J. Farrell MacDonald
John Farrell MacDonald was an American character actor and director. He played supporting occasional leads, he appeared in over 325 films over a 41-year career from 1911 to 1951, directed forty-four silent films from 1912 to 1917. MacDonald was the principal director of L. Frank Baum's Oz Film Manufacturing Company, he can be seen in the films of Frank Capra, Preston Sturges and John Ford. MacDonald was born in Connecticut. George A. Katchme's A Biographical Dictionary of Silent Film Western Actors and Actresses gives his date of birth as April 14, 1875, he was sometimes billed as Joseph Farrell MacDonald, J. F. Mcdonald and Joseph Farrell Macdonald as well other variations. MacDonald graduated from Yale University with a B. A. played football while he was there. Early in his career, MacDonald was a singer in minstrel shows, he toured the United States extensively for two years with stage productions, he made his first silent film in 1911, a dramatic short entitled The Scarlett Letter made by Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures Company, the forerunner of Universal Pictures.
He continued to act in numerous films each year from that time on, by 1912 he was directing them as well. The first film he directed was The Worth of a Man, another dramatic short, again for IMP, he was to direct 43 more films until his last in 1917, Over the Fence, which he co-directed with Harold Lloyd. MacDonald had crossed paths with Lloyd several years earlier, when Lloyd was an extra and MacDonald had given him much-needed work – and he did the same with Hal Roach, both of whom appearing in small roles in The Patchwork Girl of Oz, which MacDonald directed in 1914; when Roach set up his own studio, with Lloyd as his principal attraction, he hired MacDonald to direct. By 1918, MacDonald, to become one of the most beloved character men in Hollywood, had given up directing and was acting full-time, predominantly in Westerns and Irish comedies, he first worked under director John Ford in 1919's A Fight for Love and was to make three more with the director that same year. In all, Ford would use MacDonald on twenty-five films between 1919 and 1950, during the silent era notably in The Iron Horse, 3 Bad Men and Riley the Cop.
With a voice that matched his personality, MacDonald made the transition to sound films with no noticeable drop in his acting output – if anything, it went up. In 1931, for instance, MacDonald appeared in 14 films – among them the first version of The Maltese Falcon, in which he played "Detective Tom Polhaus" – and in 22 of them in 1932. Although he played laborers, military men and priests, among many other characters, his roles were a cut above a "bit part", his characters had names, he was most credited for his performances. A highlight of this period was his performance as the hobo "Mr. Tramp" in Our Little Girl with Shirley Temple. In the 1940s, MacDonald was part of Preston Sturges' unofficial "stock company" of character actors, appearing in seven films written and directed by Sturges. MacDonald appeared in Sullivan's Travels, The Palm Beach Story, The Miracle of Morgan's Creek, The Great Moment, The Sin of Harold Diddlebock, Unfaithfully Yours and The Beautiful Blonde from Bashful Bend, Sturges' last American film.
Earlier, MacDonald had appeared in The Power and the Glory, which Sturges wrote. His work on Sturges' films was uncredited, more the case as his career went on – although the quality of his work was undiminished, he was notable in 1946 in John Ford's My Darling Clementine in which he played "Mac," the bartender in the town saloon. MacDonald had uncredited roles in It's a Wonderful Life and Here Comes the Groom. MacDonald made his last film in 1951, a comedy called Elopement, his few television appearances occurred in that same year. MacDonald died in Hollywood on August 2, 1952, at the age of 77, he was married to actress Edith Bostwick until her death in 1943, they had a daughter, Lorna. His grave is located at Chapel of the Pines Crematory. J. Farrell MacDonald on IMDb J. Farrell MacDonald at the TCM Movie Database
The Red Samson
The Red Samson is a 1917 Hungarian film directed by Michael Curtiz. The production is based upon the 1890 novel The Bondman by Hall Caine. Gyula Csortos as Samson Woronzow Ica von Lenkeffy as Edith Thursten Tivadar Uray as Michael Woronzow László Csiky as Edward Thursten János Bodnár as Ivan Woronzow Irma Lányi as Samson's mother Lajos Réthey Michael Curtiz filmography The Red Samson on IMDb
Pre-Code Hollywood refers to the brief era in the American film industry between the widespread adoption of sound in pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines, popularly known as the "Hays Code", in mid-1934. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor, it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, 1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee and the major studios, popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, ignored by Hollywood filmmakers; as a result, some films in the late 1920s and early 1930s depicted or implied sexual innuendo, mild profanity, illegal drug use, prostitution, abortion, intense violence, homosexuality. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such pre-Code films as Female, Baby Face, Red-Headed Woman. Gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, Scarface were seen by many as heroic rather than evil.
Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in some cases without significant repercussions, drug use was a topic of several films. Many of Hollywood's biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema. This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight. In 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H.
"Will" Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude. Hays nicknamed the motion picture "Czar", was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities." Hollywood mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in 1924, which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning; the Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916, little had come of the efforts.
In 1929, an American Roman Catholic layman Martin Quigley, editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald, Father Daniel A. Lord, a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards, submitted it to the studios. Lord's concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered susceptible to their allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord and Quigley in February 1930. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention, it was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required; the Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" which concerned morality; the second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted.
Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden, it stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that "maturer minds may understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm." If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed what Brandeis University cultural historian Thomas Doherty called "the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime". The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values. Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion, nor be made to seem right and permissible. All criminal action had to be punish
Charles Ambrose Bickford was an American actor best known for his supporting roles. He was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for The Song of Bernadette, The Farmer's Daughter, Johnny Belinda. Other notable roles include Whirlpool, A Star is Born, The Big Country. Bickford was born in Cambridge, during the first minute of 1891, his parents were Mary Ellen Bickford. The fifth of seven children, he was an intelligent but independent and unruly child, he had a strong relationship with his maternal grandfather, a sea captain, a powerful influence during his formative years. At the age of nine, he was tried and acquitted of the attempted murder of a trolley motorman who had callously driven over and killed his beloved dog.:12–16 He attended Foster School and Everett High School. Always more interested in experiencing life than reading about it, Bickford was considered "the wild rogue" of this family, causing his parents frequent consternation. In his late teens, he drifted aimlessly around the United States for a time.
Before breaking into acting, he worked as a lumberjack and investment promoter and, for a short time, ran a pest extermination business. He was a stoker and fireman in the United States Navy when a friend dared him to get a job in burlesque. Bickford served as an engineer lieutenant in the United States Army during World War I, his first entry into acting was on the stage including Broadway. This venue provided him with an occasional living and served as the principal training ground for developing his acting and vocal talents. Bickford had intended to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to earn an engineering degree, but while wandering around the country, he became friends with the manager of a burlesque show, who convinced Bickford to take a role in the show, he debuted in Oakland, California, in 1911.:50–53 Bickford enjoyed himself so much that he abandoned his plans to attend M. I. T.:60–61 He made his legitimate stage debut with the John Craig Stock Company at the Castle Square Theatre in Boston in 1912.:61–62 He joined a road company and traveled throughout the United States for more than a decade, appearing in various productions.
In 1925, while working in a Broadway play called Outside Looking In, he and co-star James Cagney received rave reviews.:142–145 He was offered a role in Herbert Brenon's 1926 film of Beau Geste but, anxious not to give up his newfound Broadway stardom, turned it down, a decision he came to regret. Following his appearance in the critically praised but unsuccessful Maxwell Anderson-Harold Hickerson drama about the Sacco and Vanzetti case, Gods of the Lightning, Bickford was contacted by filmmaker Cecil B. DeMille and offered a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios to star in DeMille's first talking picture, Dynamite.:157 He soon began working with MGM studio head Louis B. Mayer on a number of projects, he soon became a star after playing Greta Garbo's lover in Anna Christie but never developed into a leading man. Always of independent mind, exceptionally strong-willed and quick with his fists, Bickford would argue and nearly come to blows with Mayer and any number of other MGM authority figures during the course of this contract with the studio.
During the production of DeMille's Dynamite, he punched out his director following a string of heated arguments but not related to the interpretation of his character's role. Throughout his early career on both the stage and films Bickford rejected numerous scripts and made no secret of his disdain for much of the material he was offered. Not his association with MGM was short-lived, with Bickford asking for and receiving a release from his contract. However, he soon found himself blacklisted at other studios, forcing him:274–277 to take the unusual step of becoming an independent actor for several years, his career took another turn when in 1935 he was mauled by a lion and nearly killed while filming East of Java. While he recovered, he lost his contract with Fox as well as his leading-man status owing to extensive neck scarring suffered in the attack coupled with his advancing age.:298–303 It was not long, before he made a successful transition to character roles, which he felt offered much greater diversity and allowed him to showcase his talent to better effect.
Much preferring the character roles that now became his forte, Bickford appeared in many notable films, including The Farmer's Daughter, Johnny Belinda, A Star is Born, Not As a Stranger.:308Finding great success playing an array of character roles in films and in television, Bickford became sought after. Most he played lovable father figures, stern businessmen, ship captains or authority figures of some sort. During the 1940s, he was nominated three times for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, he served as host of the 1950s television series The Man Behind the Badge. On April 16, 1958, Bickford appeared with Roger Smith in "The Daniel Barrister Story" on NBC's Wagon Train. In this first-season episode, Daniel Barrister, played by Bickford, objects to medical treatment for his wife, the victim of a wagon accident. Meanwhile, Dr. Peter H. Culver, played by Smith, has fought a smallpox epidemic in a nearby town, he is brought to the wagon train by scout Flint McCullough, portrayed by series regular Robert Horton, to treat Mrs. Barrister.
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Michael Curtiz was a Hungarian-born American film director, recognized as one of the most prolific directors in history. He directed classic films from the silent era and numerous others during Hollywood's Golden Age, when the studio system was prevalent. Curtiz was a well-known director in Europe when Warner Bros. invited him to Hollywood in 1926, when he was 39 years of age. He had directed 64 films in Europe, soon helped Warner Bros. become the fastest-growing movie studio. He directed 102 films during his Hollywood career at Warners, where he directed ten actors to Oscar nominations. James Cagney and Joan Crawford won their only Academy Awards under Curtiz's direction, he put Doris Day and John Garfield on screen for the first time, he made stars of Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Bette Davis. He himself was nominated five times and won twice, once for Best Short Subject for Sons of Liberty and once as Best Director for Casablanca. Curtiz introduced to Hollywood a unique visual style using artistic lighting and fluid camera movement, high crane shots, unusual camera angles.
He was versatile and could handle any kind of picture: melodrama, love story, film noir, war story, Western, or historical epic. He always paid attention to the human-interest aspect of every story, stating that the "human and fundamental problems of real people" were the basis of all good drama. Curtiz helped popularize the classic swashbuckler with films such as Captain Blood and The Adventures of Robin Hood, he directed many dramas which today are considered classics, Angels with Dirty Faces, The Sea Wolf and Mildred Pierce. He directed leading musicals, including Yankee Doodle Dandy, This Is the Army, White Christmas, he made comedies with Life With Father and We're No Angels. Curtiz was born Manó Kaminer to a Jewish family in Budapest, Austria-Hungary, in 1886, where his father was a carpenter and his mother an opera singer. In 1905, he Hungaricised his name to Mihály Kertész. Curtiz had a lower to middle-class upbringing, he recalled during an interview that his family's home was a cramped apartment, where he had to share a small room with his two brothers and a sister.
"Many times we are hungry", he added. After graduating from high school, he studied at Markoszy University, followed by the Royal Academy of Theater and Art, in Budapest, before beginning his career. Curtiz became attracted to the theater, he built a little theater in the cellar of his house when he was 8 years old, where he and five of his friends re-enacted plays. They set up the stage, with scenery and props, Curtiz directed them. After he graduated from college at age 19, he took a job as an actor with a traveling theater company, where he began working as one their traveling players. From that job, he became a pantomimist with a circus for a while, but returned to join another group of traveling players for a few more years, they played Ibsen and Shakespeare depending on in what country they were. They performed throughout Europe, including France, Hungary and Germany, he learned five languages, he had various responsibilities: We had to do everything—make bill posters, print programs, set scenery, mend wardrobe, sometimes arrange chairs in the auditoriums.
Sometimes we traveled in trains, sometimes in stage coaches, sometimes on horseback. Sometimes we played in town halls, sometimes in little restaurants with no scenery at all. Sometimes we gave shows out of doors; those strolling actors were the kindest-hearted people I have known. They would do anything for each other, he worked as Mihály Kertész at the National Hungarian Theater in 1912. That same year, he directed Hungary's first feature film, Ma és holnap, in which he had a leading role, he followed. He was on the Hungarian fencing team at the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm. In 1913, Curtiz began living in various cities in Europe to work on silent films, he first went to study at Nordisk studio in Denmark, which led to work as an actor and assistant director to August Blom on Denmark's first multireel feature film, Atlantis. After World War I began in 1914, he returned to Hungary, where he served in the army for a year, before he was wounded fighting on the Russian front. Curtiz wrote of that period: The intoxicating joy of life was interrupted, the world had gone mad...
We were taught to kill. I was drafted into the Emperor's Army... After that, many things happened: destruction, thousands forever silenced, crippled or sent to anonymous graves. Came the collapse. Fate had spared me, he was assigned to make fund-raising documentaries for the Red Cross in Hungary. In 1917, he was made director of production at Phoenix Films, the leading studio in Budapest, where he remained until he left Hungary. However, none of the films he directed there survived intact, most are lost. By 1918, he had become one of Hungary's most important directors, having by directed about 45 films. However, following the end of the war, in 1919, the new communist government nationalized the film industry, so he decided to return to Vienna to direct films there. Curtiz worked at UFA GmbH, a German film company, where he learned to direct large groups of costumed extras, along with using complicated plots, rapid pacing, romantic themes, his career started due to his work for Count Alexander Kolowrat, with whom he made at least 21 films for the count's film studio, Sascha Films.
Curtiz wrote that at Sas
Frank Coghlan Jr. known as Junior Coghlan, was an American actor who became a career officer in the United States Navy and a naval aviator. He appeared in 129 films and television programs between 1920 and 1974. During the 1920s and 1930s, he became a popular child and juvenile actor, appearing in films with Pola Negri, Jack Dempsey, William Haines, Shirley Temple, Mickey Rooney, William Boyd and Bette Davis, he appeared in early "Our Gang" comedies, but he is best known for the role of Billy Batson in the 1941 motion picture serial Adventures of Captain Marvel. Coghlan served 23 years as an aviator and officer in the U. S. Navy, from 1942 to 1965. After retiring from the Navy, he returned to acting and appeared in television and commercials, he published an autobiography in 1992 and died in 2009 at age 93. Coghlan was born in New Haven, but his parents moved to Hollywood when he was still a baby, his father was a doctor, in "Who's Who on the Screen" for 1932 he hoped to be a doctor, when he grew up.
Coghlan began appearing in motion pictures in 1920 as an extra and worked his way up to more important roles. He boasted that he had been gainfully employed since age three; the freckle-faced Coghlan was billed as "Junior Coghlan" and became one of Hollywood's most popular child stars. Film historian Leonard Maltin said, "He was one of the busiest child actors of the late'20s and 1930s, he was a fresh, freckle-faced boy with great All-American-type appeal." Coghlan began his acting career in 1920. In 1922 he co-starred with Brownie the Dog in a film called Rookies, in 1923 he played a small role in the Pola Negri film The Spanish Dancer, he appeared in early "Our Gang" films, including the 1923 Hal Roach short "Giants vs. Yanks," in which the gang, after having a baseball game called off, gets stuck in an elegant home, which they destroy. In 1924 Coghlan was again cast opposite Jack Dempsey in Winning His Way. One newspaper story described Coghlan's rise to fame this way: "When the boy was seven years old, his great mop of hair, freckled face, genial grin, likable personality attracted the attention of several directors who urged his parents to permit him to engage in screen work.
Mrs. Coghlan consented and one day he was cast for a'bit' role in Goldwyn's Poverty of Riches, in which he played the son of Leatrice Joy."By the mid 1920s, Coghlan had caught the eye of one of Hollywood's leading directors, Cecil B. DeMille. DeMille called Coghlan "the perfect example of a homeless waif" and signed the boy to a long-term contract in 1926; the Los Angeles Times reported on the event: DeMille Signs Child ActorSo far, Cecil B. DeMille hasn't run much to giving picture contracts to youngsters, but yesterday Mr. DeMille signified what he thought of Junior Coghlan by placing him under a long-term contract; the boy has appeared in several DeMille pictures, including'The Road to Yesterday.' The boy gives promise of being another Wesley Berry, with the same impish glance, the same freckles and the same cleverness. Of course, the office of freckled boy of the movies is a fixed institution, now that Wes Berry has gone and got himself married he can't pretend to like playing marbles in the movies.
Little Junior is to be cofeatured with Eleanor Faire and William Boyd in Rupert Julian's The Yankee Clipper. In 1927, Coghlan appeared in the baseball comedy Slide, Slide, playing an orphan who became a mascot and inspiration for an ace baseball pitcher, played by William Haines. By 1928, Coghlan was such a well-known star that the Los Angeles Times reported on his schooling as well as his film projects. By age 11, Coghlan was asking to play grownup roles. A newspaper article at the time reported that Coghlan, "like every other young and red-blooded American, desires to arrive at manhood as soon as possible. Long trousers is what he wants, but the motion picture claims him and demands that he stay in knee breeches."Coghlan's final film on his four-year DeMille-Pathe contract was 1929's military academy drama Square Shoulders. Conceived as a silent film, Square Shoulders was transformed into a "talkie" by the expedient adding of sound to the final reel. Only the silent version is known to survive.
A 1929 newspaper story on Coghlan noted that the twelve-year-old actor was "recognized by the motion picture public as the leading juvenile screen player in the world." With the arrival of the talking pictures, Coghlan continued to be one of the most popular juvenile actors. In the classic 1931 gangster film The Public Enemy, Coghlan played the role of James Cagney's character, Tom Powers, as a boy. In the 1931 screen version of Booth Tarkington's Penrod and Sam, Coghlan starred as Sam, with Leon Janney playing Penrod. In 1932, Coghlan appeared in the Bette Davis drama Hell's House. Davis played the girlfriend of Pat O'Brien's bootlegger character. Coghlan played the role of Shorty, a sickly boy, sent to a state industrial school where children were forced to work at hard labor, ending up in solitary confinement. Coghlan had another starring role in the 1932 film serial The Last of the Mohicans, based on the James Fennimore Cooper novel. Coghlan played the part of Uncas, the sachem of the Mohegan tribe who through an alliance with the English made the Mohegans the leading regional Indian tribe.
He helped launch the career of Shirley Temple, appearing in a series of short films with her in 1933 and 1934. In the shorts, Coghlan played a star baseball player and high school class president. Temple played Mary Lou; the Coghlan-Temple titles included Merrily Yours, What's to Do?, Pardon My Pups, Managed Money. Coghlan had large roles in other features through the mid 1930s, including Ken
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is the federal and national police force of Canada. The RCMP provides law enforcement at the federal level, it provides provincial policing in eight of Canada's provinces and local policing on contract basis in the three territories and more than 150 municipalities, 600 aboriginal communities, three international airports. The RCMP does not provide municipal policing in Ontario or Quebec; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, founded in 1873, the Dominion Police founded in 1868. The former was named the North West Mounted Police, was given the royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. Much of the present-day organization's symbolism has been inherited from its days as the NWMP and RNWMP, including the distinctive Red Serge uniform, paramilitary heritage, mythos as a frontier force; the RCMP-GRC wording is protected under the Trade-marks Act. Despite the name, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is no longer an actual mounted police force, with horses only being used at ceremonial events.
The predecessor NWMP and RNWMP had relied on horses for transport for most of their history, though the RNWMP was switching to automobiles at the time of the merger. As Canada's national police force, the RCMP is responsible for enforcing federal laws throughout Canada while general law and order including the enforcement of the criminal code and applicable provincial legislation is constitutionally the responsibility of the provinces and territories. Larger cities may form their own municipal police departments; the two most populous provinces and Quebec, maintain provincial forces: the Ontario Provincial Police and Sûreté du Québec. The other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP; the RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments. When Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundland's rural areas; the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary patrols urban areas of the province.
In the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force. Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP. Thus, the RCMP polices at the federal and municipal level. In several areas of Canada, it is the only police force; the RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties. Under their federal mandate, the RCMP police including Ontario and Quebec. Federal operations include: enforcing federal laws including commercial crime, drug trafficking, border integrity, organized crime, other related matters. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario and Quebec that do not have an established local police force. There are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, rural towns, but larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia. There, support units investigate for their own detachments, smaller municipal police forces. Investigations include major crimes, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, undercover operations.
Under its National Police Services branch the RCMP supports all police forces in Canada via the Canadian Police Information Centre, Criminal Intelligence Service Canada, Forensic Science and Identification Services, Canadian Firearms Program, the Canadian Police College. The RCMP Security Service was a specialized political intelligence and counterintelligence branch with national security responsibilities, replaced by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in 1984, following revelations of illegal covert operations relating to the Quebec separatist movement. CSIS is its own entity. Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudson's Bay Company. Reports from army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a mounted force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order; the Prime Minister first announced the force as the "North West Mounted Rifles".
However, officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. Macdonald renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police when formed in 1873; the force added "royal" to its name in 1904. It merged with the Dominion Police, the main police force for all points east of Manitoba, in 1920 and was renamed the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police"; the new organization was charged with federal law enforcement in all the provinces and territories, established its modern role as protector of Canadian national security, as well as assuming responsibility for national counterintelligence. As part of its national security and intelligence functions, the