Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. Values can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from an action or inaction. Risk can be defined as the interaction with uncertainty. Uncertainty is a potential and uncontrollable outcome, risk is a consequence of action taken in spite of uncertainty, Risk perception is the subjective judgment people make about the severity and probability of a risk, and may vary person to person. Any human endeavor carries some risk, but some are much riskier than others, the Oxford English Dictionary cites the earliest use of the word in English as of 1621, and the spelling as risk from 1655. It defines risk as, the possibility of loss, injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance, Risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has an effect on at least one objective. The probability of something happening multiplied by the resulting cost or benefit if it does, The possibility that an actual return on an investment will be lower than the expected return.
Insurance, A situation where the probability of a variable is known, a risk is not an uncertainty, a peril, or a hazard. Securities trading, The probability of a loss or drop in value, non-systematic risk is any risk that isnt market-related. Also called non-market risk, extra-market risk or diversifiable risk, Product of the consequence and probability of a hazardous event or phenomenon. For example, the risk of developing cancer is estimated as the probability of developing cancer over a lifetime as a result of exposure to potential carcinogens. The International Organization for Standardization publication ISO31000 / ISO Guide 73,2002 definition of risk is the effect of uncertainty on objectives, in this definition, uncertainties include events and uncertainties caused by ambiguity or a lack of information. It includes both negative and positive impacts on objectives, very different approaches to risk management are taken in different fields, e. g. Risk is the unwanted subset of a set of uncertain outcomes.
Risk can be seen as relating to the probability of future events. For example, according to analysis of information risk, risk is. In computer science this definition is used by The Open Group, OHSAS defines risk as the combination of the probability of a hazard resulting in an adverse event, and the severity of the event. In information security risk is defined as the potential that a threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets. Financial risk is defined as the unpredictable variability or volatility of returns
The chicken is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. From India, the chicken was imported to Lydia in western Asia Minor. In the UK and Ireland adult male chickens over the age of one year are known as cocks, whereas in America, Australia. Males less than a year old are cockerels, females over a year old are known as hens and younger females as pullets although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand, there is a generic term chook /ˈtʃʊk/ to describe all ages, the young are called chicks and the meat is called chicken. Chicken originally referred to domestic fowl. The species as a whole was called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of chicken survives in the phrase Hen and Chickens, sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, the word chicken is sometimes erroneously construed to mean females exclusively, despite the term hen for females being in wide circulation.
In the Deep South of the United States chickens are referred to by the slang term yardbird, in the wild, they often scratch at the soil to search for seeds and even animals as large as lizards, small snakes or young mice. Chickens may live for five to ten years, depending on the breed, the worlds oldest chicken was a hen which died of heart failure at the age of 16 according to Guinness World Records. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright chicken, the rooster has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the identification can be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the males legs. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, collectively and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, a muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chickens face, giving the appearance of a beard.
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although birds are generally capable of flying for short distances. Chickens may occasionally fly briefly to explore their surroundings, but generally do so only to flee perceived danger, Chickens are gregarious birds and live together in flocks. They have an approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing an order, with dominant individuals having priority for food access
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Annals of Internal Medicine
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians. It is one of the most widely cited and influential specialty medical journals in the world, Annals publishes content relevant to the field of internal medicine and related sub-specialties. In addition, the journal publishes personal narratives that convey the feeling, selected articles in the journal are open access, these include patient oriented content and Clinical Guidelines. In 2016 a commentary published in Nature claimed that Annals of Internal Medicine supports and defends the unethical, the claims made by the author/activist were unsubstantiated and were addressed by the Annals editors in letters published online first in Annals of Internal Medicine. According to the Journal Citation Reports, Annals most recent Impact Factor is 16.593, Annals is ranked fifth among 151 general medicine journals, making it one of the most highly cited and influential journals in the world. The journal is abstracted and indexed in, The Annals of Internal Medicine was established in 1927 and has published twice monthly since 1988.
ACP previously produced two other journals, the Annals of Medicine was established in 1920 was discontinued after a short run due to financial problems of the publisher. The Annals of Clinical Medicine was renamed to the current title when the ACP took direct control and became publisher. Editors-in-chief have included Aldred Scott Warthin, Carl Weller, Maurice Pincoffs, Paul Clough, J. Russell Elkington, Edward Huth and Suzanne Fletcher, Frank Davidoff, peer review was introduced by Elkington. The current editor-in-chief is Christine Laine, MD, MPH, FACP, in May 2008, ACP Journal Club was merged into Annals of Internal Medicine as a monthly feature, previously it was a separate bimonthly journal
Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke. The practice was believed to begin as early as 5000–3000 BC, Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century where it followed common trade routes. In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a relationship between smoking and cancer. Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s, which prompted political action against the practice, rates of consumption since 1965 in the developed world have either peaked or declined. However, they continue to climb in the developing world, Smoking is the most common method of consuming tobacco, and tobacco is the most common substance smoked. The agricultural product is mixed with additives and combusted. The resulting smoke is inhaled and the active substances absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs. Combustion was traditionally enhanced by addition of potassium or other nitrates, many substances in cigarette smoke trigger chemical reactions in nerve endings, which heighten heart rate and reaction time, among other things.
Dopamine and endorphins are released, which are associated with pleasure. As of 2008 to 2010, tobacco is used by about 49% of men and 11% of women aged 15 or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries, the gender gap tends to be less pronounced in lower age groups. Many smokers begin during adolescence or early adulthood, after an individual has smoked for some years, the avoidance of withdrawal symptoms and negative reinforcement become the key motivations to continue. In a study conducted by Jennifer OLoughlin and colleagues, first smoking experiences of students were studied. They found out that the most common factor leading students to smoke is cigarette advertisements, Smoking by parents and friends encourage students to smoke. The practice worked its way into shamanistic rituals, many ancient civilizations — such as the Babylonians, the Indians, and the Chinese — burnt incense during religious rituals. Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the ceremonies of shamans but was adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
The smoking of tobacco and various hallucinogenic drugs was used to achieve trances, adults as well as children enjoyed the practice. It was believed that tobacco was a gift from the Creator, apart from smoking, tobacco had a number of uses as medicine. As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache, in 1612, six years after the settlement of Jamestown, John Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop
Immunity is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Immunity involves both specific and nonspecific components, the nonspecific components act as barriers or eliminators of a wide range of pathogens irrespective of their antigenic make-up. Other components of the immune system adapt themselves to each new disease encountered and are able to generate pathogen-specific immunity, an immune system may contain innate and adaptive components. The innate system in mammalians for example is composed of bone marrow cells that are programmed to recognise foreign substances. The adaptive system is composed of more advanced lymphatic cells that are programmed to recognise self substances, the reaction to foreign substances is etymologically described as inflammation, meaning to set on fire. The non-reaction to self substances is described as immunity, meaning to exempt or as immunotolerance, disease can arise when what is foreign cannot be eliminated or what is self is not spared.
Innate immunity, called native immunity, exists by virtue of an organisms constitution and it is divided into two types, Non-Specific innate immunity, a degree of resistance to all infections in general. Specific innate immunity, a resistance to a kind of microorganism only. As a result some races, specific individuals or breeds in agriculture do not suffer from certain infectious diseases, passive immunity is acquired through transfer of antibodies or activated T-cells from an immune host, it is short lived—usually lasting only a few months. The diagram below summarizes these divisions of immunity, humoral immunity is called active when the organism generates its own antibodies, and passive when antibodies are transferred between individuals or species. Similarly, cell mediated immunity is active when the organisms’ own T-cells are stimulated, the concept of immunity has intrigued mankind for thousands of years. Between the time of Hippocrates and the 19th century, when the foundations of the methods were laid.
If someone were exposed to the miasma in a swamp, in evening air, or breathing air in a sickroom or hospital ward, the modern word immunity derives from the Latin immunis, meaning exemption from military service, tax payments or other public services. For no one was attacked a second time, or not with a fatal result. The term immunes, is found in the epic poem Pharsalia written around 60 B. C. by the poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus to describe a North African tribes resistance to snake venom. In the treatise, Al Razi describes the presentation of smallpox. The first scientist who developed full theory of immunity was Ilya Mechnikov after he revealed phagocytosis in 1882, the birth of active immunotherapy may have begun with Mithridates VI of Pontus. To induce active immunity for snake venom, he recommended using a similar to modern toxoid serum therapy
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, interpretation and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial