Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Manga are comics or graphic novels created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century. They have a complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art; the term manga in Japan is a word used to refer to cartooning. "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics published in Japan. In Japan, people of all ages read manga; the medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action, adventure and commerce, detective, historical, mystery, science fiction and fantasy, erotica and games, suspense, among others. Many manga are translated into other languages. Since the 1950s, manga has become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books and manga magazines in Japan. Manga have gained a significant worldwide audience. In 2008, in the U. S. and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million. Manga represent 38% of the French comics market, equivalent to ten times that of the United States.
In France, the manga market was valued at about €460 million in 2005. In Europe and the Middle East, the market was valued at $250 million in 2012. Manga stories are printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist. In Japan, manga are serialized in large manga magazines containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue. Collected chapters are republished in tankōbon volumes but not paperback books. A manga artist works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company. If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated during its run. Sometimes manga are drawn centering on existing live-action or animated films. Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world in Algeria, Hong Kong and South Korea; the word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 meaning "pictures".
The same term is the root of the Korean word for the Chinese word. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning and animation. Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan; the term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels. The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. During the Edo period, Toba Ehon embedded the concept of manga; the word itself first came into common usage in 1798, with the publication of works such as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the Hokusai Manga books.
Adam L. Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books; these graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Some works were mass-produced as serials using woodblock printing. Writers on manga history have described two complementary processes shaping modern manga. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses U. S. cultural influences, including U. S. comics and images and themes from U. S. television and cartoons. Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka and Machiko Hasegawa. Astro Boy became immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011.
Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots; this kind of visual dynamism was adopted by manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience came to characterize shōjo manga. Between 1950 and 1969, an large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. In 1969 a group of female manga artists made their shōjo manga debut ("year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Ciao is a Japanese shōjo manga magazine published by Shogakukan for 8–14 year old girls. The magazine launched in 1977 and always comes with a free gift which used to always be paper crafts, but now varies every month; the magazine's competitors are Nakayoshi. Age 12 - Nao Maita Aikatsu! - Banbi Shirayuki and Usagi Mochi Aikatsu Friends! - Chihiro Komori Aikatsu Stars! - Banbi Shirayuki and Usagi Mochi Akuma no Kuchizuke - Satoru Takamiya Alice ni Omakase! - Kiyoko Arai Alpen Rose - Michiyo Akaishi Anata no Shiranai Sekai - Kaoru Igarashi and various other manga artists Angel Hunt - Miyuki Obayashi Angel Lip - Kiyoko Arai Bakuretsu Utahime 21 - Kaoru Igarashi Beauty Pop - Kiyoko Arai Bijo de Knight! - Akira Wao Boku no Platinum Lady - Chitose Yagami Buttobi! Man☆Gaaru - Chikako Mori Café de Romance - Yukino Miyawaki Caramel Kiss - Chitose Yagami Chance wo Choudai! - Masumi Shimizu Charm Angel - Chikako Mori Charming - Masumi Shimizu Chocolate Magic - Rino Mizuho Cherish!! - Mayuki Anan Chibi Devi!
- Hiromu Shinozuka Chiko no Negai - Yuu Yabuuchi Chikkoi - Eri Kumaki Choco Banana Crepe - Yayoi Tsukamoto Cinderella Collection - Yasue Imai Con Con x Honey - Nao Maita Corrector Yui - Keiko Okamoto and Kia Asamiya Curry Club ni Ai ni Kite - Arai Kiyoko Cutey Honey Flash - Go Nagai and Yukako Iisaka D-Boy - Emiko Sugi Dennō Coil - Mitsuo Iso and Mizuki Kuze Devil Magic - Miru Akino Diamond Step - Meme Iwaoka Doki Doki - Yuka Takase Dorakyura Musume Madonna - Ritsuko Kawai Douchi ga Akuma Yo? - Nao Maita Dr. Rin ni Kiitemite! - Kiyoko Arai Eto Etosetora - Konomi Wagata Fall in Love Like a Comic! - Chitose Yagami Fun Fan Karakurihime - Yuka Kitamura Fushigiboshi no Futagohime - Mayuki Anan Fushigi no Mori no Moriko - Keiko Notoyama Fushigi no Rin - Michiyo Akaishi Futari de Mamotte Agemasu! - Rio Fujimi Futari no Miracle - Yuka Ishii Fuuko Ikimasu - Keiko Yanagida Genki de Fight!! - Arai Kiyoko Gokingen na Heart - Masumi Shimizu Gokujō!! Mecha Mote Iinchō - Tomoko Nishimura Gokuraku!! Mecha Mote Iinchou - Tomoko Nishimura Gyu Gyutto Mamotte!
- Meme Iwaoka Hajikete B. B. - Yasue Imai Hamtaro - Ritsuko Kawai Happy Happy Clover - Tatsuyama Sayuri Hare Tokidoki Gachou?! - Yumi Tsukirino Hatsukoi Summer Romanesque - Rio Fujimi Heartbeat ni Nosete - Masumi Shimizu Hikari no Furu Kisetsu ni - Yuu Ikushima Himegal Paradise - Akira Wao Hop Step Kururinpa! - Yasue Imai Hoshi Made Gofun! - Mai Jinna Hoshizora no Wave - Masumi Shimizu I Love You - Yuka Takase Icchae Marin-chan - Miyuki Obayashi Ijime - Kaoru Igarashi Ijiwaru Love Devil - An Nakahara Ikenai Navigation - Chitose Yagami Inui-san! - Chako Tsukisuzu Issho ni Kaero - Konomi Wagata Jewelpet - Tatsuyama Sayuri Jungle Oneechan - Miru Akino Kaitou Thief Milky Drop - Meme Iwaoka Kamisama no Ring - Shou Obara Kamisama O-ne-gai - Arai Kiyoko Kare to Kanojo to Kanojo - Yuki Morita Kimi to Issho!? - Yuki Morita Kimi no Tame Nara! - Yuka Nakajima Kira Kira Labyrinth - Obayashi Miyuki Kirarin Revolution - An Nakahara Kiss Kara Hajimaru - Obayashi Miyuki Kiss x Kiss - Chitose Yagami Kiss Shite!
Esper Girl - Chitose Yagami Kocchi Muite! Miiko - Eriko Ono Kochira Ai! Outou Seyo - Kimiko Uehara Koi no Hana Chiru Furu - Satoru Takamiya Koi Shite! Runa Kiss - An Nakahara Koi Wa On Air! - Hiromu Shinozuka Koiki Shichihenge!! - Chikako Mori Koisuru Purin! - Hiromu Shinozuka Koisuru Tattoo - Mai Jinna Kumappuri - Sayuri Tatsuyama Kurenai Hanafubuki - Tomoko Nishimura Kuromeko Renai Kumikyoku - Satoru Takamiya Kurumi-tic Miracle - Chitose Yagami Kururinpa! - Yasue Imai Kururun-Rieru Change! - An Nakahara Lilpri - Mai Jinna Love Love Nurse - Aya Misaki Love Pani - Chitose Yagami Love Samurai Yuika - Michiru Aoi Lovely Decoration!! - Kaoru Igarashi Luna Lunatic - Yukako Iisaka Lunatic Honey - Yukino Miyawaki Layton Mystery Tanteisha: Katori no Nazotoki File - Hori Oritoka Made in Mikaru - Mai Jinna Magical Chaser Aki - Sugi Emiko Magical Pokémon Journey - Yumi Tsukirino Magical Sweet Mermaid - Itsuru Minase Mahochu! - Yuu Yabuuchi Mahou Teki Girlfriend - Kaoru Igarashi Maid ja Nai Mon! - Meme Iwaoka Maiko no Uta - Kimiko Uehara Majo wa Koi ni Hen Shiteru - Eri Kumari mama♥trouble - Yuuko Kohara Manten Iroha Komachi - Mariko Kosaka Mashiro Family Complex!
- Mizuki Kuze Medical Magical - Hiina Maki Meshimase Karen-chan - Miru Akino Miiko Desu! - Eriko Ono Milky Baby - Ritsuko Kawai Minimum Mania - Shou Obara Miracle Boys - Keiko Yanagida Mirumo de Pon! - Hiromu Shinozuka Mizuiro Jidai - Yuu Yabuuchi Monster Candy - Miyuki Obayashi Muka Muka Paradise - Fumiko Shiba and Yumiko Igarashi Nadeshiko Prima - Mizuki Kuze Naisho no Hamster - Hiina Maki Naisho no Tsubomi - Yuu Yabuuchi Naisho no Tsubomi - Mebae - Yuu Yabuuchi Nandemo Alice - Ritsuko Kawai Natural Angel - Kiyoko Arai Nazotoki-hime wa Meitantei - Mayuki Anan Niji-iro Prism Girl - An Nakahara Ohimesama no Recipe - Satoru Takamiya Oideyo Doubutsu no Mori - Shiawase Tsuushin - Mako Morie Ojousama no Inu - Mai Jinna Onigawara Yokochou Sanchoume - Chitose Yagami Ore-Sama Kingdom - Chitose Yagami Otogibanashi de Himitsu no Kiss - Satoru Takamiya Otona Mitai ni Koishiteru! - Kano Uchihara Otona ni Narumon! - An Nakahara Otona no Okusuri - Yuko Kohara Oujisama ni Onegai! - Eri Kumaki Panyo Panyo Di Gi Charat - Hina Pocket Monster Chamo Chamo Pretty - Yumi Tsukirino Princess Ver. 1 - Yukino Miyawaki PriPara - Hitsuji Tsujinaga PriPri Chi-chan!!
- Hiromu Shinozuka Pukupuku Natural Circular Notice - Sayuri Tatsuyama Rafurin Ice Cream - Itsuru Minase Revolutionary Girl Utena - Chiho Saito & Be-Papas Ryouko no Shinrei Jikenbo - Chie Shinohara Sakura - Ritsuko Kawai Sakura Kanzume - Yuki Morita Saniro Signal - Shou Obara Sapphire Gakuen Astro Cafe - Aya Misaki Sekai Seifuku Honey - Michiru Aoi Shokora no Mahou - Rino Mizuho Shin Gokujou!! Mecha Mote Iinchou - Tomoko Nishimura Shōjo Shōnen - Yuu Yabuuchi Shōjo Shōnen - Dolly Kanon - Yuu Yabuuchi Shōjo Shōnen - Go! Go! Ichigo - Yuu Yabuuchi Slow Ste