Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England. Protected by National Park status as Dartmoor National Park, it covers 954 km2; the granite which forms the uplands dates from the Carboniferous Period of geological history. The moorland is capped with many exposed granite hilltops known as tors, providing habitats for Dartmoor wildlife; the highest point is 621 m above sea level. The entire area is rich in antiquities and archaeology. Dartmoor is managed by the Dartmoor National Park Authority, whose 22 members are drawn from Devon County Council, local district councils and Government. Parts of Dartmoor have been used as military firing ranges for over 200 years; the public is granted extensive land access rights on Dartmoor and it is a popular tourist destination. Dartmoor includes the largest area of granite in Britain, with about 625 km2 at the surface, though most of it is under superficial peat deposits; the granite was intruded at depth as a pluton into the surrounding sedimentary rocks during the Carboniferous period about 309 million years ago.
It is accepted that the present surface is not far below the original top of the pluton. A considerable gravity anomaly is associated with the Dartmoor pluton as with other such plutons. Measurement of the anomaly has helped to determine the shape and extent of the rock mass at depth. Dartmoor is known for its tors – hills topped with outcrops of bedrock, which in granite country such as this are rounded boulder-like formations. More than 160 of the hills of Dartmoor have the word tor in their name but quite a number do not. However, this does not appear to relate to whether or not there is an outcrop of rock on their summit; the tors are the focus of an annual event known as the Ten Tors Challenge, when around 2400 people aged between 14 and 19 walk for distances of 56, 72 or 88 km between ten tors on many differing routes. The highest points on Dartmoor are on the northern moor: High Willhays, 621 m, Yes Tor, 619 m, The highest points on the southern moor are Ryder's Hill, 515 m, Snowdon 495 m, an unnamed point, 493 m at, between Langcombe Hill and Shell Top.
The best-known tor on Dartmoor is Haytor, 457 m. For a more complete list see List of Dartmoor tors and hills; the high ground of Dartmoor forms the catchment area for many of Devon's rivers. As well as shaping the landscape, these have traditionally provided a source of power for moor industries such as tin mining and quarrying; the moor takes its name from the River Dart, which starts as the East Dart and West Dart and becomes a single river at Dartmeet. It leaves the moor at Buckfastleigh, flowing through Totnes below where it opens up into a long ria, reaching the sea at Dartmouth. For a full list, expand the Rivers of Dartmoor navigational box at the bottom of this page. Much more rain falls on Dartmoor than in the surrounding lowlands; as much of the national park is covered in thick layers of peat, the rain is absorbed and distributed so the moor is dry. In areas where water accumulates, dangerous bogs or mires can result; some of these, topped with bright green moss, are known to locals as "feather beds" or "quakers", because they can shift beneath a person's feet.
Quakers result from sphagnum moss growing over the water that accumulates in the hollows in the granite. The vegetation of the bogs depends on the location. Blanket bog, which forms on the highest land where the rainfall exceeds 2,000 millimetres a year, consists of cotton-grass, Bog Asphodel and Common Tormentil, with Sphagnum thriving in the wettest patches; the valley bogs have lush growth of rushes, with sphagnum, cross-leaved heath and several other species. Some of the bogs on Dartmoor have achieved notoriety. Fox Tor Mires was the inspiration for Great Grimpen Mire in Conan Doyle's novel The Hound of the Baskervilles, although there is a waymarked footpath across it. Sabine Baring-Gould, in his Book of Dartmoor related the story of a man, making his way through Aune Mire at the head of the River Avon when he came upon a top-hat brim down on the surface of the mire, he kicked it, whereupon a voice called out: "What be you a-doin' to my'at?" The man replied, "Be there now a chap under'n?"
"Ees, I reckon," was the reply, "and a hoss under me likewise." Along with the rest of South West England, Dartmoor has a temperate climate, wetter and milder than locations at similar height in the rest of England. At Princetown, near the centre of the moor at a height of 453 metres and February are the coldest months with mean minimum temperatures around 1 °C. July and August are the warmest months with mean daily maxima not reaching 18 °C. Compared with Teignmouth, on the coast about 22 miles to the east, the average maximum and minimum temperatures are 3.0 °C and 2.6 °C lower and frost is at least five times as frequent. On the highest ground, in the north of the moor, the growing season is less than 175 days – this contrasts with some 300 days along most of the south coast of the county. Rainfall tends to be associated with
Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric; the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex was expanded under his rule. Cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight, his successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes and established a second West Saxon bishopric. The throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew, Wessex retained its independence, it was during this period. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia, along with parts of Dumnonia, were conquered, he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830. During the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.
When Æthelwulf's son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war. Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave, they were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, but were defeated at the Battle of Edington. During his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfred's son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Æthelflæd. Edward's son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, but in 1066 Harold Godwinson reunited the earldom with the crown and Wessex ceased to exist.
Modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. A millennium before that, in the Late Neolithic, the ceremonial sites of Avebury and Stonehenge were completed on Salisbury Plain; this area has many other earthworks and erected stone monuments from the Neolithic and Early Bronze periods, including the Dorset Cursus, an earthwork 10 km long and 100 m wide, oriented to the midwinter sunset. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this long period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements. From the Neolithic onwards the chalk downland of Wessex was traversed by the Harrow Way, which can still be traced from Marazion in Cornwall to the coast of the English Channel near Dover, was connected with the ancient tin trade. During the Roman occupation starting in the 1st century AD, numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, along with the important towns of Dorchester and Winchester; the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London.
The early 4th century was a peaceful time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360, stopped by Roman forces, the Picts and Scots attacked Hadrian's Wall in the far north in 367 and defeated the soldiers stationed along it, they laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368; the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, but in 401 he took Roman troops from Britain to fight the Goths. Two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered. Constantine III became ruler, but he left for Gaul and withdrew more troops; the Britons requested assistance from Honorius, but when he replied in 410 he told them to manage their own defenses. By this point, there were no longer any Roman troops in Britain. Economic decline occurred after these events: circulation of Roman coins ended and the importation of items from the Roman Empire stopped.
In An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England, Peter Hunter Blair divides the traditions concerning the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain into two categories: Welsh and English. De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written by Gildas, contains the best preservation of the Welsh tradition. In brief, it states that after the Romans left, the Britons managed to continue for a time without any major disruptions. However, when faced with northern invaders, a certain unnamed ruler in Britain requested assistance from the Saxons in exchange for land. There were no conflicts between the British and the Saxons for a time, but following "a dispute about the supply of provisions" the Saxons warred against the British and damaged parts of the country. In time, some Saxon troops left Britain. A lengthy conflict ensued, in which neither side gained any decisive advantage until the Britons routed the Saxons at the Battle of M
The Tamar is a river in south west England, that forms most of the border between Devon and Cornwall. The area is a World Heritage Site due to its historic mining activities; the Tamar's source is less than 6 km from the north Cornish coast, but it flows southward and its course runs across the peninsula to the south coast. The total length of the river is 61 miles. At its mouth, the Tamar flows into the Hamoaze before entering Plymouth Sound, a bay of the English Channel. Tributaries of the river include the rivers Inny, Ottery and Lynher on the Cornish side, the Deer and Tavy on the Devon side; the name Tamar was mentioned by Ptolemy in the second century in his Geography. The name is said to mean "Great Water." The Tamar is one of several British rivers whose ancient name is assumed by some to be derived from a prehistoric river word meaning "dark flowing" and which it shares with the River Thames. The seventh century Ravenna Cosmography mentions a Roman settlement named Tamaris, but it is unclear which of the towns along the Tamar this refers to.
Plymouth and the Roman fort at Calstock have been variously suggested. The river is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a European Special Area of Conservation, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, it is designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. In November 2013, South West Water was fined £50,000 after it admitted permitting the discharge of sewage from its Camels Head treatment plant into a tributary of the River Tamar for eight years. Together, the Tamar and Lynher form the Tamar Valley, a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher. It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995; the highest point in the AONB is 334 metres above sea level. The Plymouth Sound and Estuaries are a European Special Area of Conservation. Rocky reefs in low salinity estuarine conditions far inland on the Tamar are unusual and support species such as the hydroid Cordylophora caspia.
The Tamar is one of a few estuaries where zonation of rocky habitats can be observed along an estuarine gradient. The Tamar–Tavy Estuary is a Site of Special Scientific Interest covering the tidal estuaries of the River Tamar and the River Tavy. Part of the Tamar estuary forms the Tamar Estuary Nature Reserve, owned by the Cornwall Wildlife Trust; the site was designated in 1991 for its biodiversity and varying habitats that support a large number of wader and wildfowl species, as well as the special interest of its marine biology. The site supports a nationally important wintering population of avocet and supports species such as black-tailed godwit, greenshank, spotted redshank, green sandpiper and golden plover. Throughout human history the valley has been continuously exploited for its rich mineral and metal deposits including silver, tin and arsenic leaving a unique archaeological landscape which forms a significant part of the Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape. Remains include wheal or engine houses and open cast mines dating from the Bronze Age through to the medieval and modern era, the export docks at Morwellham Quay were once an international centre of trade in copper and arsenic.
The valley, with the stannary town of Tavistock was added to the World Heritage List during the 30th Session of the UNESCO World Heritage Committee in Vilnius, July 2006. According to Ordnance Survey mapping, the source of the Tamar is at Woolley Moor 3.5 miles from the north Cornish coast, at 50.9235°N 4.4622°W / 50.9235. The location of the spring is a "high windswept plateau devoid of farmland, inhabited by stunted trees and wiry undergrowth." The exact source of the river is difficult to pinpoint, because it arises "from a boggy morass... behind a hedge near some willow trees at Woolley Barrows... A small square stone culvert drains the first tentative trickle of water away from the bog, through a hedge and into a ditch. From here a pipe carries the water under the highway and the infant river Tamar is on its way to the sea at Plymouth." The Upper Tamar Lake and Lower Tamar Lake are two small reservoirs on the Tamar's upper course. The Lower Lake was constructed in the 1820s to feed the Bude Canal.
The Upper Lake was constructed in the 1970s and supplies fresh water to the Bude area, as well as having some recreational use. The east bank of the Tamar was fixed as the border of Cornwall by King Athelstan in the year 936. Several villages north of Launceston, to the west of the Tamar, were transferred to Devon somewhen in the eleventh century; the county boundary was restored to the Tamar in 1966, when the civil parishes of North Petherwin and Werrington were transferred from Devon to Cornwall. The Counties Act 1844 ensured parishes were within one county, it transferred a part of the Rame Peninsula from Devon to Cornwall. The Act transferred part of the parish of Bridgerule to Devon and part of the parish of North Tamerton to Cornwall — these latter transfers created two of the present-day'exceptions' to the river boundary; the modern administrative border between Devon and Cornwall more follows the Tamar and Hamoaze than the'historic' county border (of the 11th to 19th centurie
Flora and fauna of Cornwall
Cornwall is the county that forms the tip of the southwestern peninsula of England. The mild climate allows rich plant cover, such as palm trees in the far south and west of the county and in the Isles of Scilly, due to sub-tropical conditions in the summer. On Cornwall's moors and high ground areas the high elevation makes tree cover impossible because of the wind, so these areas are populated by shrubs and bushes such as gorse and heather. Ferns, liverworts and fungi can all be found in the county. In the wettest areas of Bodmin Moor, sphagnum or bog moss can be found. Cornwall is home to many rare flower species at the southern end of the Lizard, due to its unique soil and geology. On the Lizard Peninsula, Cornish heath – the floral emblem of Cornwall – mesembryanthemums, butcher's broom, early meadow grass and a wide range of clovers including the Lizard clover and yellow wallpepper can be found; the north coast of Cornwall features maritime grassland and stunted woodland. The county's coastal waters are home to large populations of seals.
Porpoises and sharks are not uncommonly seen. St Ives made newspaper headlines after a reported sighting of a great white shark. Porbeagles inhabit the coastal waters but the etymology of the word is obscure. A common suggestion is that it combines "porpoise" and "beagle", referencing this shark's shape and tenacious hunting habits. Another is that it is derived from the Cornish porth, meaning "harbour", bugel, meaning "shepherd"; the Oxford English Dictionary states that the word was either borrowed from Cornish or formed from a Cornish first element with the English "beagle". Squalus cornubicus. Swanpool is the only location in the British Isles; the sea cliffs host many marine bird species with the Cornish chough returning to the county after a long absence. This rare bird holds the honour of appearing on the Cornish coat of arms and being the county animal of Cornwall; the tidal estuaries along the coasts contain large numbers of wading birds, while marshland bird species settle in the bogs and mires inland.
Bodmin Moor is a breeding ground for species such as lapwing and curlew. On and around the rivers, sand martins and kingfishers are seen, while after a decline in the 1960s and 1970s, otters have been returning in large numbers; the Camel Valley is one of the habitats for otters. Bude Canal offers an ideal habitat for water voles, although the population is declining because of habitat degradation and pollution, like in other parts of the country. Cornish chough: Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax, the nominate subspecies and smallest form, is endemic to the British Isles, where it is restricted to Ireland, the Isle of Man, the far west of Wales and Scotland, although it has recolonised Cornwall after an absence of many years. Mousehole Wild Bird Hospital and Sanctuary is a wildlife hospital based near Mousehole; the hospital was founded in 1928 by Dorothy and Phyllis Yglesias and became famous following the Torrey Canyon disaster. Cornish Seal Sanctuary, Gweek The Tamar Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers around 195 km2 around the lower Tamar and its tributaries the Tavy and the Lynher.
It was first proposed in 1963, but was not designated until 1995. The Tamar Otter and Wildlife Centre has European and Asian short-clawed otters and a medium-sized duck pond, a nature trail including snowy and barn owls and other birds along it, it has a restaurant area and a gift shop. The nature trail is full of wildlife such as fallow and muntjac deer and the not quite so English wallabies; as well as this the nature trail has a waterfall falling down from the top of an old quarry and every few years different segments of the woodlands are coppiced. Some of the wood from this scheme is piled up in random areas of the woodlands as it makes a perfect home for badgers and many creepy crawlies. Several nature sites exist on the Lizard Peninsula, it is home to one of England's rarest breeding birds – the Cornish chough. This species of crow, distinctive due to its red beak and legs, as well as the haunting "chee-aw" call, began breeding on Lizard in 2002; this followed a concerted effort by the Cornish Chough Project in conjunction with DEFRA and the RSPB.
The Lizard contains some of the most specialised flora of any area in Britain, including many Red Data Book plant species. Of particular note is the Cornish heath, Erica vagans, that occurs in abundance here, but, found nowhere else in Britain, it is one of the few places where the rare formicine ant, Formica exsecta, can be found. The Lizard district has a local organisation, the Lizard Field Club, whose members have studied the natural history of the area since 1953. At Polruan the gorse covered south facing cliffs between Polruan and Polperro provide habitats for the goldfinch and stonechat in particular. Viparian life includes the adder; the latter is numerous. Marine life includes the basking shark. In 1972 a large example was seen at the end of Polruan Quay. Other fish that may be found in local waters including the estuary include: bass, seahorse, pipe fish, coalfish, plaice, conger eel, Eu
Yeolmbridge is a village in Cornwall in Devon, two and a half miles north of Launceston. The village takes its name from the bridge, Yeolm Bridge which crosses the River Ottery and is Grade I listed and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Built about 1350, it is best built of medieval Cornish bridges. In 1951 Nikolaus Pevsner described it as Cornwall's "most ambitious" bridge. Yeolmbridge Quarry SSSI is 250 m to the east of the village; the quarry is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Geological Conservation Review site, as the type–locality of the Yeolmbridge Formation. Joan Rendell, an English historian and phillumenist, was resident at Yeolmbridge in the latter part of her life
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P
The Culm Measures are a thick sequence of geological strata originating during the Carboniferous Period that occur in south-west England, principally in Devon and Cornwall, now known as the Culm Supergroup. Its estimated thickness varies between 3600 m and 4750 m though intense folding complicates it at outcrop, they are so called because of the occasional presence in the Barnstaple–Hartland area of a soft lenticular, sooty coal, known in Devon as culm. The word culm may be derived from the Old English word for coal col or from the Welsh word cwlwm meaning knot. Most of the succession consists of shales and thin sandstones, but there are occurrences of slate and chert. Culm grassland on the formation's slates and shales is composed of purple moor grass and rush pasture, it is noted for a wide diversity of species, some rare including the marsh fritillary butterfly. Some 92 percent of Culm grassland has been lost in the past 100 years, 48 percent being lost between 1984 and 1991 alone. There are a number of organisations trying to halt the decline including Devon Wildlife Trust with its Culm Natural Networks project, Butterfly Conservation, Natural England with its Environmental Stewardship Scheme.
Culm soils have traditionally been used for grazing as they are heavy to acidic. In the main Culm Basin and north Devon the succession is nowadays divided into an upper Holsworthy Group and an underlying Teign Valley Group. By way of contrast, in south Devon the entire supergroup is represented by the Chudleigh Group; the Holsworthy Group is itself divided into an upper Bude Formation and a lower Crackington Formation though a Bideford Formation intervenes in the Bideford area. In the Launceston area the entire group is represented by the Bealsmill Formation; the Teign Valley Group is subdivided into numerous formations, two of the more significant of which are the Dowhills Mudstone and Teign Chert formations. The Chudleigh Group divides into an upper Ugbrooke Sandstone Formation and a lower Winstow Chert Formation; the Culm Measures give their name to The Culm national character area and natural area of England, a component of a landscape classification system co-ordinated by the public body Natural England.
The Culm NCA covers a large part of north Devon, contains 3,831 ha of the Dartmoor National Park, 9,009 ha of the North Devon Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and 7,814 ha of the Cornwall AONB, as well as the North Devon Heritage Coast. The area is known for Culm grassland: species-rich pastures, typical of poorly drained acid soils, which support a suite of purple moor-grass and rush communities, forming a mosaic of vegetation communities with heathland, other species-rich grassland and wet woodland; this is a habitat unlike any other in England, which supports distinctive and attractive plant species, including heath spotted-orchid, south marsh-orchid and saw-wort. The Culm Natural Area: a nature conservation profile. "Culm". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Pp. 617–618