Tolpuddle is a village in Dorset, England, on the River Piddle 8 miles east of Dorchester, the county town, 12 miles west of Poole. The estimated population in 2013 was 420; the village is famous as the home of the Tolpuddle Martyrs who were sentenced to be transported to Australia after they formed a friendly society in 1833. A row of cottages, housing agricultural workers and a museum, a row of seated statues commemorate the martyrs; the annual Tolpuddle Martyrs festival is held in the village in the third weekend of July. An ancient sycamore tree on the village green, known as the Martyrs' Tree, is said to be the place where the Martyrs swore their oath, it is cared for by the National Trust. Tolpuddle has a public house, The Martyrs Inn, owned by nearby Athelhampton House, a Tudor house open to the public 1 mile to the west. Tolpuddle parish church dates from the 13th century. In 1999, the A35 trunk road, which cuts through south Dorset, was moved to bypass the village. Pitt-Rivers, Michael, 1969.
Dorset. London: Faber & Faber
Briantspuddle is a small village in the Piddle Valley in Dorset, near the villages of Affpuddle and Tolpuddle and about 8 miles east of the county town of Dorchester. It forms part of the civil parish of Affpuddle and Turnerspuddle in the non-metropolitan district of Purbeck; the village takes its name from Brian de Turberville, lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III. It contains 35 listed buildings; the first known reference to the village can be found in the Geld, an assessment made for land tax purposes in 1083. The village was known as "Pidele" and was held by a priest named Godric; the village was mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086 as having "land for three ploughs, a mill, thirty eight acres of meadow, 12 acres of woodland, eleven furlongs of pasture in length and 12 in width." This was valued at £4 and Godric was in charge of "about a dozen people who worked the land". By the 13th century, the village was known as "Priestpidele", by the 14th century it was owned by several parties, including the Prior of Christchurch, the Frampton family and the Turberville family.
In 1683 William Frampton united the manors of Throop and Affpuddle into a single estate. In 1914 financial hardship forced the Frampton family to sell part of their estate, including the village of Briantspuddle, to Sir Ernest Debenham. Briantspuddle once consisted of twelve cottages until Ernest Debenham expanded the village under the concept of creating a self-sufficient agricultural enterprise. By 1929 forty new cottages had been built to house the estate workers, his vision was that every house would have an inside toilet and at least a quarter of an acre of garden. Work was delayed by the First War. Many of the houses in the village are constructed from specially hand made'airspaced' concrete blocks which were produced locally; these reduced the need for foundations and aimed to insulate by the air gaps and over 200,000 were produced annually. The consistency of the design of new houses and agricultural buildings is due to the use of Arts and Crafts style, adapted to reflect the distinctive character of vernacular architecture in the area by the architects Halsey Ricardo and Leslie MacDonald Gill.
Bladen Valley represents an interesting example of a'model' estate, listed in its entirety. Unusually, the house numbers in the village were based on the order in which rent was collected, rather that the more traditional sequence of odd and numbers; the Bladen Farms were an experiment to prove that under modern conditions it was possible for Dorset to produce a larger proportion of home-grown foods of animal origin, than it did previously. Ernest Debenham argued that this would "readjust the balance of population and enable a larger number of workers to live on the land", his plan was to support smaller neighbouring farms with special facilities that could provide economies of scale. This'demonstration farm' replaced "middlemen and intermediaries" and the project was successful at pasteurisation and other successes included egg production, electricity generation and selective breeding of livestock, bee-keeping, a farm veterinary service. Following Debenham's death in 1952 the estate was sold.
The dairy was the first to have large scale milking machines installed in Dorset. In the 1920s up to 1,000 gallons of milk a day were brought in from surrounding farms for processing and bottling. There is no longer any dairy farm, most local dairy enterprise having succumbed to the complex milk monopoly. Beef production has replaced dairying as a much smaller income for local farmers, as well as horse farming; the village hall is a former barn. It was rebuilt in 1803 by James Frampton, converted by Debenham and purchased by the parish Council in 1953. Cruck cottage is the oldest building in the village, thought to be late fifteenth century in origin, it is so called. The sculptor and artist Eric Gill was commissioned by Ernest Debenham to sculpt the'Madonna and Child' war memorial in situ starting in January 1918 and completing the work an August. A column of Portland stone, the unusual memorial has an inscription from the fifteenth century mystic Julian of Norwich: It is sooth that sin is cause of all this pain but all shall be well and all shall be well all manner of thing shall be well.
The cross was dedicated by the Bishop of Salisbury one day after the Armistice was signed in 1918. Briantspuddle Community website War Memorial roll of honour
Affpuddle is a small village in the Purbeck district of Dorset in South West England, 9 miles east of Dorchester. The local travel links are 3 miles from the village to Moreton railway station and 20 miles to Bournemouth International Airport. Part of the village street is the B3390. Affpuddle used to have its own civil parish, which included the settlements of Briantspuddle to the east and Pallington to the south. In the 2001 census this parish had a population of 402. Affpuddle civil parish has since joined with neighbouring Turners Puddle to form the new parish of Affpuddle and Turnerspuddle. In the 2011 census this joint parish had 200 households and a population of 436. Affpuddle village is in the Piddle valley, just north of the Purbeck conifer plantations and heathland, in a valley beside the villages of Tolpuddle and Puddletown; the village is linear and made of brick and thatched cottages and has a 13th-century church dedicated to St Laurence. The village was established during or before the Saxon era, was mentioned in the Domesday Book as Affapidela, having a manor house belonging to the Abbot of Cerne.
After the Dissolution the village became an estate of the Lawrence family, an ancestor of whom married the heiress of a branch of the Washington family, from another branch of which descended George Washington. The Washington arms was quartered by the Lawrences and thus appears on the north wall of the chancel in the village church on a Lawrence monument; the church of St Laurence is noted for its elaborate pews, dated 1545 or 1547, the finely carved pulpit, undated but in a similar style. The church was enlarged by an aisle and a tower in the 15th century. Other features of interest are the Norman south doorway; the earliest records in Dorset of the agricultural practice of flooding fields to form watermeadows refer to Affpuddle in the early 17th century. The village belonged to the Framptons of Moreton, noted for their involvement with the Tolpuddle Martyrs. John Lock who gave key evidence against them lived in the village. History of Dorset, John Hutchins, 3rd ed Affpuddle in the County of Dorset, Joan Brocklebank Affpuddle & Turnerspuddle Parish Website Dorset Churches, with picture Affpuddle in the Domesday Book
Christchurch is a town and borough on the south coast of England. The town adjoins Bournemouth in the west and the New Forest lies to the east. In the county of Hampshire, it became part of the administrative county of Dorset in the 1974 reorganisation of local government. Covering an area of 19.5 square miles, Christchurch had a 2013 population of 48,368, making it the fourth-most populous town in Dorset, close behind Weymouth which has a population of 54,539. Founded in the seventh century at the confluence of the rivers Avon and Stour which flow into Christchurch Harbour, the town was named Twynham but became known as Christchurch following the construction of the priory in 1094; the town developed into an important trading port, was fortified in the 9th century. Further defences were added in the 12th century with the construction of a castle, destroyed during the English Civil War by the Parliamentarian Army. During the 18th and 19th centuries smuggling flourished in Christchurch and became one of the town's most lucrative industries.
The town was fortified during the Second World War as a precaution against an expected invasion and in 1940 an Airspeed factory was established on the town's airfield which manufactured aircraft for the Royal Air Force. The town's harbour, nature reserves and important buildings have made Christchurch a popular tourist destination attracting some 1.5 million visitors a year. Bournemouth Airport, an international airport which handles 800,000 passengers a year, is located within the borough boundary at Hurn; the airport's industrial park contains a number of aerospace and engineering businesses and is one of the largest employment sites in Dorset. Christchurch is a popular destination for retirees, has one of the oldest populations in the country, with 30 per cent of residents aged over 65. Christchurch was founded in AD 650 by missionaries sent to Wessex by St Birinus, the first Bishop of Dorchester, they settled on a stretch of raised land between the rivers Avon and Stour which carried people and their wares to and from market settlements such as Blandford and Old Sarum.
The harbour became one of the most important in Saxon England as it was reached from the continent and boats could travel up the river Avon to Salisbury. The town appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry of 901 as Tweoxneam from Old English betweoxn and ēam. In around 890 AD, Alfred the Great considered Twynham to be of such strategic importance that, with the threat of invasion by the Danes, he made it a burh and defensive walls were erected around the town. In 1094 a chief minister of King William II, Ranulf Flambard Dean of Twynham, began the building of a priory on the site of the original mission church. Soon after the construction of the priory the town became known as Christchurch; some time in the early 12th century, a castle was built within the town. A wooden fort built by Richard de Redvers, first cousin to King Henry I, it was rebuilt in stone by Baldwin de Redvers to resist King Stephen during the civil war with the Empress Matilda; the castle again saw action during the Civil War of 1642 -- 1651.
Christchurch changed hands a number of times: under Royalist control, it was captured by Sir William Waller's Parliamentary army in 1644. Lord Goring retook the town in 1645 but was obliged to withdraw and returned with a larger force days and laid siege to the castle. However, the Parliamentarians maintained their hold on the town. Fearing such a powerful stronghold might once again fall into Royalist hands, Cromwell ordered the castle to be destroyed in 1652. Although the fishing industry thrived in Christchurch, the importance of the harbour declined as it became inaccessible to vessels of a large draught; the harbour entrance was troublesome with shifting sandbars. In 1665 Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, bought the Lordship of the Manor of Christchurch; as part of his plans to improve trade in the town, he attempted to resolve the problems with the harbour entrance by cutting a new one through the sandspit at the foot of Hengistbury Head. However, upon completion the new entrance silted up and in 1703 a large storm damaged a groyne which blocked the entrance entirely.
Over the following 150 years alternative schemes were proposed but none were taken up. Smuggling was one of Christchurch's most lucrative industries during the 18th and 19th centuries due to easy access to neighbouring towns and the difficult harbour entrance which acted as a barrier to customs cutters. Many townspeople were involved in this illegal trade and large quantities of wealth were accumulated. In 1784 a confrontation between a gang of local smugglers and Customs and Excise officers led to the Battle of Mudeford in which a Royal Navy officer was killed and a smuggler subsequently executed. Another important industry during this period was the manufacture of fusee chains for watches and clocks. In 1790, Robert Cox began to manufacture fusee chains in workshops in the High Street. By 1793 Cox gained a monopoly on chain production in Britain, supplying watch and chronometer makers throughout the country. In 1845 William Hart opened a similar factory in Bargates. However, by 1875 the chains were no longer required due to changes in watch designs and the factories were closed.
The railway came to Christchurch in 1847 although the nearest station, Christchurch Road, was at Holmsley and passengers were taken the rest of the way by omnibus. In 1862 a new station was built in the town close to where it stands today and was served by a branch line from Ringwood. Christchurch joined th
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul
Alton Pancras is a small village and civil parish in Dorset, England. In the 2011 census the civil parish had a population of 175; the village church is dedicated to Saint Pancras. The parish was a liberty, containing only the parish itself. Evidence of prehistoric human activity within the parish includes two round barrows on the hills to the east of the village, the remains of'Celtic' fields and strip lynchets on many of the surrounding hills, a possible settlement just south of the summit of Church Hill. Dating is not definite but the'Celtic' fields were in use between the Bronze Age and the end of the Romano-British period; the possible settlement is Romano-British. Subsequent cultivation in modern times, has destroyed much of the evidence; the village itself was first settled by Saxons during the expansion of the Kingdom of Wessex. The name of the village was Awultune, meaning in West Saxon'village at the source of the river'; the village was two separate settlements: Barcombe and Alton, both of which had their own open field system.
In 1086 in the Domesday Book the village was recorded as Altone. It had 26 households, was in Cerne and Modbury Hundred, the tenant-in-chief was the Bishop of Salisbury. Local tradition believes that after conversion to Christianity, the village name incorporated the little-known St Pancras and that by the time of the Battle of Agincourt, was known as Aulton Pancras. However, in Christopher Saxton's map of 1575 it is still known as'Ælton' and in John Speed's map of 1610, it is listed as'Alton'. In a 1760 map by Emanuel Bowen, the village is listed as'Alton Pancras'; the current church was restored in the 19th century after an earlier Norman church was near collapse. All that remains of the old church is a Norman arch; the church organ used to be a fairground organ. The floor tiles were created by Poole Pottery. Alton Pancras is in the West Dorset parliamentary constituency, represented in the UK national parliament by the Conservative Member of Parliament Oliver Letwin. In local government, Alton Pancras is governed by Dorset Council at the county level.
In national parliament and district council elections, Dorset is divided into several electoral wards, with Alton Pancras being within Piddle Valley ward. In county council elections, Alton Pancras is in the Three Valleys electoral division, one of 42 divisions that elect councillors to Dorset Council. At the parish level – the lowest tier of local government – Alton Pancras is one of three parishes governed by Piddle Valley Group Parish Council; the other parishes are Piddletrenthide. Alton Pancras civil parish covers 920 hectares at the head of the valley of the River Piddle; the valley drains from north to south. Several small side combes extend west. In the east the parish includes part of a tributary valley at Watcombe Bottom, north of Plush, in the northeast it extends north of the escarpment to Alton Common in the Blackmore Vale; the underlying geology of the parish is chalk, except for the Alton Common extension, on greensand and Kimmeridge clay. Alton Pancras village is sited in the valley near the source of the River Piddle at an altitude of about 125 metres.
The altitude of the parish is between about 255 metres at its highest point on the hills to the west, to about 110 metres at its lowest point where the river leaves the parish in the south. The broadcaster and agriculturist Ralph Wightman, born and lived in the nearby village of Piddletrenthide, described the hills surrounding the village as "very much in the centre of Dorset". All of Alton Pancras parish is within the Dorset Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Horse Close Wood on Alton Common is a Woodland Trust wood. Alton Pancras village is situated on the B3143 road, which connects it to the county town of Dorchester 9 miles to the south. Other local travel links include Maiden Newton railway station 7 miles to the south-west, Bournemouth International Airport 26 miles to the east. In the 2011 census Alton Pancras civil parish had 72 dwellings, 71 households and a population of 175; the average age of parish residents was 42, compared to 39.3 for England as a whole. 16.0% of residents were age 65 or over, compared to 16.4% for England as a whole.
Village history Church history
Beaminster is a small town and civil parish in Dorset, situated in the Dorset Council administrative area 15 miles northwest of the county town Dorchester. It is sited in a bowl-shaped valley near the source of the small River Brit; the 2013 mid-year estimate of the population of Beaminster parish is 3,100. In its history Beaminster has been a centre of manufacture of linen and woollens, the raw materials for which were produced in the surrounding countryside; the town experienced three serious fires in the 18th centuries. Beaminster parish church is notable for its architecture its tower. In the Domesday Book of 1086 the manor of Beaminster was recorded as being owned by the See of Salisbury. Bishop Osmund gave it as a supplement to two of the Cathedral prebends in 1091. In the English Civil War the town declared for Parliament and was sacked by Royalist forces in 1644. Prince Maurice stayed in the town on Palm Sunday, though his stay was brief because a fire, caused by a musket being discharged into a thatched roof totally destroyed the town.
The town suffered further accidental fires in 1684 and 1781. Beaminster was a centre for the production of linen and woollens. Flax was grown and sheep kept on the surrounding hills and the town was locally more important than it is today: factories were constructed in the 18th and early 19th centuries, as many as seventeen inns existed in the town in the early 20th century. No railway line came through Beaminster and as a result the town declined relative to other local towns such as Bridport and Dorchester. Horn Park, about 1 1⁄2 miles northwest of Beaminster, is a neo-Georgian country house of five bays and two storeys, designed by architect T. Lawrence Dale and completed in 1911. Inside the house the central corridor is barrel vaulted and leads to a drawing room whose groin vault is reminiscent of the work of Sir John Soane; the drawing room includes Jacobean features re-used from the mid-16th-century nearby Parnham House, being altered and restored at about the time that Horn Park was being built.
Horn Park is Listed Grade II. Its gardens are open to the public as part of the National Gardens Scheme. Beaminster is sited 50 to 80 metres above sea level in a bowl-shaped valley, surrounded by hills which rise to 244 metres at Beaminster Down to the northeast; the River Brit and many small streams emerge from springs on the slopes above the town. The confluences of several of these streams are within the town's boundaries. Beaminster's growth has been along the course of these streams, resulting in a settlement pattern, star-shaped. Beaminster is situated 45 miles south of Bristol, 38 miles west of Bournemouth, 35 miles east of Exeter and 15 miles northwest of the county town Dorchester. Beaminster is sited on Middle Jurassic fuller's earth clay, with some Inferior Oolite in the south of the town and Bridport Sand Formation north of the town centre; the hills north and east of the town are Cretaceous chalk with a scarp face of Upper Greensand Formation, while those to the south and west are of Bridport Sand Formation.
There are several faults running west-northwest to east-southeast through the town and its southern environs. Horn Park Quarry SSSI produced building stone from the Inferior Oolite and some quality fossil specimens before becoming a light industrial estate on the road to Broadwindsor. Apart from the ammonites, the site displays a remarkable flat erosion surface and the most complete succession in the Upper Aalenian ironshot oolite limestone of the area. Dorset County Council's 2013 mid-year estimate of the population of Beaminster parish is 3,100; the historic population of Beaminster parish from the censuses between 1921 and 2001 is shown in the table below. Source: Dorset County Council Published results from the 2011 national census combine information on Beaminster parish with the small neighbouring parish of Mapperton to the southeast. Within this area there were 1,680 dwellings, 1,529 households and a population of 3,136. DuPont produce Nisaplin, a commercial formulation of the natural bacteriocin nisin, at a factory in the town.
It was first isolated by Aplin and Barret and produced in the 1950s in the factory laboratory at 11–15 North Street. The Clipper tea company is based in Beaminster, it is owned by the Dutch company Royal Wessanen. Beaminster hosts an annual music and art festival. Whitcombe Disc golf course at Beaminster has hosted the British Open Disc Golf Championship several times and the European Disc Golf Championship in 2003; the town is twinned with the town of Saint-James on the Brittany/Normandy border in France. Beaminster is home to an annual vintage dog and pony show called Buckham Fair, hosted by Martin and Philippa Clunes on their farm in Beaminster. Attracting, on average, around 15,000 visitors for this one-day event in August, the event is run to raise money for a nominated local charity. To date, Buckham Fair has raised over £500,000; the nearest railway station is 5 miles north of the town at Crewkerne. Exeter International Airport is 30 miles to the west; the main road through the town is the A3066, which leads to Bridport to the south and Mosterton and Crewkerne to the north.
The road north passes through Horn Hill tunnel, which opened in June 1832 and is the sole pre-railway age road tunnel, still in daily public use. Primary schools in the town include St Mary's Church of England Primary School. Beaminster School is the town's secondary school, it has a combined sixth form with The Sir John