A14 road (England)
The A14 is a trunk road in England, running 127 miles from the Port of Felixstowe, Suffolk to its western end at the Catthorpe Interchange. The road forms part of the unsigned Euroroutes E24 and E30. From the Port of Felixstowe the road heads west, bypassing Ipswich to the south via the Orwell Bridge and to Stowmarket, Bury St Edmunds and Cambridge where it meets the M11 past St Ives and the junction with the A1, from there through Kettering, ending at junction 19 of the M1 and the start of the M6; the road is a dual carriageway, most with two lanes each way, but there are two dual three-lane sections: on the Newmarket bypass where it runs concurrent with the A11, a short stretch between the Girton Interchange and Bar Hill. There are three at-grade junctions: with the B663 at Bythorn in Cambridgeshire; the current A14 includes parts of the former A45 between Felixstowe and Cambridge, the A604 between Cambridge and Kettering, a short stretch of the former A6 west of Kettering, plus a new link road, constructed in the early 1990s between there and the M1/M6 interchange at Catthorpe, Leicestershire.
Prior to the current A14, the main route from Birmingham to the Haven ports followed the M6, M1, the A428 and A45 road via Coventry, Northampton, Bedford, St Neots and through all the towns on the A14 to Felixstowe. Prior to its use for the current route the A14 designation had been used for a section of road between the A10 at Royston and the A1 at Alconbury following part of the route of Ermine Street which now, in most parts, is designated the A1198; the M45 motorway was constructed in 1959 parallel to part of the old A45 in the Midlands. It was soon one of the busiest sections of motorway; the M6 opened in the late 1960s and early 1970s, after which more traffic to the ports used the route from junction 1 of the M6 via the A427 to Market Harborough followed by a short section of the A6 to Kettering and the A604 to Cambridge before joining the old A45 to the ports as above. The M45 now carries little traffic; the sections from Huntingdon east to the ports were upgraded first, starting with the Huntingdon bypass in 1973, followed by the Girton to Bar Hill section in 1975/76 and the Cambridge northern bypass and Cambridge/Newmarket section in 1976/77.
The Bar Hill to Huntington section opened in 1979 prior to the M11, opened in 1980. The Ipswich southern bypass including the Orwell Bridge opened in 1982; the M1-A1 link road was constructed between 1989 and 1991 following a lengthy period of consultation. The first inquiry was in 1974 and a series of inquiries for sections of the preferred route from September 1984 until June 1985, during which objections came from some 1,130 sources. Subsequent public inquiries were held regarding Supplementary Orders; the route close to the site of the Battle of Naseby was difficult and was taken to the High Court. The link was opened by John MacGregor, Transport Secretary on 15 July 1994. Work to create a compact grade-separated junction and to re-align a 2-mile stretch of carriageway was completed in 2006. Vehicles over 7.5 tonnes traveling east were banned from using the outside lane on a dual 2-lane section on a 2-mile steep climb to Welford summit close to Junction 1 from spring 2007. The bans are active between 6am and 8pm and are intended to reduce delays to other traffic from lorries attempting to pass on these climbs.
Between 2007 and 2008 a new section of two-lane dual carriageway was constructed at the Haughley Bends, one of Suffolk's most notorious accident blackspots, to rationalise access using a new grade-separated junction. The road opened in the summer of 2008 with some associated local works being completed early in 2009. Variable Message Signs, traffic queue detection loops and closed circuit TV were installed at a cost of 58m euros during 2009 to 2010 Both carriageways between Junction 52 and Junction 55 were refurbished during 2010 at a cost of £9 million. Work was being carried out a year earlier than scheduled as part of a UK government’s fiscal stimulus package; the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway connecting Cambridge, Huntingdon and St Ives, which opened in 2011 was intended to remove 5.6% of traffic using that section of the A14, although as other traffic re-routes to the freed-up road space from other parts of the local road network, the net reduction is predicted to be 2.3%. The Felixstowe and Nuneaton freight capacity scheme, designed to take more lorry traffic off the A14 between the Port and the Midlands by increasing rail capacity and allowing the carriage of larger'Hi-cube' shipping containers by widening to the W10 loading gauge, opened in 2011.
Junction 55 to the south of Ipswich was signalisation in 2011, along with lengthening the off-slip from the A1214. The section around Kettering between Junctions 7 and 9 was widened to three lanes between November 2013 and April 2015 at a cost of £42m. After being shelved in 2010, th
Thomas Wale was a Cambridgeshire gentleman born at Risby, Suffolk on 7 September 1701 and died in 1796. He is notable for having left a significant quantity of documents collated throughout his life which constituted the book My Grandfather's Pocket Book, his documents provide a unique insight into 18th-century English life. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography refers to him as "an eighteenth-century squire", he was the son of Margaret Sparke of Gregory Wale. His personal papers were sealed in a cupboard in his house and only discovered a century when the property was destroyed; these papers form the basis of the book "My Grandfather's Pocket Book", published by his Grandson. He grew up and was educated at Raslingworth and London, he became an apprentice to Mr William Allen at Lynn for six years, starting in about 1718. Thomas Wale was a merchant in Narva over a period of thirty years, he described his occupation as "trafic and merchantdise". Part of his business involved the trade of ships' masts.
This family business had been commenced in the 17th century. It passed under a number of different names during the 18th century, according to his current partners. Most notably it was known as Wale, Fraser & Company, Wale and company and Wale, Peirson & Ouchterlony, he pursued farming in Cambridgeshire. In 1653 Robert Wale's wife was joyntured for life out of Harston Hall and her son Robert started the merchants business at Riga with £500 obtained by mortgage on this property; the Hall had been purchased by an earlier Thomas Wale in 1613. Thomas Wale first visited Riga in 1724 aboard the Larke and traded there until 1730, he described his early business there as "chiefly in the factorage and commission way: For his said patron Mr Allen and his own friends". He married Louisa Rudolphina Rahten at Mittau, Poland on 17 March 1749, they married again in Riga in 1760 "to convince the world of their connubil rights". She was the daughter of Hoff Prediger the Reverend Nicolaus Friedrich Rahten of Lunenburg, Brunswick.
Thomas Wale had eight children. His sons included General Sir Charles Wale who became Colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot on 25 February 1831. Charles Wale was the last British governor of Martinique between about 1812 and 1815, he was responsible for capturing Guadeloupe from the French and was given the governorship in recognition of this. Wale's sister Margaret Wale lived at Harston in Harston Hall, she married Allen Hurrell at Little Shelford on 12 January 1719 and their daughter Margaret Hurrell married John Bridge an "eminent counsellor at law" at Lackford, near Risby, Suffolk near Bury St Edmunds in 1752 (In "My Grandfather's pocket book" this marriage is given as follows: "married Mr. Budge at Lackford, Aug.12th, 1758. John Littel Bridge's brother Thomas was in business in Riga, associated with Thomas Wale. Margaret Bridge's son was Thomas Bridge of Shudy Camps. Thomas Bridge's daughter Henrietta Bridge married William Long and their daughter was Henrietta Langhorne. All of the above were notable landowners in Harston John Littel Bridge was the son of Robert Bridge of Shudy Camps and Sarah daughter of Thomas Littel of Halstead Co, EssexThomas Wale left an early description of how foreigners became naturalised in England.
He left papers containing to all details of his life and times, including recipes, descriptions of his journeys and family, copies of contemporary documents. As well as accounts of his travels within England, Thomas Wale left details about his voyages to Russia and Scotland. Reverend Henry John Wale M. A.. My Grandfather's Pocket Book. From A. D. 1701 to 1796. London: Chapman and Hall
East of England
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999, it includes the ceremonial counties of Bedfordshire, Essex, Hertfordshire and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region, its population at the 2011 census was 5,847,000. Bedford, Basildon, Southend-on-Sea, Ipswich, Colchester and Cambridge are the region's most populous towns; the southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt. The region has the lowest elevation range in the UK. North Cambridgeshire and the Essex Coast have most of the around 5% of the region, below 10 metres above sea level; the Fens are in North Cambridgeshire, notable for the lowest point in the country in the land of the village of Holme 2.75 metres below mean sea level, once Whittlesey Mere. The highest point is at Clipper Down at 817 ft, in the far south-western corner of the region in the Ivinghoe Hills. Basildon and Harlow, with Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead, were main New Towns in the 1950s and 1960s, with much industry located there.
In the late 1960s, the Roskill Commission considered Thurleigh in Bedfordshire, Nuthampstead in Hertfordshire and Foulness in Essex as a possible third airport for London. The East of England succeeded the standard statistical region East Anglia; the East of England civil defence region was identical to today's region. England between the Wash and just south of the town of Colchester has since post-Roman times been and continues to be known as East Anglia, including the county traversing the west of this line, Cambridgeshire; the inclusion of Essex as part of East Anglia is open to debate, notably because it was a Saxon kingdom, separate from the kingdom of the East Angles. Essex, despite meaning East-Saxons formed part of the South East England, as did Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, a mixture of definite and debatable Home Counties; the earliest use of the term is from 1695. Charles Davenant, in An essay upon ways and means of supplying the war, wrote, "The Eleven Home Counties, which are thought in Land Taxes to pay more than their proportion..." cited a list including these four.
The term does not appear to have been used in taxation since the 18th century. East Anglia is one of the driest parts of the United Kingdom with average rainfall ranging from 450 mm to 750 mm; this is because low pressure systems and weather fronts from the Atlantic have lost a lot of their moisture over land by the time they reach Eastern England. However the Fens in Cambridgeshire are prone to flooding. Winter is cool but non-prevailing cold easterly winds can affect the area from the continent, these can bring heavy snowfall if the winds interact with a low pressure system over the Atlantic or France. Northerly winds can be cold but are not as cold as easterly winds. Westerly winds bring milder and wetter weather. Southerly winds bring mild air but chill if coming from further east than Spain. Spring is a transitional season that can be chilly to start with but is warm by late-April/May; the weather at this time is changeable and showery. Summer is warm and continental air from mainland Europe or the Azores High leads to at least a few weeks of hot, balmy weather with prolonged warm to hot weather.
The number of summer storms from the Atlantic, such as the remnants of a tropical storm coincides with the location of the jet stream. The East tends to receive much less of their rain than the other regions. Autumn is mild with some days being unsettled and rainy and others warm. At least part of September and early October in the East have warm and settled weather but only in rare years is there an Indian summer where fine weather marks the entire traditional harvest season; the most deprived districts, according to the Indices of deprivation 2007 in the region are, in descending order, Great Yarmouth, Luton and Ipswich. At county level, after Luton and Peterborough, which have a similar level of deprivation, in descending order there is Southend-on-Sea Thurrock; the least deprived districts, in descending order, are South Cambridgeshire, Mid Bedfordshire, East Hertfordshire, St Albans, Rochford, Huntingdonshire, Mid Suffolk, North Hertfordshire, Three Rivers, South Norfolk, East Cambridgeshire and Suffolk Coastal.
At county level, the least deprived areas in the region, in descending order, are Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire, with all three having a similar level of deprivation Essex. The region has the lowest proportion of jobless households in the UK – 0.5%. In March 2011 the region's unemployment claimant count was 3.0%. Inside the region, the highest rate is Great Yarmouth with 6.2%, followed by Peterborough and Southend-on-Sea on 4.7%. In the 2015 general election, there was an overall swing of 0.25% from the Conservatives to Labour, the Liberal Democrats lost 16% of its vote. All of Hertfordshire and Suffolk is now Conservative; the region's electorate voted 49% Conservative, 22% Labour, 16% UKIP, 8% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Like other regions, the division of seats favours th
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time
Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds referred to locally as Bury, is a historic market town and civil parish in Suffolk, England. Bury St Edmunds Abbey is near the town centre. Bury is the seat of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich of the Church of England, with the episcopal see at St Edmundsbury Cathedral; the town called Beodericsworth, was built on a grid pattern by Abbot Baldwin around 1080. It is known for brewing and malting and for a British Sugar processing factory, where Silver Spoon sugar is produced; the town is the cultural and retail centre for West Suffolk and tourism is a major part of the economy. The name Bury is etymologically connected with borough, which has cognates in other Germanic languages such as the German burg meaning "fortress, castle", they all derive from Proto-Germanic *burgs meaning "fortress". This in turn derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhrgh meaning "fortified elevation", with cognates including Welsh bera and Sanskrit bhrant-; the second section of the name refers to Edmund King of the East Angles, killed by the Vikings in the year 869.
He became venerated as a saint and a martyr, his shrine made Bury St Edmunds an important place of pilgrimage. The formal name of both the borough and the diocese is "St Edmundsbury", the town is colloquially known as Bury. An archaeological study in the 2010s on the outskirts of Bury St Edmunds uncovered evidence of bronze age activity in the area; the dig uncovered Roman coins from the first and second centuries. Samuel Lewis, writing in 1848, notes the earlier discovery of Roman antiquities, as with several other writers connects Bury St Edmunds with Villa Faustini or Villa Faustina, although the location of this Roman site is discussed by E. Gillingwater who notes the lack of evidence for it being here; the town was one of the royal boroughs of the Saxons. Sigebert, king of the East Angles, founded a monastery here about 633, which in 903 became the burial place of King Edmund, slain by the Danes in 869, owed most of its early celebrity to the reputed miracles performed at the shrine of the martyr king.
The town grew around a site of pilgrimage. By 925 the fame of St Edmund had spread far and wide, the name of the town was changed to St Edmund's Bury. In 942 or 945 King Edmund had granted to the abbot and convent jurisdiction over the whole town, free from all secular services, Canute in 1020 freed it from episcopal control. Edward the Confessor made the abbot lord of the franchise. Sweyn, in 1020, having destroyed the older monastery and ejected the secular priests, built a Benedictine abbey on St Edmund's Bury. Count Alan Rufus is said to have been interred at Bury St Edmunds Abbey in 1093. In the 12th and 13th centuries the head of the de Hastings family, who held the Lordship of the Manor of Ashill in Norfolk, was hereditary Steward of this abbey. On 18 March 1190, two days after the more well-known massacre of Jews at Clifford Tower in York, the people of Bury St Edmunds massacred 57 Jews; that year, Abbot Samson petitioned King Richard I for permission to evict the town's remaining Jewish inhabitants "on the grounds that everything in the town... belonged by right to St Edmund: therefore, either the Jews should be St Edmund’s men or they should be banished from the town."
This expulsion predates the Edict of Expulsion by 100 years. In 1198, a fire burned the shrine of St Edmund, leading to the inspection of his corpse by Abbot Samson and the translation of St Edmund's body to a new location in the abbey; the town is associated with Magna Carta. In 1214 the barons of England are believed to have met in the Abbey Church and sworn to force King John to accept the Charter of Liberties, the document which influenced the creation of the Magna Carta, a copy of, displayed in the town's cathedral during the 2014 celebrations. By various grants from the abbots, the town attained the rank of a borough. Henry III in 1235 granted to the abbot two annual fairs, one in December and the other the great St Matthew's fair, abolished by the Fairs Act of 1871. In 1327, the Great Riot occurred; the burghers were angry at the overwhelming power and corruption of the monastery, which ran every aspect of local life with a view to enriching itself. The riot destroyed a new, fortified gate was built in its stead.
However, in 1381 during the Great Uprising, the Abbey was looted again. This time, the Prior was executed. On 11 April 1608 a great fire broke out in Eastgate Street, which resulted in 160 dwellings and 400 outhouses being destroyed; the town developed into a flourishing cloth-making town, with a large woollen trade, by the 14th century. In 1405 Henry IV granted another fair. Elizabeth I in 1562 confirmed the charters; the reversion of the fairs and two markets on Wednesday and Saturday were granted by James I in fee farm to the corporation. James I in 1606 granted a charter of incorporation with an annual fair in a market. James granted further charters in 1608 and 1614, as did Charles II in 1668 and 1684. Parliaments were held in the borough in 1272, 1296 and 1446, but the borough was not represented until 1608, when James I conferred on it the privilege of sending two members; the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 reduced the representation to one. The borough of Bury St Edmunds and the surrounding area, like much of East Anglia, being part of the Eas
The Icknield Way is an ancient trackway in southern and eastern England that goes from Norfolk to Wiltshire. It follows the chalk escarpment that includes the Berkshire Chiltern Hills, it is said to be, within Great Britain, one of the oldest roads of which the route can still be traced, being one of the few long-distance trackways to have existed before the Romans occupied the country. However, this has been disputed, the evidence for its being a prehistoric route has been questioned; the name is Celto-British in derivation, may be named after the Iceni tribe. They may have established this route to permit trade with other parts of the country from their base in East Anglia, it has been suggested that the road has older prehistoric origins. The name is said to have been used for the part to the west and south but now refers to the track or traces north of the Thames. From ancient times, at least as early as the Iron Age period and through Anglo-Saxon times, it stretched from Berkshire through Oxfordshire and crossed the River Thames at Cholsey, near Wallingford.
The earliest mentions of the Icknield Way are in Anglo-Saxon charters from the year 903 onwards. The oldest surviving copies were made in the 12th and 13th centuries, these use the spellings Icenhilde weg, Icenilde weg, Ycenilde weg and Icenhilde weg; the charters refer to locations at Wanborough, Hardwell in Uffington, Harwell and Risborough, which span a distance of 40 miles from Wiltshire to Buckinghamshire. The Icknield Way was one of four highways. Henry of Huntingdon wrote that the Ermine Street, Fosse Way, Watling Street and Icknield Way had been constructed by royal authority; the Leges Edwardi Confessoris gave royal protection to travellers on these roads, the Icknield Way was said to extend across the width of the kingdom. Geoffrey of Monmouth elaborated the story by saying that Belinus had improved the four roads so that it was clear that they were the protected highways. Around 1250, the Four Highways were shown by Matthew Paris on a diagramatic map of Britain called Scema Britannie.
The Icknield Way is depicted by a straight line from Salisbury to Bury St Edmunds which intersects the other three roads near Dunstable. In the 14th century, Ranulf Higdon described a different route for the Icknield Way: from Winchester to Tynemouth by way of Birmingham, Derby and York; this route includes the Roman road running from Bourton-on-the-Water to Templeborough near Rotherham, now called Icknield Street to distinguish it from the Icknield Way. In many places the track consists or consisted of several routes as it passes along the line of the escarpment of the Chilterns because of the seasonal usage, the amount of traffic of herds or flocks of livestock. To the west the track can be detected below the escarpments of the Berkshire Downs. Near Wantage, the route along the ridge of the Downs is known as The Ridgeway, the name Icknield Way is applied to a parallel lowland route above the spring-line at the northern edge of the chalk. Between Lewknor and Ivinghoe there are two parallel courses known as the Lower Icknield Way and the Upper Icknield Way.
In Cambridgeshire, Street Way, Ditch Way and others have been put forward as variant routes for use in summer or winter. Many modern roads follow the Icknield Way, for example the B489 from Aston Clinton to Dunstable and the A505 from Baldock to Royston. In some places from the east of Luton in Bedfordshire to Ickleford near Hitchin in Hertfordshire, the route is followed by minor roads, is not distinguishable at all in many places, except by landscape features such as barrows and mounds which line the route, indentation from ancient and frequent use, it could be described as a belt studded with archaeological sites found at irregular intervals. The Icknield Way used to form part of the boundary between Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire, at one time Royston was cut in two by this boundary. Royston is. In the south-west some writers take the Way to Exeter, while others only take it as far as Salisbury. To the north-east, Icklingham and Caistor-by-Norwich and Hunstanton, Norfolk have all been proposed as the destination.
In support of the western route, a road at Dersingham near Hunstanton was named Ykenildestrethe and Ikelynge Street in the 13th century. Modern long-distance footpaths have been created from Lyme Regis on the Dorset coast to Holme-next-the-Sea on the Norfolk coast, following the general line of the Icknield Way; the Hobhouse Committee report of 1947 suggested the creation of a path between Seaton Bay and the Chiltern ridge, in 1956 Tom Stephenson proposed a longer route to Cambridge. A route through Norfolk was discussed in the 1960s; the first section to be designated as a Long-Distance Footpath was that from Overton Hill to Ivinghoe Beacon, it was declared open as the Ridgeway in 1973. The Peddars Way, from Knettishall Heath to Holme-next-the-Sea, forms part of the Peddars Way and Norfolk Coast Path National Trail, opened as a Long Distance Route in 1986. Between the Ridgeway and Peddars Way, parts of the original line of the Icknield Way had been covered in tarmac or built over, so a route was devised that avoids walking on roads.
In 1992 this was designated by the Countryside Commission as a Regional Route called the Icknield Way Path. The Wessex Ridgeway from Lyme Regis to Marlborough was declared open by Dorse
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate