Hooke Court is a 17th-century house in Dorset, England. It is a Grade II* listed building built around the time of the English Civil War. Standing in about 6 hectares of mature park and woodland, Hooke Court is on the outskirts of Hooke, a village in rural Dorset, it lies at the foot of Warren Hill. In the Civil War it was repaired in 1647 by the Duke of Bolton. There had been medieval buildings on the site. Hooke Court is today used as a residential study centre. In 2007 it was featured on the television series Time Team which attempted to discover the nature of the medieval buildings. River Hooke Hooke Court study centre Archaeological evaluation of the Time Team investigation by Wessex Archaeology
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Beaminster is a small town and civil parish in Dorset, situated in the Dorset Council administrative area 15 miles northwest of the county town Dorchester. It is sited in a bowl-shaped valley near the source of the small River Brit; the 2013 mid-year estimate of the population of Beaminster parish is 3,100. In its history Beaminster has been a centre of manufacture of linen and woollens, the raw materials for which were produced in the surrounding countryside; the town experienced three serious fires in the 18th centuries. Beaminster parish church is notable for its architecture its tower. In the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Beaminster was recorded as being owned by the See of Salisbury. Bishop Osmund gave it as a supplement to two of the Cathedral prebends in 1091. In the English Civil War the town declared for Parliament and was sacked by Royalist forces in 1644. Prince Maurice stayed in the town on Palm Sunday, though his stay was brief because a fire, caused by a musket being discharged into a thatched roof totally destroyed the town.
The town suffered further accidental fires in 1684 and 1781. Beaminster was a centre for the production of linen and woollens. Flax was grown and sheep kept on the surrounding hills and the town was locally more important than it is today: factories were constructed in the 18th and early 19th centuries, as many as seventeen inns existed in the town in the early 20th century. No railway line came through Beaminster and as a result the town declined relative to other local towns such as Bridport and Dorchester. Horn Park, about 1 1⁄2 miles northwest of Beaminster, is a neo-Georgian country house of five bays and two storeys, designed by architect T. Lawrence Dale and completed in 1911. Inside the house the central corridor is barrel vaulted and leads to a drawing room whose groin vault is reminiscent of the work of Sir John Soane; the drawing room includes Jacobean features re-used from the mid-16th-century nearby Parnham House, being altered and restored at about the time that Horn Park was being built.
Horn Park is Listed Grade II. Its gardens are open to the public as part of the National Gardens Scheme. Beaminster is sited 50 to 80 metres above sea level in a bowl-shaped valley, surrounded by hills which rise to 244 metres at Beaminster Down to the northeast; the River Brit and many small streams emerge from springs on the slopes above the town. The confluences of several of these streams are within the town's boundaries. Beaminster's growth has been along the course of these streams, resulting in a settlement pattern, star-shaped. Beaminster is situated 45 miles south of Bristol, 38 miles west of Bournemouth, 35 miles east of Exeter and 15 miles northwest of the county town Dorchester. Beaminster is sited on Middle Jurassic fuller's earth clay, with some Inferior Oolite in the south of the town and Bridport Sand Formation north of the town centre; the hills north and east of the town are Cretaceous chalk with a scarp face of Upper Greensand Formation, while those to the south and west are of Bridport Sand Formation.
There are several faults running west-northwest to east-southeast through the town and its southern environs. Horn Park Quarry SSSI produced building stone from the Inferior Oolite and some quality fossil specimens before becoming a light industrial estate on the road to Broadwindsor. Apart from the ammonites, the site displays a remarkable flat erosion surface and the most complete succession in the Upper Aalenian ironshot oolite limestone of the area. Dorset County Council's 2013 mid-year estimate of the population of Beaminster parish is 3,100; the historic population of Beaminster parish from the censuses between 1921 and 2001 is shown in the table below. Source: Dorset County Council Published results from the 2011 national census combine information on Beaminster parish with the small neighbouring parish of Mapperton to the southeast. Within this area there were 1,680 dwellings, 1,529 households and a population of 3,136. DuPont produce Nisaplin, a commercial formulation of the natural bacteriocin nisin, at a factory in the town.
It was first isolated by Aplin and Barret and produced in the 1950s in the factory laboratory at 11–15 North Street. The Clipper tea company is based in Beaminster, it is owned by the Dutch company Royal Wessanen. Beaminster hosts an annual music and art festival. Whitcombe Disc golf course at Beaminster has hosted the British Open Disc Golf Championship several times and the European Disc Golf Championship in 2003; the town is twinned with the town of Saint-James on the Brittany/Normandy border in France. Beaminster is home to an annual vintage dog and pony show called Buckham Fair, hosted by Martin and Philippa Clunes on their farm in Beaminster. Attracting, on average, around 15,000 visitors for this one-day event in August, the event is run to raise money for a nominated local charity. To date, Buckham Fair has raised over £500,000; the nearest railway station is 5 miles north of the town at Crewkerne. Exeter International Airport is 30 miles to the west; the main road through the town is the A3066, which leads to Bridport to the south and Mosterton and Crewkerne to the north.
The road north passes through Horn Hill tunnel, which opened in June 1832 and is the sole pre-railway age road tunnel, still in daily public use. Primary schools in the town include St Mary's Church of England Primary School. Beaminster School is the town's secondary school, it has a combined sixth form with The Sir John
Isle of Portland
The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, 4 miles long by 1.7 miles wide, in the English Channel. Portland is 5 miles south of the resort of Weymouth, forming the southernmost point of the county of Dorset, England. A barrier beach called; the A354 road passes down the Portland end of the beach and over the Fleet Lagoon by bridge to the mainland. Portland and Weymouth together form the borough of Portland; the population of Portland is 12,400. Portland is a central part of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site on the Dorset and east Devon coast, important for its geology and landforms. Portland stone, famous for its use in British and world architecture, including St Paul's Cathedral and the United Nations Headquarters, continues to be quarried. Portland Harbour, in between Portland and Weymouth, is one of the largest man-made harbours in the world; the harbour was made by the building of stone breakwaters between 1848 and 1905. From its inception it was a Royal Navy base, played prominent roles during the First and Second World Wars.
The harbour is now a civilian port and popular recreation area, was used for the 2012 Olympic Games. The name Portland is used for one of the British Sea Areas, has been exported as the name of North American and Australian towns. Portland has been inhabited since at least the Mesolithic period —there is archaeological evidence of Mesolithic inhabitants at the Culverwell Mesolithic Site, near Portland Bill, of habitation since then; the Romans occupied Portland. Although the beginning of the Viking Age in England is dated to their raid in 793, when they destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne, their first documented landing occurred in Portland four years earlier, in 789, as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Three lost Viking ships from Hordaland landed at Portland Bill; the king's reeve tried to collect taxes from them. In 1539 King Henry VIII ordered the construction of Portland Castle for defence against attacks by the French, it is one of the best preserved castles from this period, is opened to the public by the custodians English Heritage.
In the 17th century, chief architect and Surveyor-General to James I, Inigo Jones, surveyed the area and introduced the local Portland stone to London, using it in his Banqueting House and for repairs on St Paul's Cathedral. His successor, Sir Christopher Wren, the architect and Member of Parliament for nearby Weymouth, used six million tons of white Portland limestone to rebuild destroyed parts of the capital after the Great Fire of London of 1666. Well-known buildings in the capital, including St Paul's Cathedral and the eastern front of Buckingham Palace feature the stone. After the First World War, a quarry was opened by The Crown Estate to provide stone for the Cenotaph in Whitehall and half a million gravestones for war cemeteries, after the Second World War hundreds of thousands of gravestones were hewn for soldiers who had fallen on the Western Front. Portland cement has nothing to do with Portland. There have been railways in Portland since the early 19th century; the Merchant's Railway was the earliest—it opened in 1826 and ran from the quarries at the north of Tophill to a pier at Castletown, from where the Portland stone was shipped around the country.
The Weymouth and Portland Railway was laid in 1865, ran from a station in Melcombe Regis, across the Fleet and along the low isthmus behind Chesil Beach to a station at Victoria Square in Chiswell. At the end of the 19th century the line was extended to the top of the island as the Easton and Church Ope Railway, running through Castletown and ascending the cliffs at East Weares, to loop back north to a station in Easton; the line closed to passengers in 1952, the final goods train ran in April 1965. The Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck stationed a lifeboat at Portland in 1826, withdrawn in 1851. Coastal flooding has affected Portland's residents and transport for centuries—the only way off the island by land is along the causeway in the lee of Chesil Beach. At times of extreme floods this road link is cut by floods; the low-lying village of Chiswell used to flood on average every 5 years. Chesil Beach faces severe storms and massive waves, which have a fetch across the Atlantic Ocean.
Following two severe flood events in the 1970s, Weymouth and Portland Borough Council and Wessex Water decided to investigate the structure of the beach, coastal management schemes that could be built to protect Chiswell and the beach road. In the 1980s it was agreed that a scheme to protect against a one-in-five-year storm would be practicable. Hard engineering techniques were employed in the scheme, including a gabion running 550 metres to the north of Chiswell, an extended sea wall in Chesil Cove, a culvert running from inside the beach, underneath the beach road and into Portland Harbour, to divert flood water away from low-lying areas. At the start of the First World War, HMS Hood was sunk in the passage between the southern breakwaters to protect the harbour from torpedo and submarine attack. Portland Harbour was formed by the construction of breakwaters, but before that the natural anchorage had hosted ships of the Royal Navy for more than 50
Swanage is a coastal town and civil parish in the south east of Dorset, England. It is at the eastern end of the Isle of Purbeck and one of its two towns 6 1⁄4 miles south of Poole and 25 miles east of Dorchester. In the 2011 census the civil parish had a population of 9,601. Nearby are Ballard Down and Old Harry Rocks, with Studland Bay and Poole Harbour to the north. Within the parish are Durlston Bay and Durlston Country Park to the south of the town; the parish includes the areas of Herston, just to the west of the town, Durlston, just to the south. The town a small port and fishing village, flourished in the Victorian era, when it first became a significant quarrying port and a seaside resort for the rich of the day. Today the town remains a popular tourist resort, this being the town's primary industry, with many thousands of visitors coming to the town during the peak summer season, drawn by the bay's sandy beaches and other attractions. During its history the bay was listed variously as Swanawic and Sandwich, only in more recent history as Swanage.
The town is located at the eastern end of a World Heritage Site. The town contains many listed buildings and two conservation areas – Swanage Conservation Area and Herston Conservation Area. While fishing is the town's oldest industry, quarrying has been important to the town and the local area since at least the 1st century AD. During the time of the Roman occupation this industry grew, with the distinctive Purbeck marble being used for decorative purposes in buildings as far away as London; when the Romans left Britain, quarrying ceased until the 12th century. The town is first mentioned in historical texts in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 877, it is stated as being the scene of a great naval victory by King Alfred over the Danes: "This year came the Danish army into Exeter from Wareham. A hundred Danish ships which had survived the battle were driven by a storm onto Peveril Point, a shallow rocky reef outcropping from the southern end of Swanage Bay. A monument topped by cannonballs was built in 1882 by John Mowlem to celebrate this event and is at the southern end of the seafront promenade.
In the 12th century demand for Purbeck Marble grew once again. While Purbeck marble is not suited to external use, as it does not weather well, it is however strong and suitably decorative for use as internal columns; as such the stone was used in the construction of many large churches and cathedrals being built at the time. In contrast to the decorative Purbeck marble, Purbeck limestone, or more commonly'Purbeck stone', has been used in construction locally since the early days of quarrying on Purbeck, its use is less well documented as it was taken for granted as the default construction materials in the area. However, the arrival of more modern quarrying techniques in the 17th century resulted in an increase in production; the Great Fire of London in 1666 led to a period of large-scale reconstruction in the city, Purbeck stone was extensively used for paving. It was in this time that stone first started being loaded upon ships directly from the Swanage seafront; the idea that Swanage could become a tourist destination was first encouraged by a local MP William Morton Pitt in the early 19th century, who converted a mansion in the town into a luxury hotel.
The hotel is noted for having been visited in 1833 by the Princess Victoria to become queen. The building was renamed the Royal Victoria Hotel, now the building has been converted into flats and a bar and nightclub in the left and right wings respectively; the town's greatest prominence came during the Victorian period. John Mowlem, a Swanage resident, became a successful builder in London, creating the Mowlem construction company, which still existed as as 2006, when it was acquired by another company, Carillion. John Mowlem made his business in London by importing stone into the city from around the country, including Purbeck limestone. Through this process, many relics and monuments were brought from London to Swanage in the 19th century by Mowlem and his nephew George Burt who took over the business when Mowlem retired, it is said that these items brought from London were used as ballast for the empty vessels which transported the Purbeck stone to London. These include the big clock tower near Peveril Point.
The clock tower, commemorating the Duke of Wellington, designed by Arthur Ashpitel, was built in 1854 at the southern approach to the old London Bridge. Within 10 years it had to be removed, it was re-erected 1867–68 on its present site at the southern end of the bay on the sea front. A further item transported from London to Swanage is the 1860 façade of the Mercers' Hall, used as the façade of the Swanage Town Hall, designed by G. R. Crickmay of Weymouth, built during the early 1880s. Mowlem and Burt were influential in the development of the town, taking an active interest in their town of birth into retirement. Between them they were responsible for the building of much of the town's infrastructure, including the town's first pier, the Mowlem Institute, the first gas and water works, the development of the Durlston estate and Country Park, at the southern end of the town; the Great Globe which can be found south of Durlston Castle, both designed by Crickmay, in the Durlston Country Park was completed by George Burt in 1887.
It is made up of 15 se
Blandford Forum Blandford, is a market town in the North Dorset district of Dorset, sited by the River Stour about 13 mi northwest of Poole. It is the administrative headquarters of North Dorset District Council. Blandford is notable for its Georgian architecture, the result of rebuilding after the majority of the town was destroyed by a fire in 1731; the rebuilding work was assisted by an Act of Parliament and a donation by George II, the rebuilt town centre—to designs by local architects John and William Bastard—has survived to the present day intact. Blandford Camp, a military base, is sited on the hills two miles to the north east of the town, it is the base of the Royal Corps of Signals, the communications wing of the British Army, the site of the Royal Signals Museum. Dorset County Council estimates that in 2013 the town's civil parish had a population of 10,610; the town's economy is based on a mix of the service sector and light industry, provides employment for about 4,000 people. Blandford has been a fording point since Anglo-Saxon times, when it was recorded as Blaen-y-ford and as Blaneford in the Domesday Book.
The name Blandford derives from the Old English blǣge, means ford where gudgeon or blay are found. By the 13th century it had become a market town with a livestock market serving the nearby Blackmore Vale with its many dairy farms. At the start of the 14th century it returned two members of parliament and was known as Cheping Blandford; the Latin word Forum, meaning market, was recorded in 1540. In Survey of Dorsetshire, written by Thomas Gerard of Trent in the early 1630s, Blandford was described as "a faire Markett Towne, pleasantlie seated upon the River... well inhabitted and of good Traffique". In the 17th-century English Civil War Blandford was a Royalist centre. In the 18th century Blandford was one of several lace-making centres in the county. I think I never saw better in Flanders, France or Italy". In the 17th and 18th centuries Blandford was a malting and brewing centre of some significance. All of Blandford's buildings were destroyed on 4 June 1731 by the "great fire", the last of several serious fires that occurred in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
The fire began in a tallow chandler's workshop on a site, now The King's Arms public house. Within a few hours 90% of the town's fabric had gone. Properties west of the river in Blandford St Mary and Bryanston were burned, though notable buildings that survived in the town include the Ryves Almshouses and Dale House in Salisbury Street, Old House in The Close, much of East Street. An Act of Parliament was introduced that stated that rebuilding work must be in brick and tile and should begin within four years. With assistance from the rest of the country—including £1,000 given by George II—the town was rebuilt over the next ten years to the designs of local architects John and William Bastard. Bottlenecks were removed and streets realigned in the new town plan, which provided a wider market place; as well as residential and commercial property, new buildings included a new town hall and church. The redesigned town centre has survived to the present day intact. After the post-fire reconstruction Blandford remained a thriving market town.
Wool spinning and button making were significant, the brewing and hostelry trades expanded. The turnpike road between Salisbury and Dorchester was made in 1756 and passed through the town, the arrival of the coaching era increased the town's prosperity, though the built fabric of the town changed little until the first half of the 19th century, when houses for wealthier inhabitants were built to the north alongside the roads to Salisbury and Shaftesbury. In the 19th century following the installation of piped water, more densely packed buildings were built to the northeast, replacing gardens and barracks for the poor between the roads to Salisbury and Wimborne Minster. Rail transport arrived in Blandford in the 1860s, though this did not impact on the town's economy. Blandford's weekly animal market disappeared in the 20th century a casualty of motorised transport that enabled larger markets to be held in fewer centres. By the middle of the 20th century Blandford Fair, a seasonal sheep fair held in summer and autumn, had disappeared, due to changes in animal husbandry and a reduction in sheep numbers in the county.
In the early 21st century a number of private housing developments were built in and around the town. In the United Kingdom national parliament, Blandford is in the North Dorset parliamentary constituency, represented by Simon Hoare of the Conservative party. At the top tier of local government Blandford is governed by Dorset County Council, the main responsibilities of which include schools and other education, planning, public transport, social care and heritage, public health, museums & the arts, trading standards and planning for emergencies. At the middle tier of local government Blandford is governed by North Dorset District Council. Since 2006 North Dorset District Council has reduced its direct service provision via a system of decentralised community partnerships with local organisations such as town councils. North Dorset District Council is in a'tri-council' partnership with two other district-level councils in Dorset, West Dorset District Council and Weymouth and Portland