Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital of and most populous city in the U. S. state of Rhode Island, founded in 1636, and one of the oldest cities in the United States. It is located in Providence County and is the third most populous city in New England, after Boston, Providence has a city population of 179,154, it is part of the Providence metropolitan area which extends into southern Massachusetts. The Providence metropolitan area has an population of 1,604,291. This can be considered, in turn, to be part of the Greater Boston commuting area, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, a religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He named the area in honor of Gods merciful Providence, which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him, the city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its tool, jewelry. The city was nicknamed the Beehive of Industry, it began rebranding itself as the Creative Capital in 2009 to emphasize its educational resources.
The area that is now Providence was first settled in June 1636 by Roger Williams and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies of the United States and his company felt compelled to withdraw from Massachusetts Bay Colony. Providence quickly became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts, Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the leadup to the American Revolution during the Gaspée Affair of 1772. Rhode Island was the first of the thirteen colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4,1776. It was the last of the thirteen colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29,1790, following the war, Providence was the countrys ninth-largest city with 7,614 people. The economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware, jewelry, by the start of the 20th century, Providence boasted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, and Gorham Silverware.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. From its incorporation as a city in 1832 until 1878, the seat of city government was located in the Market House, located in Market Square, the city offices quickly outgrew this building, and the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the City Hall in 1878, during the Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers routinely exceeded quota, by the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nations largest industrial manufacturing centers, Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national Community Development funds were invested throughout the city.4 million ft² Providence Place Mall, despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem as it does in most post-industrial New England cities
George Peter Alexander Healy
George Peter Alexander Healy was an American portrait painter. He was one of the most prolific and popular painters of his day and he was born in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the eldest of five children of an Irish captain in the merchant marine, having been left fatherless at a young age, Healy helped to support his mother. When sixteen years of age he began drawing, and at once fired with the ambition to be an artist. Jane Stuart, daughter of Gilbert Stuart, aided him in every way, loaned him a Guidos Ecce Homo, she introduced him to Thomas Sully, by whose advice Healy profited much, and gratefully repaid Sully in the days of the latters adversity. At eighteen, Healy began painting portraits, and was very successful. He received a medal in the Paris Salon of 1840. In 1843 he was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician and he won a second-class medal in Paris in 1855, when he exhibited his Franklin urging the claims of the American Colonies before Louis XVI. This year, saw him in Chicago, where he remained until 1869, in 1892, he returned to Chicago, where he died on June 24,1894.
Healys autobiography, Reminiscences of a Portrait Painter, was published in 1894, Healy was one of the most prolific and popular painters of his day. He was remarkably facile, enterprising and industrious, all my days are spent in my painting room. His style, essentially French, was sound, his fine, his drawing correct and his management of light. His likenesses, firm in outline, solidly painted, and with glazings, are emphatic, rugged and he painted portraits of all the presidents of the United States from John Quincy Adams to Ulysses Grant—this series being painted for the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D. C. Healy painted The Peacemakers in 1868 and Abraham Lincoln in 1869, in one large historical work, Websters Reply to Hayne, there are one hundred and thirty portraits. His principal works include portraits of Lincoln, Bishop McClosky, Audubon, Comte de Paris, Isaac Thomas Hecker C. S. P. Founder of the Paulist Fathers Healys 1877 portrait of a young Lincoln was the used for a Lincoln postage stamp, issued on February 12,1959.
Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Healy, George Peter Alexander and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Leigh Harrison. Works by or about George Peter Alexander Healy in libraries This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
The Potomac River /pəˈtoʊmək/ is located along the mid-Atlantic Ocean coast of the United States and flows into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is approximately 405 miles long, with an area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States, over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed. The river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of the State of Maryland, exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, and the border with Virginia being delineated from point to point. Except for a portion of its headwaters in West Virginia. The South Branch Potomac River lies completely within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, the Potomac River runs 405 miles from the Fairfax Stone in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles.
The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles, the average flow is 10,800 ft³/s. The largest flow recorded on the Potomac at Washington, D. C. was in March 1936 when it reached 425,000 ft³/s. The lowest flow recorded at the same location was 600 ft³/s in September,1966. The source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant, the source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland County, Virginia. The rivers two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream. The estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, Potomac is a European spelling of Patowmeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village, perhaps meaning something brought.
Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning honking geese and Patawomke below the fall, meaning river of swans. The spelling of the name has many forms over the years from Patawomeke to Patawomeck, Patowmack. The rivers name was decided upon as Potomac by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least two years old, likely extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line
The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1,1863. It purported to change the legal status of more than 3 million enslaved people in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. It had the effect that as soon as a slave escaped the control of the Confederate government, by running away or through advances of federal troops. Eventually it reached and liberated all of the designated slaves and it was issued as a war measure during the American Civil War, directed to all of the areas in rebellion and all segments of the executive branch of the United States. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in ten states, because it was issued under the Presidents authority to suppress rebellion, it necessarily excluded areas not in rebellion – it applied to more than 3 million of the 4 million slaves at the time. The Proclamation was based on the constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces.
The Proclamation was issued in January 1863 after U, the Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not outlaw slavery, and did not grant citizenship to the ex-slaves. It made the eradication of slavery a war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Around 20,000 to 50,000 slaves in regions where rebellion had already been subdued were immediately emancipated. Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, specifically excluded were some regions already controlled by the Union army. On September 22,1862, Lincoln issued a warning that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state that did not end its rebellion against the Union by January 1,1863. None of the Confederate states restored themselves to the Union, and Lincolns order was signed, the Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners who envisioned a race war. It angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, and undermined elements in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy, the Proclamation lifted the spirits of African Americans both free and slave.
It led many slaves to escape from their masters and get to Union lines to obtain their freedom, the Emancipation Proclamation broadened the goals of the Civil War. While slavery had been an issue that led to the war. The Proclamation made freeing the slaves an explicit goal of the Union war effort, establishing the abolition of slavery as one of the two primary war goals served to deter intervention by Britain and France. The Emancipation Proclamation was never challenged in court, to ensure the abolition of slavery in all of the U. S. Lincoln pushed for passage of the Thirteenth Amendment. Congress passed it by the necessary two-thirds vote on January 31,1865, the United States Constitution of 1787 did not use the word slavery but included several provisions about unfree persons
New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford is a city in Bristol County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 95,072. The city, along with Fall River and Taunton, make up the three largest cities in the South Coast region of Massachusetts, the Greater Providence-Fall River-New Bedford area is home to the largest Portuguese-American community in the United States. Their population is believed to have been about 12,000, while exploring New England, Bartholomew Gosnold landed on Cuttyhunk Island on May 15,1602. From there, he explored Cape Cod and the neighboring areas, rather than settle the area, he returned to England at the request of his crew. Europeans first settled New Bedford in 1652, English Plymouth Colony settlers purchased the land from chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag tribe. Whether the transfer of the land was legitimately done has been the subject of intense controversy, like other native tribes, the Wampanoags did not share the settlers concepts of private property. The tribe may have believed they were granting usage rights to the land, the settlers used the land to build the colonial town of Old Dartmouth.
The name was suggested by the Russell family, who were prominent citizens of the community, the Dukes of Bedford, a leading English aristocratic house, bore the surname Russell. The late-18th century was a time of growth for the town, New Bedfords first newspaper, The Medley, was founded in 1792. On June 12,1792, the set up its first post office. William Tobey was its first postmaster, the construction of a bridge between New Bedford and present-day Fairhaven in 1796 spurred growth. In 1847 the town of New Bedford officially became a city, at approximately the same time, New Bedford began to supplant Nantucket as the nations preeminent whaling port, thanks to its deeper harbor and location on the mainland. Whaling dominated the economy of the city for much of the century, many families of the city were involved with it as crew and officers of ships. Until 1800, New Bedford and its communities were, by and large, populated by Protestants of English, Scottish. During the first half of the 19th century many Irish people came to Massachusetts, in 1818, Irish immigrants established the Catholic mission that built St.
Marys Church. As the Portuguese community began to increase, they established the first Portuguese parish in the city, French Canadians secured a foothold in New Bedford at about the same time, and they built the Church of the Sacred Heart in 1877. Similarly, Polish immigrants began arriving in the late 19th century, a number of Jewish families, arriving in the late 19th century, were active in the whaling industry, selling provisions and outfitting ships
William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman and author. Sherman began his Civil War career serving in the First Battle of Bull Run and he served under General Ulysses S. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the Western Theater of the war and he proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed to the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. Shermans subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacys ability to continue fighting and he accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas and Florida in April 1865, after having been present at most major military engagements in the Western Theater. When Grant assumed the U. S. presidency in 1869, Sherman succeeded him as Commanding General of the Army, as such, he was responsible for the U. S. Armys engagement in the Indian Wars over the next 15 years. Sherman advocated total war against hostile Indians to force them back onto their reservations and he steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known first-hand accounts of the Civil War.
British military historian B. H. Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was the first modern general, Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, near the banks of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children, Sherman was distantly related to American founding father Roger Sherman and grew to admire him. Shermans older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge, one of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U. S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker, Sherman would marry his foster sister, Ellen Boyle Ewing, at age 30 and have eight children with her. Shermans unusual given name has attracted considerable attention. Sherman reported that his name came from his father having caught a fancy for the great chief of the Shawnees. Since an account in a 1932 biography about Sherman, it has often reported that, as an infant.
According to these accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten and his foster mother, Maria Willis Boyle, was of Irish ancestry and a devout Roman Catholic. Sherman was raised in a Roman Catholic household, though he left the church. Sherman wrote in his Memoirs that his father named him William Tecumseh, Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant, as an adult, Sherman signed all his correspondence – including to his wife – W. T. Sherman. His friends and family called him Cump
Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
Lincoln was the first member of the recently-established Republican Party elected to the presidency. He was succeeded by Vice President Andrew Johnson, a former Whig politician, Lincoln ran on a political platform opposing the policies of the Pierce and Buchanan administrations that would have preserved slavery for the foreseeable future. His election served as the impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War. During the 16 weeks between Election Day and Inauguration Day, seven slave states declared their secession from the Union, after being sworn in as president, Lincoln refused to accept any resolution that would result in Southern secession from the Union. Despite having limited experience, Lincoln was first and foremost a war president, as the Civil War began just weeks into his presidency. Lincoln was called on to both the political and military aspects of the war, facing challenges in both spheres. Lincoln became the first president to institute a military draft, Lincolns 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed about 3 million slaves in Confederate-held territory.
In 1865, Lincoln was instrumental in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, Lincoln presided over the passage of important domestic legislation, including the first of the Homestead Acts, the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, and the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. Lincoln ran for re-election in 1864 on the National Union ticket, though Lincoln feared he might lose the contest, he defeated his former subordinate, General George B. McClellan of the Democratic Party, in a landslide. Lincolns assassination five days after the surrender of General Robert E. Lee left the challenge of reconstructing the nation to others. Political historians have long held Lincoln in high regard for his accomplishments, Lincoln was in his hometown of Springfield, Illinois on election day. He voted in mid-afternoon and spent the rest of the day discussing politics, primarily local and he took a few hours off at 5,00 pm to have dinner at home with his family. He returned to the capitol, but by 9,00 p. m. he had moved to the telegraph office where he could observe first hand as the election returns were reported.
It was after midnight before the news reached Lincoln that he had carried New York. As Lincoln received visitors and mail in Springfield, people expressed their concern about events in the South. Many expected Lincoln to somehow provide reassurances to the South that their interests were not being threatened, I am not at liberty to shift my ground -- that is out of the question. If I thought a repetition would do any good I would make it, but my judgment is it would do positive harm. The secessionists, per se believing they had alarmed me, would all the louder
Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Marthas Vineyard is an island located south of Cape Cod in Massachusetts that is known for being an affluent summer colony. It includes the smaller Chappaquiddick Island which is connected to the Vineyard, though storms. The last such separation of the islands was in 2007 and the two islands are connected as of April 2,2015. It is the 58th largest island in the United States, with an area of 100 square miles. The island constitutes the bulk of Dukes County, which includes the Elizabeth Islands. The Vineyard was home to one of the earliest known deaf communities in the United States, the 2010 census reported a year-round population of 16,535 residents, although the summer population can swell to more than 100,000 people. About 56% of the Vineyards 14,621 homes are seasonally occupied, Marthas Vineyard is primarily known as a summer colony, and it is only accessible by boat and air. However, its population has considerably increased since the 1960s. The islands year-round population increased about a third each decade from 1970 to 2000, the population of the Vineyard was 14,901 in the 2000 Census and was estimated at 15,582 in 2004.
The Islands population increased from 14,987 to 16,535, a study by the Marthas Vineyard Commission found that the cost of living on the island is 60% higher than the national average, and housing prices are 96% higher. Originally inhabited by the Wampanoag, Marthas Vineyard was known in their language as Noepe, in 1642, the Wampanoag numbered somewhere around 3,000 on the island. By 1764, that number had dropped by around 90% to 313, a smaller island to the south was named Marthas Vineyard by the English explorer Bartholomew Gosnold, who sailed to the island in 1602. The name was transferred to the main island. It is thus the eighth-oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, the islands namesake is not positively known, but it is thought that the island was named after Gosnolds mother-in-law or his daughter, both named Martha. The island was known as Martins Vineyard, many islanders up to the 18th century called it by this name. The United States Board on Geographic Names worked to standardize placename spellings in the late 19th century, English settlement began with the purchase of Marthas Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands by Thomas Mayhew of Watertown, Massachusetts from two English owners.
He had friendly relations with the Wampanoags on the island, in part because he was careful to honor their land rights and his son, named Thomas Mayhew, began the first English settlement in 1642 at Great Harbor. The younger Mayhew began a relationship with Hiacoomes, an Indian neighbor, many of the tribe became Christian, including the pow-wows and sachems
Richmond in the American Civil War
Richmond, served as the capital of the Confederate States of America for almost the whole of the American Civil War. The city was less than 100 miles from the Union capital in Washington and its proximity to the fighting would lead to it becoming a center of hospitals and military prisons. The city finally fell to Union forces on April 3,1865, in the aftermath of the war, numerous monuments and museums were erected in the city. In the 1860 United States Census, Richmond was the 25th largest urban area in the United States, the city had been the capital of Virginia since 1780. The Confederate States of America was formed in early 1861 from the first states to secede from the Union, Alabama, was selected as the Confederate capital. After the Confederate Army fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, on April 12,1861, beginning the Civil War, additional states seceded. Virginia voted to secede from the Union on April 17,1861, shortly thereafter, in recognition of Virginias strategic importance, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond.
Richmond remained the capital of the Confederacy until April 2,1865, at point the government evacuated and was re-established, albeit briefly, in Danville. Positioned on the Fall Line along the James River, the city had access to an ample supply of hydropower to run mills. The Tredegar Iron Works, sprawling along the James River, supplied high-quality munitions to Confederacy during the war, the company manufactured railroad steam locomotives in the same period. The foundry made the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia, the Tredegar works were adjacent to the Richmond Arsenal, which was recommissioned in the lead-up to the war. On Browns Island, the Confederate States Laboratory was established to consolidate explosives production to a setting in the eventuality of an accidental explosion. Numerous smaller factories in Richmond produced tents, uniforms and leather goods and bayonets, as the war progressed, the citys warehouses became the supply and logistical center for much of the Confederate forces within the Eastern Theater.
Richmond was a transportation hub, at the fall of Richmond in April 1865, all but the Richmond and Danville Railroad and the canal had effectively been cut off by Union forces. In the late spring of 1862, a large Federal army under Major General George B. McClellan landed on the Virginia Peninsula, McClellan, who had enjoyed early publicity from a series of successes in western Virginia, was assigned the task of seizing and occupying Richmond. His military maneuvers and the battles and engagements became collectively known as the Peninsula Campaign. McClellans starting base was the Union-held Fort Monroe at the tip of the Peninsula. Efforts to take Richmond by the James River were successfully blocked by Confederate defenses at the Battle of Drewrys Bluff on May 15, the Union Army advance was halted shortly outside of the city at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1,1862