Kista is a district in the borough of Rinkeby-Kista, Sweden. It has a strategic position located in between Sweden's main airport, the Stockholm-Arlanda International Airport and central Stockholm, alongside the main national highway E4 economic artery. Kista comprises residential and commercial areas, the latter in the technological telecommunication and information technology industry. There are large research efforts in this entire area, it is known as the research park of KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Kista is the largest Information and Communications Technology cluster in Europe, the world's second largest cluster after Silicon Valley in California, it is the largest corporate area in Sweden, important to the national economy due to the presence of, among others, Ericsson Group, the largest corporation in Sweden. Kista Science City is the location where a large portion of the research and development of the world's 4G LTE mobile telephony infrastructure is being developed, a European ETSI standard used worldwide and Kista Science City has been the largest such cluster in Europe for decades.
A majority is done at Ericsson corporation, with 100,000 employees worldwide, but with its research and worldwide Headquarters in the Kista Science City. Kista was named after an old farm "Kista Gård"; the construction of the modern parts were started in the 1970s. Most of the streets in Kista are named after towns and places in Denmark, Iceland and Faroe Islands. Before the opening of the Mall of Scandinavia, Kista Galleria was the biggest shopping center in the Stockholm region; because of its ICT industries, it became in the 1980s referred to as "Chipsta" and, after Sweden joined the EU in 1995 as Europe's "Silicon Valley". Kista important to the national economy; the construction of the industrial section of Kista began in the 1970s with companies such as SRA, RIFA AB, IBM Svenska AB. Ericsson has had its headquarters in Kista since 2003. Kista hosts entire departments of both KTH Royal Institute of Technology, such as Wireless@KTH, Stockholm University. There are Swedish national research institutes such as the Swedish Institute of Computer Science and Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI who has its Headquarters there, just as Ericsson, Swedish IBM and Tele 2, among others has.
The Swedish Co-location Centre of EU innovation and entrepreneurial education organisation EIT Digital is located in Kista and offers a 2-year Master program in collaboration with KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Kista Science Tower Kista metro station Kista Science City Kista Business Network
Duvbo is an upper-middle-class residential area in Sundbyberg in suburban Stockholm, Sweden. The Duvbo metro station is located in central Sundbyberg, just outside Duvbo and is part of the Stockholm Metro, it was inaugurated on August 19, 1985
Sundbyberg Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, just north of the capital Stockholm. Sundbyberg has a 100 % urban population. Sundbyberg was detached from Bromma in 1888 as a market town, it got the title of a city in 1927. In 1949 parts of Solna Municipality and Spånga were added. A proposed merger with Solna in 1971 was never implemented, making Sundbyberg, with an area of 8.83 square kilometres, the smallest municipality in Sweden, but the most densely populated. The municipality prefers to call itself a city, however, has no legal significance. Sundbyberg was for a long time only an area of small agriculture value and most of all used as a place to spend summer for rich families in the city. In 1863 the entire area was bought by Anders Petter Löfström, including Duvbo Estate, who began building houses there. In 1870 the first industrial plot was sold and from there the town did expand with railroad, houses and community services of all kind. A. P. Löfström donated to the municipality, all land for roads, parks, school and other public areas.
Sundbyberg never became a suburb but a independent industrial town on its own. The 44,090 inhabitants live in 17,000 apartments; the industrial policy of the municipality is to provide one job opportunity for every apartment, thus 17,000 jobs. So unlike other municipalities in Metropolitan Stockholm, Sundbyberg is not a bedroom suburb wherefrom people commute to Stockholm, but a place commuted to from outside. In total, 12,000 commuters travel to or from Sundbyberg every day. On the 31st of December 2017 the number of people with a foreign background was 20 229, or 40.93% of the population. On the 31st of December 2002 the number of residents with a foreign background was 8 531, or 25.24% of the population. On 31 December 2017 there were 49 424 residents in Sundbyberg, of which 14 954 people were born in a country other than Sweden. Divided by country in the table below - the Nordic countries as well as the 12 most common countries of birth outside of Sweden for Swedish residents have been included, with other countries of birth bundled together by continent by Statistics Sweden.
Sundbyberg is well served by the Stockholm public transport system. There are several metro stations as well as one Stockholm commuter rail station and plenty of bus routes; some main line trains call at Sundbyberg. 1925-1959 Sundbyberg was served by trams. Light railway returned to Sundbyberg in October 2013 when Tvärbanan light rail service was extended from Sickla Udde via Alvik to Solna centrum; the line runs through Central Sundbyberg with tracks laid in the street and has two stops within the municipality. A northern light railway branch from Ulvsunda to Kista will pass through Rissne. Construction is expected to start in 2017. Central Sundbyberg Duvbo Hallonbergen Lilla Alby Rissne Storskogen Ursvik Ör There are plenty of nice shops in the Central Sundbyberg area, which makes the little city a bit independent; the following sports clubs are located in Sundbyberg: Sundbybergs IK Storskogens SK Sundbyberg Municipality - Official site Sundbyberg Museum & Archive - Official site Sundbyberg Den nya Förstaden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg under Köpingtiden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg den 113:e Staden, H. Österberg,Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg i Gamla Bilder, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg bygger en Kyrka, H. Österberg, Sundbybergs Museum Sundbyberg - om hus och miljöer, Eva Söderlind
Count Erik Jönsson Dahlbergh was a Swedish engineer and field marshal. He was born of peasant stock but he rose to the level of nobility through his military competence, he was renowned for fortification works and was called the "Vauban of Sweden". Erik Dahlbergh was born of peasant stock in Stockholm, but rose to the level of titled nobility due to his military abilities, his early studies involved the science of fortification. Orphaned at an early age, Dahlbergh's studies qualified him as a scribe and in 1641 he found employment with Gert Rehnskiöld, the senior accountant for Pommern and Mecklenburg. During his six years he was taught the fundamentals in draughtsmanship and stood out for his ability to draw. While learning these skills, he intensely studied mathematics, architecture and map drawing; as an engineer officer he saw service in the latter years of the Thirty Years' War. In 1650, the military command dispatched Dahlbergh to Frankfurt to recoup war indemnity awarded to Sweden following the end of the war and the Treaty of Westphalia.
Dahlbergh provided topographical maps. In 1635 Matthäus Merian the Elder initiated the Theatrum Europaeum, a series of contemporary chronicles published until 1732. Both works, the Theatrum Europaeum and the topographical prints, were continued following the death of Mattheus Merian in 1650 by his sons and stepsons, he attempted several unsuccessful pilgrimages to Jerusalem both by sea and land. While studying art in Italy, news reached him of a coming war between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania and he saw the potential for a military career and he rode from Rome to Stettin in 23 days. In his military career, Dahlbergh saw service in Poland where he witnessed the fighting at the second battle of Warsaw and survived a plague which nearly killed him; as adjutant-general and engineering adviser to Charles X of Sweden, he had a great share in the famous crossing of the frozen Belts, at the sieges of Copenhagen and Kronborg where he directed the engineers during the Northern Wars. In spite of his distinguished service, Dahlbergh remained an obscure lieutenant-colonel for many years.
His patriotism, proved superior to the tempting offers Charles II of England made to induce him to enter the British service, when, in that age of professional soldiering, the offer was acceptable. His talents were recognized and, in 1676, he became director-general of fortifications for the Swedish crown; as director, Dahlbergh rendered distinguished service over the next twenty-five years in attack as in the Scanian War. In Helsingborg in 1677, he was a key operative in the Great Northern War at Dunamünde, in 1700 he was instrumental in the defence of the two sieges of Riga, his work in repairing the fortresses of his own country earned for him the title of the "Vauban of Sweden", he was the founder of the Swedish engineer corps. He died the following year. In modern times, Erik Dahlbergh was best known for compiling the collection of drawings called "Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna", or Ancient and Modern Sweden, published 1660–1716, assisted Samuel Pufendorf in his "Histoire de Charles X Gustave".
He wrote a memoir of his life and an account "Of the campaigns of Charles X". The German influence reveals itself in his work. Governor of Jönköping County Governor-General of Bremen-Verden Field Marshal Governor-General of Livonia Fortifications of Gothenburg Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban Menno van Coehoorn Stockholm viewed from the west, original drawing dated late 17th century treasure 2 National Library of Sweden in The European Library Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna at the Royal Library of Sweden
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. Hundreds of more precise definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. According to the used Food and Agriculture Organization definition, forests covered 4 billion hectares or 30 percent of the world's land area in 2006. Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, are distributed around the globe. Forests account for 75% of the gross primary production of the Earth's biosphere, contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass. Net primary production is estimated at 21.9 gigatonnes carbon per year for tropical forests, 8.1 for temperate forests, 2.6 for boreal forests. Forests at different latitudes and elevations form distinctly different ecozones: boreal forests near the poles, tropical forests near the equator and temperate forests at mid-latitudes. Higher elevation areas tend to support forests similar to those at higher latitudes, amount of precipitation affects forest composition.
Human society and forests influence each other in both negative ways. Forests serve as tourist attractions. Forests can affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems. Although forest is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition, with more than 800 definitions of forest used around the world. Although a forest is defined by the presence of trees, under many definitions an area lacking trees may still be considered a forest if it grew trees in the past, will grow trees in the future, or was designated as a forest regardless of vegetation type. There are three broad categories of forest definitions in use: administrative, land use, land cover. Administrative definitions are based upon the legal designations of land, bear little relationship to the vegetation growing on the land: land, designated as a forest is defined as a forest if no trees are growing on it. Land use definitions are based upon the primary purpose.
For example, a forest may be defined as any land, used for production of timber. Under such a land use definition, cleared roads or infrastructure within an area used for forestry, or areas within the region that have been cleared by harvesting, disease or fire are still considered forests if they contain no trees. Land cover definitions define forests based upon the type and density of vegetation growing on the land; such definitions define a forest as an area growing trees above some threshold. These thresholds are the number of trees per area, the area of ground under the tree canopy or the section of land, occupied by the cross-section of tree trunks. Under such land cover definitions, an area of land can only be known as forest if it is growing trees. Areas that fail to meet the land cover definition may be still included under while immature trees are establishing if they are expected to meet the definition at maturity. Under land use definitions, there is considerable variation on where the cutoff points are between a forest and savanna.
Under some definitions, forests require high levels of tree canopy cover, from 60% to 100%, excluding savannas and woodlands in which trees have a lower canopy cover. Other definitions consider savannas to be a type of forest, include all areas with tree canopies over 10%; some areas covered in trees are defined as agricultural areas, e.g. Norway spruce plantations in Austrian forest law when the trees are being grown as Christmas trees and below a certain height; the word forest comes from Middle English, from Old French forest "forest, vast expanse covered by trees". A borrowing of the Medieval Latin word foresta "open wood", foresta was first used by Carolingian scribes in the Capitularies of Charlemagne to refer to the king's royal hunting grounds; the term was not endemic to Romance languages. The exact origin of Medieval Latin foresta is obscure; some authorities claim the word derives from the Late Latin phrase forestam silvam, meaning "the outer wood". Frankish *forhist is attested by Old High German forst "forest", Middle Low German vorst "forest", Old English fyrhþ "forest, game preserve, hunting ground", Old Norse fýri "coniferous forest", all of which derive from Proto-Germanic *furhísa-, *furhíþija- "a fir-wood, coniferous forest", from Proto-Indo-European *perkwu- "a coniferous or mountain forest, wooded height".
Uses of the word "forest" in English to denote any uninhabited area of non-enclosure are now considered archaic. The word was introduced by the Norman rulers of England as a legal term denoting an uncultivated area set aside for hunting by feudal nobility; these hunting forests were not neces
Immigration to Sweden
Immigration to Sweden is the process by which people migrate to Sweden to reside in the country. Many, but not all, become Swedish citizens; the economic and political aspects of immigration have caused some controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility and voting behaviour. At the turn of the 20th century, Sweden had few immigrants. In 1900, the nationwide population totaled 5,100,814 inhabitants, of whom 35,627 individuals were foreign-born. 21,496 of those foreign-born residents were from other Nordic countries, 8,531 people were from other European countries, 5,254 from North America, 90 from South America, 87 from Asia, 79 from Africa, 59 from Oceania. As of 2010, 1.33 million people or 14.3% of the inhabitants of Sweden were foreign-born. Of these individuals, 859,000 were born outside the European Union and 477,000 were born in another EU member state. Sweden has evolved from a nation of net emigration ending after World War I to a nation of net immigration from World War II onward.
In 2013, immigration reached its highest level since records began, with 115,845 people migrating to Sweden while the total population grew by 88,971. It continued to rise the following years, followed by a clear peak with just over 163,000 persons immigrating in total that year – 2017 was a decrease, with nearly 144,500 individuals immigrating; as of 2017, the percentage inhabitants with a foreign background in Sweden had risen to 24.1%. The official definition of foreign background comprises individuals either born abroad or having both parents born abroad. In 2017 three municipalities people with foreign background were in the majority: Botkyrka Södertälje and Haparanda. In 2014, 81,300 individuals applied for asylum in Sweden, an increase of 50% compared to 2013 and the most since 1992. 47 % of them came followed by 21 % from the Horn of Africa. 77% requests were approved but it differs between different groups. Nearly two weeks into October 2015, a record figure of 86,223 asylum applications was reached, in the remaining weeks of the year that figure rose to 162,877.
In 2016, 28,939 people applied for asylum, after temporary border ID controls had been initiated and been in effect during 2016. As of 2014, according to Statistics Sweden, there was around 17,000 total asylum immigrants from Syria, 10,000 from Iraq, 4,500 from Eritrea, 1,900 from Afghanistan, 1,100 from Somalia. In the year 2017, most asylum seekers come from Syria, Eritrea and Georgia. According to an official report by the governmental Swedish Pensions Agency, total immigration to Sweden for 2017 was expected to be 180,000 individuals, thereafter to number 110,000 persons every year. Immigrants in Sweden are concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland; the largest foreign-born populations residing in Sweden come from Finland, the former Yugoslavia, Poland and Syria. Before the second world war, Sweden was a linguistically and culturally homogeneous country compared with other European countries with the exception of the Sami and Tornedalian minorities. During the High Middle Ages, German immigrants arrived as foreign experts in trade and mining and are estimated to have constituted 10-20 % of the city populations.
However, since only 5% of the population lived in cities during this time their total share of the populated was only 1 to 1.5% of the population. Small, but influential, numbers of Walloon immigrants started arriving in the 17th century and again in the 19th century. Most of them returned to Belgium after a few years and the estimates for how many that stayed range from 900 to 2000 compared with the contemporary population of Sweden being 900 000. World War IIFrom 1871 and onwards Statistics Sweden reports the number of immigrants each year. From 1871-1940 the average number of immigrants were 6000 per year. Immigration increased markedly with World War II; the most numerous of foreign born nationalities are ethnic Germans from Germany and other Scandinavians from Denmark and Norway. In short order, 70,000 war children were evacuated from Finland. Many of Denmark's nearly 7,000 Jews who were evacuated to Sweden decided to remain there. A sizable community from the Baltic States arrived during the Second World War.
1945 to 1967As of 1945, the immigrants share of the population was below 2%. During the 1950s and 1960s, the recruitment of migrant workers was an important factor of immigration; the Nordic countries signed a trade agreement in 1952, establishing a common labour market and free movement across borders. This migration within the Nordic countries from Finland to Scandinavia, was essential to create the tax-base required for the expansion of the strong public sector now characteristic of Scandinavia. Facing pressure from unions, work force immigration from outside of the Nordic countries was limited by new laws in 1967. On a smaller scale, Sweden took in political refugees from Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia after their countries were invaded by the Soviet Union in 1956 and 1968 respectively; some tens of thousands of American draft dodgers from the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s found refuge in Sweden. 1968-1991In the latter half of the 1960s, the ideology of multiculturalism entered the political mainstream in Sweden, the first country in Europe.
On 14 May 1975, a unanimous Swedish parliament led by the Social Democrat government of Olof Palme voted in favour on a new immigrant and minority policy which explicitly rejected the previous policy of assimilation and ethno-cu