Borders Group, Inc. was an international book and music retailer based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In its final year, the company employed about 19,500 people throughout the U. S. in its Borders and Waldenbooks stores. At the beginning of 2010, the company operated 511 Borders superstores in the US; the company operated 175 stores in the Waldenbooks Specialty Retail segment, including Waldenbooks, Borders Express, Borders airport stores, Borders Outlet stores. In February 2011, Borders applied for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and began liquidating 226 of its stores in the United States. Despite a purchase offer from the private-equity firm Najafi Companies, Borders was not able to find a buyer acceptable to its creditors before its July bidding deadline, so it began liquidating its remaining 399 retail outlets, with the last remaining stores closing their doors in September; the Chapter 11 case was converted to Chapter 7. Rival bookseller Barnes & Noble acquired Borders' trademarks and customer list.
By the end of December 2010, Borders employed an estimated 1,150 across its U. K. stores, which went into bankruptcy administration before the end of 2010. All stores were closed by December 31, 2010. Borders Group formerly operated stores in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. However, these were sold off to Pacific Equity Partners in 2008 were sold again to REDgroup Retail; the stores continued to operate under the Borders brand as the unaffiliated "Borders Asia Pacific" until RedGroup was placed into voluntary administration in February 2011. The original Borders bookstore was located in Ann Arbor, where it was founded in 1971 by brothers Tom and Louis Borders during their undergraduate and graduate years at the University of Michigan; the first Borders bookshop opened at 209 State Street, Ann Arbor in 1971. Wahr's had been a textbook and school-supplies vendor, but the brothers did not deal in textbooks, they moved the retail bookshop to much larger quarters that had become available across the street at 303 South State, in the former location of the Wagner and Son men's clothing store.
The old shop was renamed Charing Cross Bookshop and Tom Frick was sent over from the new bookshop to help. The downtown Ann Arbor store moved across the street again in 1994 to 612 East Liberty, at the southwest corner of Liberty and State Streets, in the building once occupied by the defunct Jacobson's Department Store. Although not the original location, it was identified as "Borders #1" because it was the flagship store. Former Hickory Farms president Robert F. DiRomualdo was hired in 1989 to expand the company; the Borders brothers' inventory system tailored each store's offerings to its community. A sister company, Book Inventory Systems, was founded to serve as a wholesaler for and provide the brothers' custom inventory system to regional independent bookstores such as John Rollins, Thackeray's, Schuler Books, Joseph-Beth Booksellers. Borders was acquired in 1992 by Kmart, which had acquired mall-based book chain Waldenbooks eight years earlier. Kmart had struggled with the book division, having first tinkered with the assortment and with discounting.
In the Borders acquisition, Kmart merged the two companies in hopes that the experienced Borders senior management could bail out floundering Waldenbooks. Instead, many of the Borders senior management team left the company, leaving behind an larger and more unwieldy division for Kmart executives to handle on the heels of aggressive expansions by rivals Barnes & Noble and Crown Books. Facing its own fiscal problems and intense pressure from stockholders, Kmart spun off Borders in a structured stock-purchase plan; the newly formed company was called Borders-Walden Group and, by the end of the same year, renamed Borders Group. In 1994, Borders operated a mall-based toy store called All Wound Up, which sold toys and novelty items. Most All Wound Up stores were seasonal kiosks in shopping malls. Borders was slated to open stores in Canada, starting with a 50,000-square-foot retail store in Toronto. However, this was rejected for failing to meet Canadian ownership regulations for book retailers. In 1997, the company established its first international store in Singapore, occupying 32,000 square feet in Wheelock Place, Orchard Road, the largest bookstore there.
It subsequently opened another 41 stores in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and bought 35 Books etc. stores throughout Britain from Philip and Richard Joseph. In 1998, Borders Ltd. was established as a Borders Group subsidiary and with its Borders and Books etc. After becoming one of the country's leading booksellers, due to the fierce competition in the UK marketplace, a number of the Books etc. stores closed, Borders Ltd. was sold in 2007 to a private-equity investor. On November 26, 2009, Borders Ltd was placed into administration, the equivalent to Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the US. At that time, the Borders bookshop chain in the UK started a closing down sale in all of its 45 stores. On December 14, Borders UK announced it was going out of business. All UK stores were closed by the end of the year. In the third quarter of 2006, the Singapore store emerged as the best performing among the group's 559 outlets, with the highest revenue generated per square meter. At one point, the highest-grossing location in US territory was a remodeled and expanded store in Puerto Rico, generating
A lifestyle center is a shopping center or mixed-used commercial development that combines the traditional retail functions of a shopping mall with leisure amenities oriented towards upscale consumers. Lifestyle centers, which were first labeled as such by Memphis developers Poag and McEwen in the late 1980s and emerged as a retailing trend in the late 1990s, are sometimes labeled "boutique malls", they are located in affluent suburban areas. The proliferation of lifestyle centers in the United States accelerated in the 2000s, with number going from 30 in 2002 to 120 at the end of 2004. Lifestyle centers are sometimes depicted as occupying the upscale end of the spectrum of commercial development, opposite to the outlet mall which caters with marked down prices. Lifestyle centers require less land and may generate higher revenue margins, generating close to 500 dollars per square foot, compared to an average of 330 dollars per square foot for a traditional mall, according to the president of Poag and McEwen.
Other advantages lifestyle centers have over traditional enclosed malls are savings on heating and cooling and quicker access for customers. Lifestyle centers look like strip shopping centers turned outside in, the formal storefronts don't face parking areas like in strip centers, but landscaped park-like pedestrian areas, with storefronts facing each other across the pedestrian walkway or a low volume parkingless two-lane road. A two-lane road might go through the inside of the center. One of the earliest proponents of Lifestyle centers was RED Development who built centers in the midwest and southwest United States. Festival marketplace List of lifestyle centers from USA Today
Macy's is an American department store chain founded in 1858 by Rowland Hussey Macy. It became a division of the Cincinnati-based Federated Department Stores in 1994, through which it is affiliated with the Bloomingdale's department store chain; as of 2015, Macy's was the largest U. S. department store company by retail sales. As of February 2019, there were 584 full-line stores with the Macy's nameplate in operation throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, its flagship store is located at Herald Square in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The company had 130,000 employees and earned annual revenue of $24.8 billion as of 2017. Macy's has conducted the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City since 1924 and has sponsored the city's annual Fourth of July fireworks display since 1976. Macy's Herald Square is one of the largest department stores in the world; the flagship store covers an entire New York City block, features about 1.1 million square feet of retail space, includes additional space for offices and storage, serves as the endpoint for the Thanksgiving Day parade.
The value of Herald Square has been estimated at around $3 billion. Macy's was founded by Rowland Hussey Macy, who between 1843 and 1855 opened four retail dry goods stores, including the original Macy's store in downtown Haverhill, established in 1851 to serve the mill industry employees of the area, they all failed. Macy moved to New York City in 1858 and established a new store named "R. H. Macy & Co." on Sixth Avenue between 13th and 14th Streets, far north of where other dry goods stores were at the time. On the company's first day of business on October 28, 1858 sales totaled $11.08, equal to $320.27 today. From the beginning, Macy's logo has included a star, which comes from a tattoo that Macy got as a teenager when he worked on a Nantucket whaling ship, the Emily Morgan; as the business grew, Macy's expanded into neighboring buildings, opening more and more departments, used publicity devices such as a store Santa Claus, themed exhibits, illuminated window displays to draw in customers.
It offered a money back guarantee, although it accepted only cash into the 1950s. The store produced its own made-to-measure clothing for both men and women, assembled in an on-site factory. In 1875, Macy took on Robert M. Valentine, a nephew. La Forge of Wisconsin, the husband of a cousin. Macy died in 1877 from inflammatory kidney disease. La Forge died the following year, Valentine died in 1879. Ownership of the company remained in the Macy family until 1895, when the company, now called "R. H. Macy & Co.", was acquired by Isidor Straus and his brother Nathan Straus, who had held a license to sell china and other goods in the Macy's store. In 1902, the flagship store moved uptown to Herald Square at 34th Street and Broadway, so far north of the other main dry goods emporia that it had to offer a steam wagonette to transport customers from 14th Street to 34th Street. Although the Herald Square store consisted of just one building, it expanded through new construction occupying the entire block bounded by Seventh Avenue on the west, Broadway on the east, 34th Street on the south and 35th Street on the north, with the exception of a small pre-existing building on the corner of 35th Street and Seventh Avenue and another on the corner of 34th Street and Broadway.
This latter 5-story building was purchased by Robert H. Smith in 1900 for $375,000 – an incredible sum at the time – with the idea of getting in the way of Macy's becoming the largest store in the world: it is supposed that Smith, a neighbor of the Macy's store on 14th Street, was acting on behalf of Siegel-Cooper, which had built what they thought was the world's largest store on Sixth Avenue in 1896. Macy's ignored the tactic, built around the building, which now carries Macy's "shopping bag" sign by lease arrangement. In 1912, Isidor Straus died in the sinking of the Titanic at the age of 67 with Ida; the original Broadway store was designed by architects De Lemos & Cordes, was built in 1901–02 by the Fuller Company and has a Palladian facade, but has been updated in many details. There were further additions to the west in 1924 and 1928, the Seventh Avenue building in 1931, all designed by architect Robert D. Kohn, the newer buildings were Art Deco in style. In 2012, Macy's began the first full renovation of the iconic Herald Square flagship store at a reported cost of $400 million.
Studio V Architecture, a New York-based firm, was the overall Master Plan architect of the project. Studio V's design raised controversy over the nature of contemporary design and authentic restoration; the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a National Historic Landmark in 1978. In the 1960s, Macy's built a store on Queens Boulevard in Elmhurst, in the New York City borough of Queens; this resulted in a round department store on 90 percent of the lot, with a small owned house on the corner. Macy's no longer occupies this building, which now contains the Queens Place Mall, with Macy's Furniture Gallery as a tenant. More distant acquisitions included Lasalle & Koch, Davison-Paxon-Stokes, L. Bamberger & Co. O'Connor Moffat & Company and John Taylor Dry Goods Co.. O'Connor Moffat was renamed Macy's San Francisco in 1947 becoming Macy's California, John Taylor was renamed
Linens 'n Things
Linens'n Things is an online retailer of home textiles and decorative home accessories. Until 2008, the company did business across the United States and Canada as a big box retailer under the name Linens'n Things, Inc. Headquartered in Clifton, New Jersey, United States, the chain operated 571 stores in 47 U. S. states and six Canadian provinces, had 7,300 employees as of December 2006. The struggling company began closing its remaining stores in October 2008 after disposing of a number of underperforming stores; the company's business strategy was "to offer a broad selection of high quality, brand name home furnishings merchandise at exceptional everyday values, provide superior guest service, maintain low operating costs."The relaunch of the company as an online retailer was announced in February 2009 on its former website, LNT.com. Following the conclusion of business on the original website on February 15, 2009, customers were redirected to the online store's new home located at thenewlnt.com but since relocated to the old website, lnt.com.
The company was acquired in February 2006 by Apollo Global Management, a private equity limited partnership, for $1.3 billion. As a part of the transition from a public company to the private-owned business, the position of CEO went from Norman Axelrod to Robert DiNicola. According to Form 10-Q filed with the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission for the quarterly period ended September 29, 2007, Linens Holding Co. and subsidiaries reported net sales of $666.8 million, versus $658.2 million in the year-earlier period. The increase in net sales was due to the opening of new stores since Sept. 30, 2006 offset by the impact of a decline in comparable store sales. The decline in comparable store sales was due to a decline in customer transactions offset by an increase in average transaction value; the operating loss was $56.6 million against a loss of $17.9 million a year ago. After net interest expense and other income & expense, the loss before income taxes was $79.2 million compared to a loss of $41.7 million.
After provision/benefit for income taxes, Linens Holdings reported a net loss of $79.9 million versus a net loss of $27.4 million. On April 17, 2008, the New York Post reported that the company was seeking to sell its profitable Canadian Division, but no one at Linens'n Things would confirm nor deny this, saying only that an adviser had been hired to explore strategic alternatives; the Canadian Linens'n Things stores would meet the same fate as their American counterparts. On May 2, 2008, Linens'n Things closed 120 stores. In August 2008, Linens'n Things devised a plan to emerge from bankruptcy early in 2009. Under the plan, the retailer intended to reverse many of the strategies introduced after the company was bought by Apollo. Chief among those tactics was a shift to splashy clearance sales and product promotions. Revised management wished to return Linens'n Things to an "everyday, low price" model it had pursued during its earlier years as a public company, it wished to improve the quality of its merchandise and to keep shelves stocked in timely fashion, the paper said.
On October 7, 2008, Bloomberg News reported that Linens'n Things asked the Bankruptcy Court for permission to auction the remaining 371 stores and hold store closing sales. On October 14, the company announced its official sale to a group of asset recovery specialists; the company began going-out-of-business sales at its remaining stores in both the United States and Canada and on the chain's website, LNT.com, on October 17. The sales concluded on December 28, 2008 in all stores, but Linens'n Things continued the going-out-of-business sale on its website until February 15, 2009. Following the chain's closure, a vacant store in Middletown, Rhode Island was used by film director Wes Anderson in 2011 to construct and film sets for his film Moonrise Kingdom. In 2009, Linens'n Things emerged from bankruptcy as planned and announced that the website would remain open for business following the conclusion of the primary online store closing sale; the e-commerce site was taken over by new ownership to continue the same focus as the brick and mortar stores prior to their closing.
Linens N Things was sold on December 9, 2013 from Gordon Brother & Hilco Global to the Galaxy Brand Holdings. Linen Bedding Sets
Dick's Sporting Goods
Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc. is an American sporting goods retail company, based in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania. The company was established by Richard "Dick" Stack in 1948, has 850 stores and 30,000 employees, as of 2018. Dick's is the nation's largest sporting goods retailer, is listed on the Fortune 500. Dick's is the largest sporting goods retail company in the United States, with 850 stores, as of 2018; the public company is based in Coraopolis, outside Pittsburgh, has 30,300 employees, as of January 2018. The company's subsidiaries include Field & Stream and Golf Galaxy, Chelsea Collective and True Runner. In 2017, there were 690 Dick's stores, close to 100 Golf Galaxy locations, 30 Field & Stream stores; the company launched Team Sports HQ, a collection of digital products, following the acquisitions of Affinity Sports, Blue Sombrero, GameChanger. Edward W. Stack serves as chief executive officer. Lauren Hobart is president of the company and the Dick's Sporting Goods Foundation and Lee Belitsky is chief financial officer, as of 2018.
Richard "Dick" Stack started the company as a fishing tackle store in Binghamton, New York, in 1948. He began with a $300 loan from his grandmother, who pulled from her savings, which she kept in a cookie jar. Edward W. Stack and his siblings purchased Dick's from their father in the early 1980s, when the company had two locations in Upstate New York. Stack established a board of directors, opened additional stores, relocated the company's headquarters to Pittsburgh in 1994, he became chairman and chief executive officer following his father's retirement in 1984, led the company during its initial public offering in 2002. Dick's operated throughout the Eastern United States, up to 2009, has since expanded to the Pacific Northwest and West Coast. There were more than 357 Dick's stores in 38 states, as of mid 2008. In 2012, the company opened three True Runner stores targeting runners in Boston, the St. Louis suburb Brentwood, Pittsburgh's Shadyside neighborhood; the stores closed in early 2017.
Dick's launched the women's athleisure and lifestyle store Chelsea Collective in 2015, opening two stores in Pittsburgh and Tysons, outside Washington, D. C; the shops closed in 2017. The company launched Dick's Team Sports HQ in early 2016, offering youth sports teams websites and sponsorship options. Dick's opened its first Field & Stream store in Cranberry Township, a suburb of Pittsburgh, in 2013. Thirty-five Field & Stream stores are open across the country, as of 2018. Jason Aldean became the Field & Stream brand's first spokesperson in August 2016. Following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in February 2018, Dick's stopped selling assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, increased the minimum age for purchasing guns to 21. Dick's-branded stores had suspended assault weapon sales following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, but the guns were still available for purchase at Field & Stream locations. Dick's has never carried bump stocks; the company operates five distribution centers.
The most recent, in Conklin in Southern Tier, New York opened in January 2018, was further expanded to fulfill online sales a few months later. Dick's acquired Galyan's in July 2004; the company agreed to purchase Golf Galaxy for $225 million in November 2006. Dick's confirmed plans to close Golf Galaxy's headquarters in Eden Prairie, Minnesota in mid 2008. Dick's purchased the San Diego-based sports management technology company Affinity Sports for an undisclosed amount in mid 2016. In September, Dick's acquired Sports Authority's intellectual property. There were more than 30 Sports Authority locations at the time. Dick's acquired Golfsmith, the largest golf retailer in the United States, at a bankruptcy auction in October 2016. Dick's bid $70 million for all of Golfsmith's intellectual property and inventory; the company planned to retain around 30 of Golfsmith's more than 100 locations, as well as 500 employees. Dick's rebranded 36–38 Golfsmith stores in 16 U. S. states as Golf Galaxy in 2017.
This increased the number of Golf Galaxy stores to 98, located in 33 states. In July 1971, Dick's was told of infringing a patent owned by Furnace Brook, LLC, in a lawsuit filed in the Northern District of Illinois. On March 31, 2005, the company restated the first three fiscal quarters of 2004 as well as full-year figures due to adjustments to its accounting for leases and tenant or construction allowances. In June 2009, Dick's was accused of infringing a patent owned by The Donkey Company, Inc. in a lawsuit filed in District Court for the District of New Jersey. In 2014, Dick's began a lawsuit against Modell's Sporting Goods CEO, Mitchell Modell, for going undercover into their stores to gain access to their retail secrets; the company signed a 20-year naming rights agreement for Dick's Sporting Goods Park, a soccer-specific stadium for the Colorado Rapids team in Commerce City, Colorado, in 2006. Dick's has sponsored the team's home arena, PPG Paints Arena. Sporting events sponsored by Dick's have included the Dick's Sporting Goods Open and the Pittsburgh Marathon.
Dick's began sponsoring ESPN's college football kickoff week in 2009. In 2015, the company sponsored Olympic and Paralympic athletes and hopefuls, became the "official sporting goods retailer" for Team USA for the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics. Dick's and Team USA established the Ambassador Program and Contender's Program in partnership with the United States Olympic Committee, employing Olympians and prospective Olympic athletes. Dick's employed 200 T
Fresno is a city in California, United States, the county seat of Fresno County. It covers about 112 square miles in the center of the San Joaquin Valley, the southern portion of California's Central Valley. Named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River, Fresno was founded in 1872 as a railway station of the Central Pacific Railroad before it was incorporated in 1885; the city has since become an economic hub of Fresno County and the San Joaquin Valley, with much of the surrounding areas in the Metropolitan Fresno region predominantly tied to large-scale agricultural production. The population of Fresno grew from a 1960 census population of 134,000 to a 2000 census population of 428,000. With a census-estimated 2017 population of 527,438, Fresno is the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous city in the Central Valley, the most populous inland city in California, the 34th-most populous city in the nation. Fresno is near the geographical center of California.
It lies 220 miles north of Los Angeles, 170 miles south of the state capital, 185 miles southeast of San Francisco. Yosemite National Park is about 60 miles to the north, Kings Canyon National Park is 60 miles to the east, Sequoia National Park is 75 miles to the southeast; the original inhabitants of the San Joaquin Valley region were the Yokuts people and Miwok people, who engaged in trading with other Californian tribes of Native Americans including coastal peoples such as the Chumash of the Central California coast, with whom they are thought to have traded plant and animal products. The first European to enter the San Joaquin Valley was Pedro Fages in 1772; the county of Fresno was formed in 1856 after the California Gold Rush. It was named for the abundant ash trees lining the San Joaquin River; the county was much larger than it is today as part of Tulare County, comprising its current area plus all of what became Madera County and parts of what are now San Benito, Kings and Mono counties.
Millerton on the banks of the free-flowing San Joaquin River and close to Fort Miller, became the county seat after becoming a focal point for settlers. Other early county settlements included Firebaugh's Ferry and Elkhorn Springs; the San Joaquin River flooded on December 1867, inundating Millerton. Some residents rebuilt, others moved. Flooding destroyed the town of Scottsburg on the nearby Kings River that winter. Rebuilt on higher ground, Scottsburg was renamed Centerville. In 1867, Anthony "McQueen" Easterby purchased land bounded by the present Chestnut, Belmont and California avenues, that today is called the Sunnyside district. Unable to grow wheat for lack of water, he hired sheep man Moses J. Church in 1871 to create an irrigation system. Building new canals and purchasing existing ditches, Church formed the Fresno Canal and Irrigation Company, a predecessor of the Fresno Irrigation District. In 1872, the Central Pacific Railroad established a station near Easterby's—by now a hugely productive wheat farm—for its new Southern Pacific line.
Soon there was a store around the station and the store grew into the town of Fresno Station called Fresno. Many Millerton residents, drawn by the convenience of the railroad and worried about flooding, moved to the new community. Fresno became an incorporated city in 1885. By 1931 the Fresno Traction Company operated 47 streetcars over 49 miles of track. In 1877, William Helm made Fresno his home with a five-acre tract of land at the corner of Fresno and R streets. Helm was the largest individual sheep grower in Fresno County. In carrying his wool to market at Stockton, he used three wagons, each drawn by ten mules, spent twelve days in making the round trip. Two years after the station was established, county residents voted to move the county seat from Millerton to Fresno; when the Friant Dam was completed in 1944, the site of Millerton became inundated by the waters of Millerton Lake. In extreme droughts, when the reservoir shrinks, ruins of the original county seat can still be observed. In the nineteenth century, with so much wooden construction and in the absence of sophisticated firefighting resources, fires ravaged American frontier towns.
The greatest of Fresno's early-day fires, in 1882, destroyed an entire block of the city. Another devastating blaze struck in 1883. In 1909, Fresno's first and oldest synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, was founded. Fresno entered the ranks of the 100 most populous cities in the United States in 1960 with a population of 134,000. Thirty years in the 1990 census, it moved up to 47th place with 354,000, in the census of 2000, it achieved 37th place with 428,000; the Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill was the first modern landfill in the United States, incorporated several important innovations to waste disposal, including trenching and the daily covering of trash with dirt. It was opened in 1937 and closed in 1987. Today, it has the unusual distinction of being a National Historic Landmark as well as a Superfund site. Before World War II, Fresno had many ethnic neighborhoods, including Little Armenia, German Town, Little Italy, Chinatown. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported Fresno's population as 94.0% white, 3.3% black and 2.7% Asian..
During 1942, Pinedale, in what is now North Fresno, was the site of the Pinedale Assembly Center, an interim facility for the relocation of Fresno area Japanese Americans to internment camps. The Fresno Fairgrounds were utilized as an assembly center. Row crops and orchards gave way to urban development in the perio
A retail park or power center is an unenclosed shopping center with a typical range of 250,000 square feet to 600,000 square feet of gross leasable area that contains three or more big box retailers and various smaller retailers with a common parking area shared among the retailers. It is to have more money spent on features and architecture than a traditional big box shopping center. In 1986, "280 Metro Center", an open-air, strip shopping complex composed of discount and warehouse retailers, opened in Colma, California in the United States. Northern Lights Shopping Center in Economy, which opened in 1962, could be considered an earlier example of a power center based on square footage and having multiple anchors, though it has become more of a traditional community-style strip mall since the early 2000s and is considered a dead mall due to its high vacancy rate. South Edmonton Common in Edmonton is the largest power centre in Canada and one of the largest open-air retail developments in North America.
Spread over 320 acres, South Edmonton Common has more than 2,300,000 sq ft of gross leasable area. In recent years, it has become quite common for an older shopping mall to be renovated as a power center, adding big-box stores, category killers and strip shopping center-type buildings to the parking and open areas, rather than to add anchors and new retail space to the existing mall facility. Puente Hills Mall and Del Amo Fashion Center in Southern California are good examples of this. Other examples are Seven Corners Shopping Center in suburban Washington, D. C. and Deerfoot Meadows in Calgary, Canada. Power centers are always located in suburban areas, but redevelopment has brought power centers to densely populated urban areas; some new power center developments have attempted to re-create the atmosphere of an old-town Main Street, with varying levels of success. In the United Kingdom, the retail park is a similar concept to the North American power center, they are found on the fringes of most large towns and cities in accessible locations and are aimed at households owning a car, though there are also bus services.
They are an alternative to busy city centres. Such developments have been encouraged by cheaper, more affordable land on the outskirts of towns and cities, with loose planning controls in a number of Enterprise Zones, making planning and development easy. In recent years, in many areas across the UK, planning controls have been tightened to preserve the countryside; this has made it more difficult for such developments to proceed, resulting in many smaller, more compact retail parks, sometimes consisting of only three or four stores being built on former brownfield sites. There are environmental disadvantages to large retail parks on the rural fringe, including the increased traffic and pollution that occurs during access. Retail parks host a range of chain stores, including furniture, clothes or footwear superstores, electrical stores and others - and the anchor tenant is a supermarket. Owing to their out-of-town sites, abundance of free parking and proximity to major roads, retail parks are easier to reach than central shopping areas, as a result town centres are less attractive to retailers.
Strip mall Types of retail outlets SmartCentres – includes photos of its developments