Oak Park, Illinois
Oak Park is a village adjacent to the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It is the 29th largest municipality in Illinois as measured by population in the 2010 U. S. census. As of the 2010 United States Census the village had a population of 51,878. Oak Park was settled beginning in the 1830s, with rapid growth in the 19th century and early 20th century, it incorporated in 1902. Development was spurred by railroads and street cars connecting the village to jobs in Chicago. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright and his wife settled here in 1889. Population peaked at 66,015 in 1940. Smaller families led to falling population in the same number of apartments. In the 1960s, Oak Park faced the challenge of racial integration, devising many strategies to integrate rather than resegregate the village. Oak Park includes three historic districts for the historic homes: Ridgeland, Frank Lloyd Wright and Seward Gunderson, reflecting the focus on historic preservation. In 1835, Joseph Kettlestrings, an immigrant from England, purchased 172 acres of land just west of Chicago for a farm and their home.
Once their children were born, they moved to Chicago for the schools in 1843, moved back again in 1855 to build a more substantial home a bit east on their quarter section of land. More farmers and settlers had entered the area, their land was called by several names locally, including Oak Ridge. When the first post office was set up, it could not use the name Oak Ridge as another post office was using that name in Illinois, so the post office chose Oak Park, that name became the name for the settlement as it grew, for the town when it incorporated in 1902. By 1850, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was constructed as far as Elgin and passed through the settlement area. In the 1850s the land on which Oak Park sits was part of the town of Cicero; the population of the area boomed during the 1870s, with Chicago residents resettling in Cicero following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 and the expansion of railroads and street cars to the area. "In 1872, when Oak Park received its own railroad depot on the Chicago and Northwestern Railway, its rapid emergence as a residential suburb of Chicago began.
In 1877, the railroad was running thirty-nine trains daily between Oak Chicago. As Chicago grew from a regional center to a national metropolis Oak Park expanded – from 500 residents in 1872 to 1,812 in 1890, to 9,353 in 1900, to 20,911 in 1910, to 39,585 in 1920. Oak Park thus emerged as a leading Chicago suburb."A review of Oak Park's history by Wiss, Elstner Associates in 2006 further explains the importance of railroads and street cars in the development of Oak Park: The Village of Oak Park was formally established in 1902, disengaging from Cicero following a referendum. According to the local historical society, "The period 1892–1950 saw the construction of all of the housing stock in Oak Park, most of the village's current buildings." The village population grew and "by 1930, the village had a population of 64,000 larger than the current population", while cherishing a reputation as the "World's Largest Village." Chicago grew in the 19th century, recording 4,470 residing in the 1840 Census in the place so a fur trading post, reaching 1,099,850 in 1890, 1,698,575 in 1900, passing Philadelphia to the number two spot in the US, in that year, the fifth largest in the world.
Chicago was well located on the shores of Lake Michigan for transport. After World War II, "Oak Park was affected by larger developmental trends in the Chicago Metropolitan area; the construction of the Eisenhower Expressway cut through the southern portion of the Village in the mid 1950s. Starting in the 1960s and 1970s, Oak Park has made a conscious effort to accommodate changing demographics and social pressures while maintaining the suburban character that has long made the Village a desirable residential location. Beginning in the 1960s, Oak Park faced the issue of racial integration with effective programs to maintain the character and stability of the Village, while encouraging integration on racial basis; this was the greatest challenge to Oak Park, which some judge it has met with success, see #Demographics. Population fell from the peak level from smaller average household size, including a rise in one-person households. Oak Park has a history of alcohol prohibition; when the village was incorporated, no alcohol was allowed to be sold within its village limits.
This law was relaxed in 1973, when restaurants and hotels were allowed to serve alcohol with meals, was further loosened in 2002, when select grocery stores received governmental permission to sell packaged liquor. Now alcohol, such as beer and wine, is accessible. In 1889, Frank Lloyd Wright and his wife settled in Oak Park, he built many homes and the Unity Temple, his own church, in the village, before he left in 1911 to settle in Wisconsin. Oak Park attracts architecture buffs and others to view the many Frank Lloyd Wright designed homes found in the village, alongside homes reflecting other architectural styles; the largest collection of Wright-designed residential properties in the world is in Oak Park. A distinct focus on historic preservation of important architectural styles began in the 1970s and continues, with many buildings marked as significant, so far, three historic districts defin
Maywood is a village in Proviso Township, Cook County, United States. It was founded on April 6, 1869, organized October 22, 1881; the population was 24,090 at the 2010 United States Census. There was limited European-American settlement in the Maywood area before a railroad was built after the American Civil War, with the rise of Chicago, but at least one house in what became Maywood was used as a station on the Underground Railroad, to aid refugee African-American slaves in escaping to freedom in the North. Some settled in the free state of Illinois; the site of the former house has been nationally commemorated. The plaque is located at the Des Plaines River bridge; this early West Side suburb of Chicago was developed along the oldest railway line exiting the city. It attracted real estate developers because of its open grass prairie and scattered groves of ancient trees. In 1868, Vermont businessmen established the Maywood Company. In 1870 it organized the platting of streets, began construction on the north side of the railroad tracks.
The company planted 20,000 eight-year-old, nursery-grown trees to enhance the future town. In 2010, the last of these 148-year-old trees had succumbed to the emerald ash borer; the oldest documented ash tree in northeast Illinois is dated at 250 years old. It is being protected from the borers with horticultural treatment; the danger is expected to pass locally by year 2020, as it has in Canton, Michigan where borers first arrived. The ash is nicknamed "The Great Dane", after Jens Jensen, founder of the Midwest's prairie ecology movement a century ago; the tree is located within the old growth woods just behind Proviso East high school. With settlement underway, the village was founded on October 22, 1881, by Colonel William T. Nichols, he named it after his late daughter and the groves. Many century-old homes survive here in unaltered condition. Maywood boasts 17 properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places. At one time two airports operated in Maywood. Loyola University Medical Center was developed on the site of one former airport, at the southwest corner of First Avenue and Roosevelt Road.
It was the airfield used by Charles Lindbergh during his days as an airmail pilot. Checkerboard Field was located at the southeastern corner of that intersection and was a private field; the land has been converted to a forest preserve meadow. There was some apparent consolidation of the fields in years. An automobile board racetrack was located here, along with a viewing grandstand. Barney Oldfield raced on the track; the Hines Veterans Hospital constructed one of its buildings on the foundation of the former grandstand. Maywood was established as the base for Illinois National Guard; the Armory was located on Madison Street, two blocks east of First Avenue. It was organized on 3 May 1929 with the purpose of training men for combat. On 25 November 1940, 122 men of the 33rd Tank Company were inducted into active service to become Company B of the famous 192nd Tank Battalion, which fought in the Philippine islands. Many of these American soldiers were taken prisoner by the Japanese and died in April 1942 on the Bataan Death March.
Of the 122 men of Company B, only 41 survived the war to return to Maywood. Their sacrifice has been honored with a Bataan Day Parade. According to the 2010 census, Maywood has a total area of all land. Neighboring villages are Broadview to the south, Forest Park and River Forest to the east, Melrose Park to the north, Bellwood to the west; as of the census of 2000, there were 26,987 people, 7,937 households, 6,151 families residing in the village. The population density was 9,965.7 people per square mile. There were 8,475 housing units at an average density of 3,129.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 82.7% African American, 9.7% White, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 5.6% from other races, 1.63% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.5% of the population. There were 7,937 households out of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 30.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.5% were non-families.
19.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.38 and the average family size was 3.84. In the village, the population was spread out with 31.7% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $41,942, the median income for a family was $46,776. Males had a median income of $41,638 versus $37,316 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,915. About 11.1% of families and 13.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.3% of those under age 18 and 1.8% of those age 65 or over. As of the census 2010, Maywood population was 24,106; the racial makeup of the village was 74.4% African American, 12.6% White, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% Native American.
Maywood-Melrose Park-Broadview School District 89 operates middle schools. Proviso Township High Schools District 209 operates high schools. Emerson Elementary School is an elementary school in Maywood. Enrollment as of 2006 was 476 students; the school teaches grades kindergarten through eighth grade. Other elementary schools in Maywood include Garfield, Washington D
Des Plaines, Illinois
Des Plaines is a city in Cook County, United States. Its population was 58,364 at the 2010 census; the city is located just north of O'Hare International Airport. It is situated on and is named after the Des Plaines River, which runs through the city just east of its downtown area. Potawatomi and Ojibwe Native American tribes inhabited the Des Plaines River Valley prior to Europeans' arrival; when French explorers and missionaries arrived in the 1600s in what was the Illinois Country of New France, they named the waterway La Rivière des Plaines as they felt that trees on the river resembled the European plane trees. The first white settlers came from the eastern United States in 1833, after the Treaty of Chicago, followed by many German immigrants during the 1840s and'50s. In the 1850s, the land in this area was purchased by the Illinois and Wisconsin Land Company along a railroad line planned between Chicago and Janesville, Wisconsin. In 1852, the developers built a steam-powered mill next to the river to cut local trees into railroad ties.
Socrates Rand bought the mill and converted it into a grist mill, which attracted local farmers. The Illinois and Wisconsin Railroad made its first stop in the area in the fall of 1854. In 1857, the Chicago, St. Paul, Fond du Lac Railroad began running its route, stopping near the mill on the Des Plaines river, where a small business section had grown up; the railroad platted the prospective town of Rand at the site. In 1859, the Chicago and North Western Railway purchased the rail line, giving the train station the name "Des Plaines". In 1869, the Rand subdivision's name was changed to Des Plaines, the village of Des Plaines was incorporated. Des Plaines was elected a village board the following year. Local brick manufacturer Franklin Whitcomb served as the first Village President. In 1925, village residents voted to convert to a city form of government and annexed the village of Riverview to the south. Subsequent annexations included the Orchard Place area in 1956; the city experienced rapid growth after World War II and with the opening of nearby Chicago-O'Hare International Airport.
Des Plaines was the site of Ray Kroc's first McDonald's franchise, which opened in 1955. The restaurant was demolished in 1984, a replica was built on the site as a museum dedicated to McDonald's history. In 2017, McDonald's announced plans to demolish the building due to repeated flooding. In 1979, Des Plaines was the site of the accident of American Airlines Flight 191, in which a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 departing from O'Hare lost an engine and wing material and crashed near a local trailer park just north of Touhy Avenue. All 271 people onboard. Two more, along with three civilians, were injured. In 2008, the Illinois Gaming Board awarded the state's 10th and last casino license to Midwest Gaming and Entertainment LLC to build a 140,000-square-foot casino on 21 acres adjacent to the Tri-State Tollway at the northwest corner of Devon Avenue and Des Plaines River Road. Midwest Gaming received the award despite having the lowest bid because other bidders were found unacceptable by the Board, with one board member finding no bidders acceptable.
The city approved zoning in early 2010, the casino opened in July 2011 as Rivers Casino. Des Plaines is located at 42°2′2″N 87°53′59″W. According to the 2010 census, Des Plaines has a total area of 14.415 square miles, of which 14.28 square miles is land and 0.135 square miles is water. Des Plaines is traversed by two interstate highways – I-90 and I-294. Des Plaines is named for the Des Plaines River; the name is from 18th-century French referencing the American sycamore which resembles the European plane tree. Portions of Des Plaines are underlain by the "Des Plaines Disturbance", an area in which the layers of sedimentary rock are abnormal; this represents an ancient meteorite crater, 75 to 200 feet beneath the town. The bedrock was fractured by the impact, with large blocks of sediment upended; the crater was filled by glacial activity, so that no trace now remains on the surface. Addresses in the city limits of Des Plaines have their own numbering system. Areas in unincorporated Maine Township have Des Plaines postal addresses that follow the Chicago numbering system.
Devon Avenue in Des Plaines is 3200 South. Golf Road runs through a large unincorporated area as 9600 North with a Des Plaines mailing address but is 0 North/South when entering the Des Plaines city limits; as sections become incorporated, they take on the city numbering system. For instance in 2003, land at 9661 West Golf Road, Des Plaines, became 2323 East Golf Road, Des Plaines, when it was formally incorporated into the city limits; the largest unincorporated areas are in the O'Hare area and east of the Tri-State Tollway. As of the census of 2000, there were 58,720 people, 22,362 households, 15,071 families residing in the city; the population density was 4,071.2 people per square mile. There were 22,851 housing units at an average density of 1,584.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.44% White, 7.65% Asian / Asian American, 0.26% Native American, 1.01% Black or African American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.64% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races. 14.01% were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Biggest ancestries: German, Irish, English, Swedish. T
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Northern Illinois University
Northern Illinois University is a public research university in DeKalb, Illinois. It was founded as Northern Illinois State Normal School on May 22, 1895, by Illinois Governor John P. Altgeld as part of an expansion of the state's system for producing college-educated teachers. In addition to the main campus in DeKalb, it has satellite centers in Chicago, Hoffman Estates, Naperville and Oregon The university is composed of seven degree-granting colleges and has a student body of 25,000 with over 240,000 alumni. Many of NIU's programs are nationally accredited for meeting high standards of academic quality, including business, nursing and performing arts, all teacher certification programs. NIU is one of only two public universities in Illinois that compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association at the highest levels of all sports, Division I; the university's athletic teams compete in the Mid-American Conference. Northern Illinois University was founded as part of the expansion of the normal school program established in 1857 in Normal, Illinois.
In 1895, the state legislature created a Board of Trustees for the governance of the Northern Illinois State Normal School, which would grow into what is today known as NIU. In July 1917, the Illinois Senate consolidated the boards of trustees for the five state normal schools into one state Normal School Board. Over the next fifty-eight years, the school and the governing board changed their names several times. In 1921, the legislature gave the institution the name Northern Illinois State Teachers College and empowered it to award the four-year Bachelor of Education degree. In 1941, the Normal School Board changed its name to the Teachers College Board. In 1951 the Teachers College Board authorized the college to grant the degree Master of Science in Education, the institution's Graduate School was established. On July 1, 1955, the state legislature renamed the college Northern Illinois State College and authorized the college to broaden its educational services by offering academic work in areas other than teacher education.
The Teachers College Board granted permission for the college to add curricula leading to the degrees Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science. On July 1, 1957, the Seventieth General Assembly renamed Northern Illinois State College as Northern Illinois University in recognition of its expanded status as a liberal arts university. In 1965, the Illinois State Teachers College Board became the Board of Governors of State Colleges and Universities and was reorganized to include Northeastern University, Governor's State, Chicago State Universities. In 1967 authority for Northern Illinois University, Illinois State University, Sangamon State University were passed on to a newly formed Board of Regents. In 1984, the Board of Regents created the position of Chancellor for the three regent universities, to act as a chief executive for all three schools; the Board of Regents and the Chancellor governed the three Regency universities until the end of 1995. On January 1, 1996, authority for each of the three regency universities was transferred to three independent Boards of Trustees, each concerned with one university.
On February 14, 2008, the university drew international attention when a gunman opened fire in a crowd of students on campus, killing five students and injuring 17 more people, before fatally shooting himself. 13 presidents have served at the university. NIU has seven degree-granting colleges that together offer more than 60 undergraduate majors, 70 minors, nine pre-professional programs, 79 graduate programs, including a College of Law, over 20 areas of study leading to doctoral degrees. Many of NIU's academic programs are nationally accredited for meeting the highest standards of academic quality and rigor, including business, nursing and performing arts, all teacher certification programs. New interdisciplinary academic programs in Environmental Studies and Community Leadership and Civic Engagement were established in FY 2012. Northern Illinois University was ranked the 30th top college in the United States by Payscale and CollegeNet's Social Mobility Index college rankings. NIU is classified as a "National University" by U.
S. News & World Report. In the most recent 2014 edition, NIU was ranked number 177 out of 206 ranked National Universities; the same publication ranks NIU as 41st best in the country for Public Affairs programs, within that field, NIU's program in City Management & Urban Policy is ranked 3rd in the nation and the Public Finance & Budgeting program at 12th. Carnegie categorizes Northern as: "RU/H: Research Universities. Washington Monthly ranks NIU as the 135th National University in the United States, making it the 3rd highest ranked public university in Illinois. Forbes magazine, which began publishing an annual list in 2008, prepared by the Center for College Affordability and Productivity, of "America's Best Colleges", uses the list of alumni published in Who's Who in America, student evaluations from RateMyProfessors.com, self-reported salaries of alumni from PayScale, four-year graduation rates, numbers of students and faculty receiving "nationally competitive awards," and four-year accumulated student debt to calculate the rankings, placed NIU as number 561 on its list.
NIU is a member of the Association of Land-Grant Universities. NIU is a member of the prominent Universities Research Ass
Barrington is an affluent suburban village in Cook County and Lake County, United States. The population was 10,327 at the 2010 census. Located 32 miles northwest of Chicago, the area features wetlands, forest preserves and horse trails in a country-suburban setting; the Barrington area ZIP code, 60010, is the seventh-wealthiest ZIP code in the United States among areas with a population of 20,000 or more. Barrington is part of the Chicago metropolitan area and serves as the hub of activity for the surrounding 90-square-mile region which consists of six independent villages including North Barrington, South Barrington, Barrington Hills, Lake Barrington and Tower Lakes, as well as small portions of Carpentersville, Deer Park, Hoffman Estates, Inverness; the village's motto is "a great place to live and play!" The original settlers of the Barrington area were the indigenous peoples of the Native American Prairie Potawatomi or Mascoutin tribes, which divided into the Potawatomi and Ottawa tribes.
Many local roads still in use today, including Algonquin Road, Rand Road, Higgins Road, St. Charles Road, were Native American trails. For many years, Barrington was considered part of the Northwest Territory the Illinois Territory. By treaty dated September 26, 1833, ending the Black Hawk War, the Chippewa and Potawatomi tribes ceded to the United States all lands from the west shore of Lake Michigan west to the area that the Winnebago tribe ceded in 1832, north to the area that the Menominees had ceded to the United States, south to the area ceded by an 1829 treaty at Prairie du Chien, a total of 5,000,000 acres. Through this treaty, the Sacs, Winnebago, Chippewa and Pottawatomi tribes ceded all title to the area east of the Mississippi River. Between 1833 and 1835, the U. S. government paid $100,000 in annuities and grants to the Potawatomi and Chippewa tribes as payment for the land. Following this treaty, pioneers traveling from Troy, New York, via Fort Dearborn to live in Cuba Township in Lake County.
The first white pioneers known to have settled in Barrington township were Jesse F. Miller and William Van Orsdal of Steuben County, New York, who arrived in 1834, before the three-year period, given the Native Americans to vacate the region, before local land surveys. Other settlers from Vermont and New York settled in; the combined settlement of these pioneers, located at the intersection of Illinois Route 68 and Sutton Road, was called Miller Grove due to the number of families with that surname but renamed Barrington Center because it "centered" both ways from the present Sutton Road and from Algonquin and Higgins roads. Although residents and historians agree that the name Barrington was taken from Great Barrington in Berkshire County and that many settlers immigrated to the area from Berkshire County, there is no evidence that settlers emigrated from Great Barrington itself. In addition, several original settlers, including Miller, Van Orsdal, John W. Seymour, emigrated from Steuben County, New York, which features a town named Barrington founded in 1822.
However, it is unknown whether any settlers emigrated from Barrington, New York, itself or whether the New York settlement influenced the naming of Barrington, Illinois. Much of the history of Barrington since its settlement parallels the development of railroad lines from the port facilities in Chicago. In 1854, the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac Railroad, led by William Butler Ogden, extended the train line to the northwest corner of Cook County and built a station named Deer Grove. In 1854, Robert Campbell, a civil engineer who worked for the railroad, purchased a farm 2 miles northwest of the Deer Grove station and platted a community on the property. Deer Grove residents protested, at Campbell's request, the railroad moved the Deer Grove station near its current location, which Campbell named Barrington after Barrington Center. In 1855, the village's first lumber facility began operations on Franklin Street. By 1863, population growth during the Civil War era increased the number of Barrington residents to 300.
In order to provide a tax mechanism to finance improvements, Barrington submitted its request for incorporation in 1863. Delays due to the Civil War resulted in the appropriate incorporation deeds not returning to Barrington for nearly two years; the Illinois legislature granted Barrington's charter on February 16, 1865. The Village held its first Board meeting on March 20, 1865 and appointed resident Homer Wilmarth as Mayor for one year. In 1866, resident Milius B. McIntosh became the first elected Village President. In 1889, the Elgin and Eastern Railway was built through Barrington, crossing what is now the Union Pacific/Northwest Line northwest of town. In the late 19th century, a series of fires damaged numerous downtown buildings. In 1890, fire swept along the north side of East Main Street east of what is now the Union Pacific/Northwest Line, destroying several buildings. In 1893, another fire destroyed most of the block, now Park Avenue, in 1898 a fire destroyed several buildings along the north side of Main Street from Hough Street to the Northwest Line railroad tracks.
As a result of these fires, residents replaced the burned frame structures with more substantial brick and stone buildings, many of which remain in use today. At the beginning of the 20th century, the village streets were unpaved, although the downtown area had
Cicero is a suburb of Chicago and an incorporated town in Cook County, United States. The population was 83,891 at the 2010 census; as of 2013, the town had a total population of 84,103, making it the 11th largest municipality in Illinois. The town of Cicero is named after the Roman statesman and orator. Cicero Township occupied six times its current territory. Weak political leadership and town services resulted in cities such as Oak Park and Berwyn voting to split off from Cicero, other portions such as Austin were annexed into the city of Chicago. By 1911, an aerodrome called the Cicero Flying Field had been established as the town's first aircraft facility of any type, located on a square plot of land about 800 meters per side, on then-open ground at 41°51′19.03″N 87°44′56.5″W by the Aero Club of Illinois, founded on February 10, 1910. Famous pilots like Hans-Joachim Buddecke, Lincoln Beachey, Chance M. Vought and others flew from there at various times during the "pioneer era" of aviation in the United States shortly before the nation's involvement in World War I, before the field closed in mid-April 1916.
Al Capone built his criminal empire in Chicago before moving to Cicero to escape the reach of Chicago police. On July 11–12, 1951, a race riot erupted in Cicero when a mob of around 4,000 attacked and burned an apartment building at 6139 W. 19th Street that housed the African-American family of Harvey Clark Jr. a Chicago Transit Authority bus driver who had relocated to the then-all-white city. Governor Adlai E. Stevenson was forced to call out the Illinois National Guard; the Clarks moved away, the building had to be boarded up. The Cicero riot received worldwide condemnation. Cicero was abandoned several times as site for a civil rights march in the mid-1960s. Cicero had a sundown town policy prohibiting African Americans from living in the city; the American Friends Service Committee, Martin Luther King, Jr. and many affiliated organizations, including churches, were conducting marches against housing and school de facto segregation and inequality in Chicago and several suburbs, but the leaders feared too violent a response in Chicago Lawn and Cicero.
A substantial march was conducted in Chicago Lawn, but only a splinter group, led by Jesse Jackson, marched in Cicero. The marches in the Chicago suburbs helped galvanize support for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 in 1968, extending federal prohibitions against discrimination to private housing; the act created the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity, which enforces the law. The 1980s and 1990s saw a heavy influx of Hispanic residents to Cicero. Once considered a Czech or Bohemian town, most of the European-style restaurants and shops on 22nd Street have been replaced by Spanish-titled businesses. In addition, Cicero has a small black community. Cicero has seen a revival in its commercial sector, with many new mini-malls and large retail stores. New condominiums are being built in the city. Cicero has long had a reputation of government scandal. Most Town President Betty Loren-Maltese was sent to federal prison for misappropriating $12 million in funds.
She was well liked by retired, long-term Cicero residents but was continually challenged by younger Hispanic opponents before her indictment, she had strong ties to members of the Chicago Outfit, which included her deceased husband. According to the 2010 census, Cicero has a total area of all land. Cicero ran from Harlem Avenue to Western Avenue and Pershing Road to North Avenue. St. Mary of Czestochowa, a Neo-Gothic church built in the Polish Cathedral style along with the sculpture of Christ the King by famed sculptor Professor Czesław Dźwigaj, who cast the monumental bronze doors at St. Hyacinth's Basilica in Chicago; the church's other claim to fame is as the site of Al Capone's sister Mafalda's wedding in 1930. J. Sterling Morton High School, East Campus known as Morton East High School, was built in 1894; the original school was destroyed by fire in 1924, the current building was constructed. Located at 2423 S. Austin Blvd, Morton East serves residents of Cicero. Chodl Auditorium, located inside Morton East High School, was built in 1924 to replace the 1,200-seat auditorium, destroyed by fire.
The auditorium was a dual-purpose room, serving as a gymnasium for students, was built for this purpose. In 1967 the school stopped using the auditorium as a gymnasium. Chodl Auditorium is among the largest non-commercial proscenium theatres in the Chicago Metropolitan Area and is listed with the National Register of Historic Places. Hawthorne Works Tower, one of the original towers of the enormous Western Electric manufacturing plant that once stood east of Cicero Avenue, is still located behind the Hawthorne Works Shopping Center near the corner of Cermak Road and Cicero Avenue. Chicagoland Sports Hall of Fame. On the south side of Cicero, there were two racetracks. Hawthorne Race Course, located in Cicero and Stickney, is a horse racing track still in operation. Just north of it was Chicago Motor Speedway at Sportsman's Park, Sportsman's Park Racetrack for many years; this Sportsman's Park facility is now closed, acquired by the Town of Cicero, has since been demolished. Facilities of the Wirtz Beverage Group have been built on the west half and a Walmart built on the east half.
As of the 2010 census, 83,891 people, 22,101 households, a