called Rueil-sur-Seine was created near the RER A Rueil-Malmaison station to accommodate these companies; the business district is equipped with a fiber-optic network. Several major French companies have their world headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as Schneider Electric and VINCI. Schneider had its head office in Rueil-Malmaison since 2000. Several large international companies have located their French headquarters in Rueil-Malmaison, such as ExxonMobil, AstraZeneca, American Express and Unilever. Rueil-Malmaison is served by Rueil-Malmaison station on Paris RER line A. Public schools: 15 preschools 15 elementary schools Six junior high schools: Les Bons-Raisins, Henri-Dunant, La Malmaison, Les Martinets, Marcel-Pagnol, Jules-Verne Two senior high schools: Lycée Richelieu, Lycée polyvalent Gustave-EiffelPrivate schools: Collège et lycée Passy-Buzenval Collège et lycée Madeleine-Daniélou Collège Notre-Dame École maternelle et élémentaire Saint-Charles-Notre Dame Ecole maternelle élémentaire Charles-Peguy Ecole Montessori Bilingue de Rueil-MalmaisonThere are tertiary educational institutions in the area.
Jean-Marie Le Pen and his wife, Jany Le Pen, live in a two-story house on the rue Hortense. Rueil-Malmaison is twinned with: ^1 Sister City Communes of the Hauts-de-Seine department List of works by Eugène Guillaume INSEE Rueil-Malmaison Official website official Tourist Board of Rueil Malmaison
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Cergy is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 27.8 km from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Cergy-Pontoise, created in the 1960s, of which it is the central and most populated commune. Although neighboring Pontoise is the official préfecture of the Val-d'Oise département, the préfecture building and administration, as well as the department council, are located inside the commune of Cergy, regarded as the de facto capital of Val-d'Oise; the sous-préfecture building and administration, on the other hand, are located inside the commune of Pontoise. The name Cergy comes from Medieval Latin Sergiacum, meaning "estate of Sergius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. Cergy is the chief town of two cantons: Cergy-1 and Cergy-2. Columbia, United States. Erkrath, Germany. Liaoyang, People's Republic of China. Porto Novo, Benin. Tres Cantos, Spain West Lancashire, United Kingdom. Cergy is informally twinned with a village in Palestine and a village in Senegal; when Cergy was selected to become the center of a "new town", it was only a village.
The commune had only 2,895 inhabitants in 1968. It started to develop quickly, exceeding 10,000 inhabitants in the mid-1970s and 20,000 in the early-1980s, it is in this decade that its growth was most spectacular, since the city exceeded 48,000 inhabitants in 1990. The increase continued since, but at a notably slower pace. However, on 1 January 2000, the commune lost a portion of its territory to the adjacent commune of Courdimanche; the official census figures have thus been revised downward from the 1999 official 54,781 to 54,719, the land area from 11.68 km2 to 11.65 km². Port Cergy is a marina on the River Oise at pk 9; the site comprises recreational yachts as well as a boating school. The marina can hold 103 ships ranging 5 to 22m long and; the northern part of the site is reserved for restaurants and shops and have been built around a small bain. Ham is a small village to the south of Cergy; the village used to be part of the Sergentery and commune of Neuville-sur-Oise but has since been amalgamated in the commune of Cergy.
On its territory is the outdoor leisure centre'Base de Loisirs de Cergy-Neuville'. Cergy is served by three stations on Paris RER line A and on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line: Cergy – Préfecture, Cergy – Saint-Christophe, Cergy – Le Haut. Cergy is served by direct buses from Charles de Gaulle Airport; the bus company STIVO provides 17 lines of buses to travel within the agglomeration of Cergy. Secondary schools: Junior high schools: Gérard Philipe, La Justice, Les Explorateurs, Les Touleuses, Moulin à Vent Senior high schools/sixth-form colleges: Lycée polyvalent Galilée and Lycée polyvalent Jules VerneLycée Alfred Kastler de Cergy-Pontoise is in neighboring Pontoise. Tertiary education: Cergy-Pontoise University ESSEC Business School ENSEA École Nationale Supérieure de l'Électronique et de ses Applications ITIN, IT-Institute EISTI, École internationale des sciences du traitement de l'information Web site of Professional Bachelor’s degree in International Trade and International Tourism Known as being a violent city in the past, with a criminal rate of 137.62 incidents per 1000 inhabitants, Cergy-Pontoise has experienced a significant decrease of violence in the past years.
Reaching, in the year of 2008, a rate of 9,87 criminal incidents per 1000 inhabitants, still a high criminal rate. The town was used as a filming location for Henri Verneuil's film I... comme Icare released in 1979, starring Yves Montand. The EDF-GDF tower designed by architect Renzo Moro is the building from which the shots were fired to assassinate president Marc Jarry; the country that the movie depicts is not named, although the United States is suggested. The filmmakers chose the modern and innovative architecture of the new city to avoid depicting any particular country. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department Official website Mérimée database – Cultural heritage Port Cergy
Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.3 km from the center of Paris. Argenteuil is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department, the seat of the arrondissement of Argenteuil. Argenteuil is the second most populous commune in the suburbs of Paris and the most populous one in the Val-d'Oise department, although it is not its prefecture, shared between the communes of Cergy and Pontoise. Argenteuil shares borders with communes in 3 departements others than Val d'Oise: the Yvelines, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis departements; the name Argenteuil is recorded for the first time in a royal charter of 697 as Argentoialum, from a Latin/Gaulish root argento meaning "silver", "silvery", "shiny" in reference to the gleaming surface of the river Seine, on the banks of which Argenteuil is located, from a Celtic suffix -ialo meaning "clearing, glade" or "place of". Argenteuil was founded as a convent in the 7th century; the monastery that arose from the convent was destroyed during the French Revolution.
A rural escape for Parisians, it is now a suburb of Paris. Painters made Argenteuil famous, including Claude Monet, Jean-Étienne Delacroix, Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Alfred Sisley and Georges Braque. Fabien Ateba, basketball player Franck Beria, footballer Georges Braque, 3 May 1882, Co-founder of cubism and sculptor Ingrid Chauvin, French actress Chevalier d'Argenteuil, French soldier; the French transport system is straightforward to navigate, so Argenteuil is an ideal city where there is an extensive public transport system with stations in Argenteuil and Val d'Argenteuil, where the train stops at Transilien Paris. Saint-Lazare. Since redeveloped by STIF and SNCF, Argenteuil has been equipped with a new Paris-Saint-Lazare-Ermont-Eaubonne line; the new line was launched in 2006, adding the Paris-Saint Lazare / Cormeilles-en-Parisis - Pontoise / Mantes-la-Jolie service to Paris for about ten minutes. By Bus*:361 Gare d'Argenteuil à Gare de Pierrefitte - Stains RER; the commune has: 30 public preschools and one private elementary school with a preschool 26 public and 2 private elementary schools 11 junior high schools - 10 public and 1 private 6 senior high schools/sixth-form colleges:Lycée Georges Braque Lycée Cognacq-Jay Lycée Julie-Victoire Daubié Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée Fernand et Nadia Léger Ecole nationale des professions de l'automobile Paris 13 University serves as the area university.
The Conservatoire à rayonnement départemental de Musique, Danse et Théâtre is located in Argenteuil. André Bon is one of its former students. By Claude Monet:Autumn at Argenteuil, Regatta at Argenteuil, Red Boats, The Bridge at Argenteuil, The Port at Argenteuil, The Seine at Argenteuil, View of Argenteuil-Snow, Bords de la Seine a Argenteuil, Snow at Argenteuil. By other painters:Argenteuil and Seine near Argenteuil by Édouard Manet, Regatta at Argenteuil by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bridge in Argenteuil by Gustave Caillebotte. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Official facebook
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona