The Outsiders is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. As its name suggests, the team consists of metahuman superheroes who do not fit the norms of the "mainstream" superhero community; the Outsiders has had a number of different incarnations. They were founded by Batman, whose ties to the League had become strained, introduced the classic line-up of Batman, Black Lightning, Geo-Force, Katana and Looker. A incarnation of the Outsiders from early 2000s comics was led by Nightwing and Arsenal following the dissolution of the Teen Titans superhero group, depicted the team as a pro-active group hunting for super-criminals. For the team's third incarnation, Batman reforms the team as a special strike team featuring classic members Katana and Metamorpho alongside new recruits such as Catwoman and Black Lightning's daughter Thunder. After the Batman R. I. P. Storyline, Alfred Pennyworth acts on Batman's instructions to reassemble the team once more, recruiting new members and more of the team's original lineup.
Another version of the team with a familiar lineup featured in Batman Incorporated in 2011 as the black ops section of Batman's organisation. Following DC's 2011 reboot, a new version of the Outsiders is introduced in the pages of Green Arrow as a secret society represented by seven weapon-themed clans. Members in this incarnation include Katana and several new characters; the original Outsiders are returned to continuity in 2017, following DC Rebirth, once again as a secret team founded by Batman. The Outsiders first appeared in a special insert in the final issue of The Brave and the Bold in 1983; the team was given its own comic and the Outsiders, which debuted in August 1983. It was created and written by Mike W. Barr and illustrated by Jim Aparo. After Batman left the group in issue #32 the title was changed to Adventures of the Outsiders, continuing until its cancellation after issue #46. Issue #38 featured the last original story in the series, as issues #39-46 were reprints of stories from companion series The Outsiders.
The cast of the Outsiders was notable for having new characters. The other members were two characters who refused membership in the Justice League and former Leaguer Batman; the Outsiders formed in the fictional East European country of Markovia, ravaged by war at the time. Batman had attempted to enlist the Justice League's aid, but was told they had been ordered to stay out of the conflict; because he disagreed with the order, Batman resigned to strike out on his own. He and Black Lightning traveled to Markovia to free captive Lucius Fox from Baron Bedlam. One of the king's sons became Geo-Force after gaining powers from Markovia's top scientist to stop Bedlam. Metamorpho was searching for Dr. Jace for the doctor to help him with his powers. Katana arrived in Markovia to kill General Karnz as vengeance for her family's death. Batman found a young, amnesiac girl in the woods exhibiting light-based powers whom he names Halo, an Aurakle that possessed the body of Violet Harper after she was killed by Syonide.
These heroes banded together to defeat Baron Bedlam and decided to stay together as a team fighting such villains as Agent Orange, the Fearsome Five and the Cryonic Man. Recurring foes include the Masters of Disaster, who at one point were able to kill Black Lightning. Windfall became disenchanted with her team and joined the Outsiders. Another recurring opponent was the Force of July, a group of patriotic metahumans who regularly came into contact with the Suicide Squad. During this time, Geo-Force's half-sister Terra died as a traitor against the Teen Titans. Batman revealed his real identity as Bruce Wayne to the team. Halo's origins were revealed. Emily Briggs was introduced. Denise Howard appeared for the second time. Baron Bedlam returned to life. With the assistance of the Bad Samaritan, the Masters of Disaster and Soviet forces, he again tried to seize control of Markovia. Batman withheld this information; this led to Batman disbanding the team and returning to the Justice League. The team traveled to Markovia, discovering many Markovian military casualties.
They were defeated by the Masters, learn that Bedlam cloned Adolf Hitler. The Outsiders became unofficial agents of Markovia to receive Markovian funding, they moved to Los Angeles. This series again featured the original group, was printed in the Baxter paper format used on such titles as The New Teen Titans and the Legion of Super-Heroes, it lasted in addition to annual and special issues. The series ran alongside the Adventures of the Outsiders title, chronicling events a year after that series. In the end, the first few issues of this series were reprinted in Adventures of the Outsiders before that title was canceled; the team has moved into a new headquarters in Los Angeles, once again becomes involved in an adventure with the Force of July. Villains such as the Duke of Oil and the Soviet super-team the People's Heroes are introduced
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Super Friends is an American animated television series about a team of superheroes, which ran from 1973 to 1986 on ABC as part of its Saturday-morning cartoon lineup. It was produced by Hanna-Barbera and was based on the Justice League of America and associated comic book characters published by DC Comics; the name of the program has been variously represented at different points in its broadcast history. There were a total of 109 episodes and two backdoor-pilot episodes of The New Scooby-Doo Movies, with Batman and Robin appearing in "The Dynamic Scooby-Doo Affair" and "The Caped Crusader Caper". Over the years, the show existed under several titles: Super Friends The All-New Super Friends Hour Challenge of the Super Friends The World's Greatest Super Friends Super Friends Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians Plot lines for the series involved many of the familiar DC Comics super-villains that the first incarnation of the Super Friends did not.
Instead, like the comic books, they focused on the far-fetched schemes of mad scientists and aliens, who were invariably revealed as being well-intentioned, pursuing their goals through unlawful or disreputable means. At the end of each story, a peaceful and reasonable discussion would be performed by the heroes to convince the antagonists to adopt more reasonable methods; the All-New Super Friends Hour departed somewhat from the previous series' formula by featuring villains using more elaborate methods to further their goals. Beginning with Challenge of the Super Friends, several of the heroes' arch-villains from the comic books began to feature prominently in comic-style stories. Throughout the series, plots wrapped themselves up neatly in the final minutes of an episode in the fashion of the typical comic books and deus ex machina; when animation company Hanna-Barbera acquired rights to the DC Comics characters and adapted the Justice League of America comic book for television it made several changes in the transition, including the change of name to Super Friends.
Team members sometimes referred to themselves as the Justice League on the show. The violence common in superhero comics was toned down for a younger audience and to adhere to broadcast standards governing violence in 1970s children's television; as a DC Comics-based show, the Super Friends franchise was owned by DC's parent company Warner Bros. who put the series into syndication. Thus, Cartoon Network, which had the rights to air most of the rest of the Hanna-Barbera library from its inception in 1992, was not able to air Super Friends until after the merger of Warner Bros. parent company Time Warner and Cartoon Network parent company Turner Broadcasting System was completed in 1996. This merger led to Warner Bros. taking control of Hanna-Barbera and all of its other assets as well. The series was owned by DC Comics Entertainment, Warner Bros.. Family Entertainment and Warner Bros. Animation. Super Friends first aired on ABC on September 8, 1973, featuring well-known DC characters Superman and Robin, Wonder Woman, Aquaman.
Superman and Robin, Aquaman had each appeared in their own animated series produced by Filmation, voice talent from these prior programs was brought in to work on the new show. Shortly before the Super Friends series was developed and Wonder Woman guest-starred in two episodes of The Brady Kids, while Batman and Robin appeared in two episodes of The New Scooby-Doo Movies. In addition to the superheroes, a trio of sidekicks was introduced, each of whom were new characters not drawn from the comic books: Wendy and Marvin and Wonder Dog, none of whom had any special abilities; the trio -- or at least its human members -- were superheroes-in-training. Each episode began with the heroes responding to an emergency detected by the massive TroubAlert computer in the Hall of Justice, which served as the headquarters of the team. Colonel Wilcox, a U. S. Army official, was a recurring character who would act as a government liaison with the Super Friends during emergencies. Colonel Wilcox was voiced by John Stephenson.
Conflicts were resolved with the antagonists persuaded to adapt more reasonable methods to achieve their aims. Natural disasters triggered by human activity were shown, environmental themes featured in the program. Three other DC Comics superheroes were featured as guest stars during this season: the Flash, Plastic Man, Green Arrow; this first run of Super Friends, consisting of 16 one-hour episodes which were rerun several times, concluded on August 24, 1974. At this point, the series was cancelled. However, interest in superheroes among ABC's prime-time viewers caused the network to revive Super Friends; the original 16 episodes of the series were rebroadcast as a mid-season replacement, running from Feb
Flashpoint is a 2011 comic book crossover story arc published by DC Comics. Consisting of an eponymous core limited series and a number of tie-in titles, the storyline premiered in May 2011; the core miniseries was pencilled by Andy Kubert. In its end, the series radically changes the status quo for the DC Universe leading into the publisher's 2011 relaunch, the New 52. Flashpoint details an altered DC Universe in which only Barry Allen seems to be aware of significant differences between the regular timeline and the altered one, including Cyborg's place as the world's quintessential hero much like how Superman is in the main timeline, with Superman himself being held captive as a lab-rat by the United States government within an underground facility in Metropolis. In addition, Thomas Wayne is Batman, a war between Wonder Woman and Aquaman has decimated western Europe. Consisting of a 61 issue run, the series crossed over with Booster Gold, sixteen separate three-issue miniseries, a number of one-shots beginning in June 2011.
DC announced. The storyline is loosely adapted in the film Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox as well as in the third season of the CW network television series The Flash. At the 2017 San Diego Comic-Con, it was announced that Flashpoint will be adapted into a feature film as part of the DC Extended Universe. Barry Allen wakes up to discover everything and everyone around him has changed, he is not Flash, nor does he have powers. His mother Nora is alive. Captain Cold is Central City's greatest hero, the Justice League was never established, Superman is nonexistent. In Gotham City, Batman throws a criminal off a building. Cyborg and Batman have a conference with a group of superheroes to discuss how Wonder Woman's Amazons have conquered the British Isles, while Aquaman's Atlanteans have sunk the rest of Western Europe, the battle between the two has caused massive death and destruction. America is endangered; the heroes cannot cooperate to find a solution, the meeting is ended. Barry Allen drives to the Batcave.
Batman is revealed to be Thomas Wayne—in this timeline his son, was killed by the robber instead of his wife and him, with Thomas having killed the robber just after that murder took place, Martha went insane and became The Joker in this timeline. In the flooded remains of Paris, Deathstroke captains a pirate ship in search of his daughter. Emperor Aquaman stabs Deathstroke in the chest and attacks Deathstroke's crew. Sonar is able to heal him. At Wayne Manor, Barry tries to explain to Thomas about his secret identity as the Flash and his relationship to Bruce Wayne. Barry's memory begins to spontaneously realign itself to the altered timeline and Barry realizes that the world of Flashpoint is not a parallel dimension, but an alternate reality. Barry's ring ejects Eobard Thawne's Reverse-Flash costume and causes Barry to believe that his enemy is responsible for changing history. Barry decides to recreate the accident that gave him his powers in a bid to undo the damage caused by Thawne, but his initial attempt fails and leaves him badly burned.
In London, Steve Trevor is waiting at a rendezvous for Lois Lane but is attacked by Wonder Woman and the Amazons. Wonder Woman begins interrogating him, he explains that he was hired to extract Lane from New Themyscira because she was sent to gather information on the Amazons for Cyborg. The U. S. president informs Cyborg that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the Resistance but was intercepted because of a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit. Cyborg is relieved of duty. Meanwhile, in New Themyscira, Lane encounters the Resistance. A second attempt at recreating Allen's accident restores his powers and health, he concludes. He learns that Kal-El was taken by Project: Superman. Flash and Cyborg join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman; the three find a pale, weakened Superman at the Project and realize that he may well have been in a containment cell since he was a child—possibly never seeing a human being before. After being rescued, Superman flies off in seeming fright in the midst of a battle with the guards, leaving the three in the sewers to be rescued by Element Woman.
Flash's memories continue to change. The president announces Cyborg's failure to unite the world's superheroes and the U. S. enters into the Atlantean-Amazon war. Flash, Batman and Element Woman break down the door in need of the Marvel Family's help and Batman asks Billy to use his lightning to prevent Flash's memories from changing further; the group hears of the failed air assault on England due to the Amazons' Invisible Plane air force. Hal Jordan, who had not become Green Lantern in this timeline, is the first casualty, a giant Atlantean-generated tidal wave threatens the rest of New Themyscira. Flash tells Batman. Despite reservations, Batman joins Flash. Enchantress joins them en route. Wonder Woman and Aquaman are fighting one-on-one until Flash and his team arrive; the Marvel Family transform into Captain Thunder transforming Tawky Tawny. Captain Thunder attacks Wonder Woman and appears to be winning until Enchantress reveals herself as the Amazon spy in t
The Martian Manhunter is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Joseph Samachson and designed by artist Joe Certa, the character first appeared in the story "The Manhunter from Mars" in Detective Comics #225. Martian Manhunter is one of the seven original members of the Justice League of America and one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe. Martian Manhunter has been featured in other DC Comics-endorsed products, such as video games, television series, animated films, merchandise like action figures and trading cards; the character was ranked #43 on IGN's greatest comic book hero list. Martian Manhunter was played by David Ogden Stiers in the 1997 Justice League of America live-action television pilot. Phil Morris portrayed him in the television series Smallville. David Harewood portrays the human guise of Martian Manhunter on Supergirl; the Martian Manhunter debuted in the back-up story "The Strange Experiment of Dr. Erdel" in Detective Comics #225, written by Joseph Samachson and illustrated by Joe Certa.
The character is a green-skinned extraterrestrial humanoid from the planet Mars, pulled to Earth by an experimental teleportation beam constructed by Dr. Saul Erdel; the Martian tells Erdel where he is from, is told that to send him back will require the computer brain's thinking plot to be changed. The shock of the encounter leaves J'onzz with no way of returning home; the character decides to fight crime while waiting for Martian technology to advance to a stage that will enable his rescue. To that end, he adopts the identity of John Jones, a detective in the fictional Middletown, U. S. A. During this period, the character and his back story differ in some minor and some significant ways from modern treatments. Firstly, as with his counterpart, the Silver Age Superman, J'onzz's power range is poorly defined, his powers expand over time as the plot demands; the addition of precognitive abilities is followed by telepathy and flight, "atomic vision", super-hearing, many other powers. In addition, his customary weakness to fire is only manifested when he is in his native Martian form.
A more significant difference is that in this version of him, there is no suggestion that Mars is a dead planet or that the character is the last of his kind. Many of the tales of the time feature either Martian technology or the appearance of other Martian characters. Detective Comics #236, for example, features the character making contact with the planet Mars and his parents. J'onzz reveals his existence to the world, after which he operates as a superhero and becomes a charter member of the Justice League. During the character's initial few years as a member of the Justice League, he is used as a substitute for Superman in stories as DC Comics were worried about using their flagship characters too in Justice League stories, fearing overexposure; the Martian and the archer inaugurated the team-up format of the Bold. J'onzz appears there one other time, working with the Flash. In some stories he is shown travelling through space to other planets; the detective John Jones is ostensibly killed in action by the Idol Head of Diabolu, an artifact which generates supernatural monsters.
J'onzz abandons the civilian identity as he decides fighting this new menace will take a great deal of his time. At this point his feature moves to House of Mystery, where J'onzz spends the next few years in battle against the Idol Head. Shortly after its defeat, he takes the persona of Marco Xavier in order to infiltrate the international crime cartel known as VULTURE, which he defeats in the final installment of his original series; as Superman was allowed by DC to become a active member of the Justice League, J'onzz's appearances there dwindled. He last participated in a mission in his original tenure in #61, shortly before his solo series was discontinued. In #71, his people came to Earth for him, he left with them to found and become leader of New Mars. Over the next 15 years, J'onzz appeared sporadically in various DC titles. In 1972, Superman was teleported to New Mars. J'onzz returned to Earth by spaceship in 1975. J'onzz made another trip to Earth shortly thereafter, leading to Superman and Batman fighting alongside him on New Mars.
Three years he was discovered playing cosmic-level chess with Despero, using JLA-ers as the pieces. The Martian again encountered Superman in outer space, he permanently resurfaced in the DC Universe in 1984. Shortly thereafter, the League had several members resign, leaving an opening for the Manhunter to take. In staying on Earth, he decided to revive his John Jones identity, this time as a private detective, but had to explain his 20-year "disappearance". In early 1987, DC revamped its struggling Justice League of America series by re-launching the title as Justice League; this new series, written by Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis with art by Kevin Maguire, added quirky humor to the team's stories. J'onzz is present from the first issue and within the stories is used as a straight man for other characters in comical situations; the series added a number of elements to his back story that have remained to the present. The 1988 four-issue miniseries Martian Manhunter by J. M. DeMatteis and Mark Badger further redefined the character and changed a number of important
Fiction broadly refers to any narrative, derived from the imagination—in other words, not based on history or fact. It can refer, more narrowly, to narratives written only in prose, is used as a synonym for the novel. In its most narrow usage fiction refers to novels, but it may denote any "literary narrative", including novels and short stories. More broadly, fiction has come to encompass imaginative storytelling in any format, including writings, theatrical performances, films, television programs, games, so on. A work of fiction implies the inventive act of constructing an imaginary world, so its audience does not expect it to be faithful to the real world in presenting only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually true. Instead, the context of fiction understood as not adhering to the real world, is more open to interpretation. Characters and events within a fictional work may be set in their own context separate from the known universe: an independent fictional universe.
Fiction's traditional opposite is non-fiction, a narrative work whose creator assumes responsibility for presenting only the historical and factual truth. The distinction between fiction and non-fiction however can be unclear in some recent artistic and literary movements, such as postmodern literature. Traditionally, fiction includes novels, short stories, legends, fairy tales and narrative poetry, plays. However, fiction may encompass comic books, many animated cartoons, stop motions, manga, video games, radio programs, television programs, etc; the Internet has had a major impact on the creation and distribution of fiction, calling into question the feasibility of copyright as a means to ensure royalties are paid to copyright holders. Digital libraries such as Project Gutenberg make public domain texts more available; the combination of inexpensive home computers, the Internet and the creativity of its users has led to new forms of fiction, such as interactive computer games or computer-generated comics.
Countless forums for fan fiction can be found online, where loyal followers of specific fictional realms create and distribute derivative stories. The Internet is used for the development of blog fiction, where a story is delivered through a blog either as flash fiction or serial blog, collaborative fiction, where a story is written sequentially by different authors, or the entire text can be revised by anyone using a wiki. Types of literary fiction in prose include: Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words; the boundary between a long short story and a novella is vague. Novella: A work of at least 7,500 words but under 50,000 words. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness is an example of a novella. Novel: A work of 50,000 words or more. Fiction is broken down into a variety of genres: subsets of fiction, each differentiated by a particular unifying tone or style, narrative technique, media content, or popularly defined criterion. Science fiction, for example, predicts or supposes technologies that are not realities at the time of the work's creation: Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon was published in 1865 and only in 1969 did astronaut Neil Armstrong first land on the moon.
Historical fiction places imaginary characters into real historical events. In the early historical novel Waverley, Sir Walter Scott's fictional character Edward Waverley meets a figure from history, Bonnie Prince Charlie, takes part in the Battle of Prestonpans; some works of fiction are or re-imagined based on some true story, or a reconstructed biography. When the fictional story is based on fact, there may be additions and subtractions from the true story to make it more interesting. An example is Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, a series of short stories about the Vietnam War. Fictional works that explicitly involve supernatural, magical, or scientifically impossible elements are classified under the genre of fantasy, including Lewis Carroll's Alice In Wonderland, J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Creators of fantasy sometimes introduce imaginary beings such as dragons and fairies. Literary fiction is a term used in the book-trade to distinguish novels that are regarded as having literary merit, from most commercial or "genre" fiction.
Neal Stephenson has suggested that while any definition will be simplistic there is today a general cultural difference between literary and genre fiction. On the one hand literary authors nowadays are supported by patronage, with employment at a university or a similar institution, with the continuation of such positions determined not by book sales but by critical acclaim by other established literary authors and critics. On the other hand, he suggests, genre fiction writers tend to support themselves by book sales. However, in an interview, John Updike lamented that "the category of'literary fiction' has sprung up to torment people like me who just set out to write books, if anybody wanted to read them, the more the merrier.... I'm a genre writer of a sort. I write literary fiction, like spy fiction or chick lit". On The Charlie Rose Show, he argued that this term, when applied to his work limited him and his expectations of what might come of his writing, so he does not like it, he suggested that all his works are literary be
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere without contact with the surface. This can be achieved by generating aerodynamic lift associated with propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement. Many things can fly, from natural aviators such as birds and insects, to human inventions like aircraft, including airplanes, helicopters and rockets which may carry spacecraft; the engineering aspects of flight are the purview of aerospace engineering, subdivided into aeronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through the air, astronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through space, in ballistics, the study of the flight of projectiles. Humans have managed to construct lighter than air vehicles that raise off the ground and fly, due to their buoyancy in air. An aerostat is a system that remains aloft through the use of buoyancy to give an aircraft the same overall density as air. Aerostats include free balloons and moored balloons. An aerostat's main structural component is its envelope, a lightweight skin that encloses a volume of lifting gas to provide buoyancy, to which other components are attached.
Aerostats are so named because they use "aerostatic" lift, a buoyant force that does not require lateral movement through the surrounding air mass to effect a lifting force. By contrast, aerodynes use aerodynamic lift, which requires the lateral movement of at least some part of the aircraft through the surrounding air mass; some things that fly do not generate propulsive thrust through the air, for example, the flying squirrel. This is termed gliding; some other things can exploit rising air to climb such as man-made sailplane gliders. This is termed soaring; however most other birds and all powered aircraft need a source of propulsion to climb. This is termed powered flight; the only groups of living things that use powered flight are birds and bats, while many groups have evolved gliding. The extinct Pterosaurs, an order of reptiles contemporaneous with the dinosaurs, were very successful flying animals; each of these groups' wings evolved independently. The wings of the flying vertebrate groups are all based on the forelimbs, but differ in structure.
Bats are the only mammals capable of sustaining level flight. However, there are several gliding mammals which are able to glide from tree to tree using fleshy membranes between their limbs. Flying frogs use enlarged webbed feet for a similar purpose, there are flying lizards which fold out their mobile ribs into a pair of flat gliding surfaces. "Flying" snakes use mobile ribs to flatten their body into an aerodynamic shape, with a back and forth motion much the same as they use on the ground. Flying fish can glide using enlarged wing-like fins, have been observed soaring for hundreds of meters, it is thought that this ability was chosen by natural selection because it was an effective means of escape from underwater predators. The longest recorded flight of a flying fish was 45 seconds. Most birds fly, with some exceptions; the largest birds, the ostrich and the emu, are earthbound, as were the now-extinct dodos and the Phorusrhacids, which were the dominant predators of South America in the Cenozoic era.
The non-flying penguins have wings adapted for use under water and use the same wing movements for swimming that most other birds use for flight. Most small flightless birds are native to small islands, lead a lifestyle where flight would offer little advantage. Among living animals that fly, the wandering albatross has up to 3.5 meters. Most species of insects can fly as adults. Insect flight makes use of either of two basic aerodynamic models: creating a leading edge vortex, found in most insects, using clap and fling, found in small insects such as thrips. Mechanical flight is the use of a machine to fly; these machines include aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters, airships, ornithopters as well as spacecraft. Gliders are capable of unpowered flight. Another form of mechanical flight is para-sailing. In an airplane, lift is created by the wings. There are different types of wings: tempered, semi-tempered, sweptback and elliptical. An aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil, a device that creates lift when air flows across it.
Supersonic flight is flight faster than the speed of sound. Supersonic flight is associated with the formation of shock waves that form a sonic boom that can be heard from the ground, is startling; this shockwave takes quite a lot of energy to create and this makes supersonic flight less efficient than subsonic flight at about 85% of the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight is high speed flight where the heat generated by the compression of the air due to the motion through the air causes chemical changes to the air. Hypersonic flight is achieved by reentering spacecraft such as Soyuz; some things generate little or no lift and move only or under the action of momentum, air drag and in some cases thrust. This is termed ballistic flight. Examples include balls, bullets, fireworks etc. An extreme form of ballistic flight, spaceflig