Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants called water lilies. They live as rhizomatous aquatic herbs in tropical climates around the world; the family contains five genera with about 70 known species. Water lilies are rooted in soil in bodies of water, with leaves and flowers floating on or emergent from the surface; the leaves are round, with a radial notch in Nymphaea and Nuphar, but circular in Victoria and Euryale. Water lilies are a well studied clade of plants because their large flowers with multiple unspecialized parts were considered to represent the floral pattern of the earliest flowering plants, genetic studies confirmed their evolutionary position as basal angiosperms. Analyses of floral morphology and molecular characteristics and comparisons with a sister taxon, the family Cabombaceae, however, that the flowers of extant water lilies with the most floral parts are more derived than the genera with fewer floral parts. Genera with more floral parts, Nymphaea, have a beetle pollination syndrome, while genera with fewer parts are pollinated by flies or bees, or are self- or wind-pollinated.
Thus, the large number of unspecialized floral organs in the Nymphaeaceae is not an ancestral condition for the clade. Water lilies do not have surface leaves during winter, therefore the gases in the rhizome lacunae access equilibrium with the gases of the sediment water; the leftover of internal pressure is embodied by the constant streams of bubbles that outbreak when rising leaves are ruptured in the spring. The Nymphaeaceae are aquatic, rhizomatous herbs; the family is further characterized by scattered vascular bundles in the stems, frequent presence of latex with distinct, stellate-branched sclereids projecting into the air canals. Hairs are simple producing mucilage. Leaves are alternate and spiral, opposite or whorled, peltate or nearly so, entire to toothed or dissected, short to long petiolate), with blade submerged, floating or emergent, with palmate to pinnate venation. Stipules are either absent. Flowers are solitary, radial, with a long pedicel and floating or raised above the surface of the water, with girdling vascular bundles in receptacle.
Female and male parts of the flower are active at different times to facilitate cross-pollination. Sepals are 4-12, distinct to connate and petal-like. Petals lacking or 8 to numerous, inconspicuous to showy intergrading with stamens. Stamens are 3 to numerous, the innermost sometimes represented by staminodes. Filaments are distinct, free or adnate to petaloid staminodes and well differentiated from anthers to laminar and poorly differentiated from anthers. Carpels are 3 to numerous, connate. Fruit is an aggregate of a berry, or an irregularly dehiscent fleshy spongy capsule. Seeds are arillate, more or less lacking sperm. Nymphaeaceae has been investigated systematically for decades because botanists considered their floral morphology to represent one of the earliest groups of angiosperms. Modern genetic analyses by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group researchers has confirmed its basal position among flowering plants. In addition, the Nymphaeaceae are more genetically diverse and geographically dispersed than other basal angiosperms.
Nymphaeaceae is placed in the order Nymphaeales, the second diverging group of angiosperms after Amborella in the most accepted flowering plant classification system, APG IV system. Nymphaeaceae is a small family of three to six genera: Barclaya, Nuphar, Nymphaea and Victoria; the genus Barclaya is sometimes given rank as its own family, Barclayaceae, on the basis of an extended perianth tube arising from the top of the ovary and by stamens that are joined in the base. However, molecular phylogenetic work includes it in Nymphaeaceae; the genus Ondinea has been shown to be a morphologically aberrant species of Nymphaea, is now included in this genus. The genera Euryale, of far east Asia, Victoria, from South America, are related despite their geographic distance, but their relationship toward Nymphaea need further studies; the sacred lotus was once thought to be a water lily, but is now recognized to be a modified eudicot in its own family Nelumbonaceae of the order Proteales. The beautiful nature of water lilies has led to their widespread use as ornamental plants.
The Mexican water lily, native to the Gulf Coast of North America, is planted throughout the continent. It has escaped from cultivation and become invasive in some areas, such as California's San Joaquin Valley, it is difficult to eradicate. Populations can be controlled by cutting top growth. Herbicides can be used to control populations using glyphosate and fluridone; the white water lily is the national flower of Bangladesh and state flower for Andhra Pradesh, India. The seal of Bangladesh contains a lily floating on water; the blue waterlily is the national flower of Sri Lanka. It is the birth flower for July. Lily pads known as Seeblätter, are a charge in Northern European heraldry coloured red, appear on the flag of Friesland and the coat of arms of Denmark; the water lily has a special place in Sangam literature and Tamil poetics, where it is considered symbolic of the grief of separation. Water lilies were depicted by the French artist Claude Monet in a series of paintings. Nelumbo Pamplemousses Botanical Garden, famous for its giant w
The common merganser or goosander is a large duck of rivers and lakes in forested areas of Europe and central Asia, North America. The common merganser eats fish and nests in holes in trees; the first formal description of the common merganser was by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae. He introduced the current binomial name Mergus merganser; the genus name is a Latin word used by Pliny and other Roman authors to refer to an unspecified waterbird, merganser is derived from mergus and anser, Latin for "goose" In 1843 John James Audubon used the name "Buff-breasted Merganser" in addition to "goosander" in his book The Birds of America. There are three subspecies, differing in only minor detail: M. m. merganser – Linnaeus, 1758: found throughout northern Europe and northern Asia. M. m. orientalis – Gould, 1845: found in the Central Asian mountains. Larger than M. m. merganser, with a slenderer bill. M. m. americanus – Cassin, 1852: found in North America.
Bill broader-based than in M. m. merganser, a black bar crossing the white inner wing on males. It is a weight of 0.9 -- 2.1 kg. Like other species in the genus Mergus, it has a crest of longer head feathers, but these lie smoothly rounded behind the head, not forming an erect crest. Adult males in breeding plumage are distinguished, the body white with a variable salmon-pink tinge, the head black with an iridescent green gloss, the rump and tail grey, the wings white on the inner half, black on the outer half. Females, males in "eclipse" are grey, with a reddish-brown head, white chin, white secondary feathers on the wing. Juveniles are similar to adult females but show a short black-edged white stripe between the eye and bill; the bill and legs are red to brightest on adult males, dullest on juveniles. Like the other mergansers, these fish-feeding ducks have serrated edges to their bills to help them grip their prey, so they are known as "sawbills". In addition to fish, they take a wide range of other aquatic prey, such as molluscs, worms, insect larvae, amphibians.
As in other birds with the character, the salmon-pink tinge shown variably by males is diet-related, obtained from the carotenoid pigments present in some crustaceans and fish. When not diving for food, they are seen swimming on the water surface, or resting on rocks in midstream or hidden among riverbank vegetation, or on the edge of floating ice. In most places, the common merganser is as much a frequenter of salt water as fresh water. In larger streams and rivers, they float down with the stream for a few miles, either fly back again or more fish their way back, diving incessantly the whole way. In smaller streams, they are present in pairs or smaller groups, they float down, twisting round and round in the rapids, or fishing vigorously in a deep pool near the foot of a waterfall or rapid; when floating leisurely, they position themselves in water similar to ducks, but they swim deep in water like cormorants when swimming upstream. They sit on a rock in the middle of the water, similar to cormorants half-opening their wings to the sun.
To rise from water, they flap along the surface for many yards. Once they are airborne, the flight is rapid, they fish in a group forming a semicircle and driving the fish into shallow water, where they are captured easily. Their ordinary voice is a low, harsh croak, but during the breeding season, they make a plaintive, soft whistle, they are wary, one or more birds stay on sentry duty to warn the flock of approaching danger. When disturbed, they disgorge food before moving. Though they move clumsily on land, they resort to running when pressed, assuming a upright position similar to penguins, falling and stumbling frequently. Nesting is in a tree cavity, so it requires mature forest as its breeding habitat. In places devoid of trees, they use holes in cliffs and steep, high banks, sometimes at considerable distances from the water; the female lays 6–17 white to yellowish eggs, raises one brood in a season. The ducklings are taken by their mother in her bill to rivers or lakes after hatching, where they feed on freshwater invertebrates and small fish fry, fledging when 60–70 days old.
The young are sexually mature at the age of two years. Common Mergansers are known to form crèches, with single females having being observed with over 70 ducklings at one time; the species is a partial migrant, with birds moving away from areas where rivers and major lakes freeze in the winter, but resident where waters remain open. Eastern North American birds move south in small groups to the United States wherever ice free conditions exist on lakes and rivers. Scandinavian and Russian birds migrate southwards, but western European birds, a few in Japan, are resident. In some populations, the males show distinct moult migration, leaving the breeding areas as soon as the young hatch to spend the summer elsewhere. Notably, most of the western European male population migrates north to estuaries in Finnmark in northern
Pembrokeshire is a county in the southwest of Wales. It is bordered by Carmarthenshire to the east, Ceredigion to the northeast, the sea everywhere else; the county is home to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only national park in the United Kingdom established because of the coastline. Industry is nowadays focused on agriculture and gas, tourism. Mining and fishing were important activities; the county has a diverse geography with a wide range of geological features and wildlife. Its prehistory and modern history have been extensively studied, from tribal occupation, through Roman times, to Welsh and Flemish influences. Pembrokeshire County Council's headquarters are in the county town of Haverfordwest; the council has a majority of Independent members, but the county's representatives in both the Welsh and Westminster Parliaments are Conservative. Pembrokeshire's population was 122,439 at the 2011 census, an increase of 7.2 per cent from the 2001 figure of 114,131. Ethnically, the county is 99 per cent white and, for historical reasons, Welsh is more spoken in the north of the county than in the south.
The county town is Haverfordwest. Other towns include Pembroke, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Tenby, Narberth and Newport. In the west of the county, St Davids is the United Kingdom's smallest city in terms of both size and population. Saundersfoot is the most populous village in Pembrokeshire. Less than 4 per cent of the county, according to CORINE, is green urban. See List of places in Pembrokeshire for a comprehensive list of settlements in Pembrokeshire. There are three weather stations in Pembrokeshire: at Tenby, Milford Haven and Penycwm, all on the coast. Milford Haven enjoys a mild climate and Tenby shows a similar range of temperatures throughout the year, while at Penycwm, on the west coast and 100m above sea level, temperatures are lower. Pembrokeshire, featured twice in the 2016 wettest places in Wales at Whitechurch in the north of the county and Scolton Country Park, near Haverfordwest. Orielton was the tenth driest place in Wales in 2016; the county has on average the highest coastal winter temperatures in Wales due to its proximity to the warm Atlantic Ocean.
Inland, average temperatures tend to fall 0.5 °C for each 100 metres increase in height. The air pollution rating of Pembrokeshire is "Good", the lowest rating; the rocks in the county were formed between 290 million years ago. More recent rock formations were eroded when sea levels rose 80 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous Period. Around 60 million years ago, the Pembrokeshire landmass emerged through a combination of uplift and falling sea levels; the landscape was subject to considerable change as a result of ice ages. While Pembrokeshire is not a seismically active area, in August 1892 there was a series of pronounced activities over a six-day period; the Pembrokeshire coastline includes sandy beaches. The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only park in the UK established because of its coastline, occupies more than a third of the county; the park contains the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, a near-continuous 186-mile long-distance trail from Amroth, by the Carmarthenshire border in the southeast, to St Dogmaels just down the River Teifi estuary from Cardigan, Ceredigion, in the north.
The National Trust owns 60 miles of Pembrokeshire's coast. Nowhere in the county is more than 10 miles from tidal water; the large estuary and natural harbour of Milford Haven cuts deep into the coast. Since 1975, the estuary has been bridged by the Cleddau Bridge, a toll bridge carrying the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock. Large bays are Fishguard Bay, St Bride's Bay and western Carmarthen Bay. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey, Skokholm and Caldey. There are many known shipwrecks off the Pembrokeshire coast with many more undiscovered. A Viking wreck off The Smalls has protected status; the county has six lifeboat stations, the earliest of, established in 1822. Pembrokeshire's diverse range of geological features was a key factor in the establishment of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park and a number of sites of special scientific interest. In the north of the county are the Preseli Hills, a wide stretch of high moorland supporting sheep farming and some forestry, with many prehistoric sites and the probable source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehenge in England.
The highest point is Foel Cwmcerwyn at 1,759 feet, the highest point in Pembrokeshire. Elsewhere in the county most of the land is used for farming, compared with 60 per cent for Wales as a whole. Pembrokeshire has a number of seasonal seabird breeding sites, including for razorbill, guillemot
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Llansteffan Castle is a owned castle in Llansteffan, Wales, overlooking the River Tywi estuary in Carmarthen Bay. The castle sits on a much older Iron Age promontory fort, proving Llansteffan has been inhabited for several millennia; the hill where the castle stands commands the River Tywi estuary. The hill would have been stripped of trees so that foot soldiers were vulnerable to attack by archers; the original earthworks can still be seen and were used as part of the modern castle's defence system—the castle proper rests within the earthwork rings. The castle was built by the Normans after 1100 as part of their invasion of Wales and granted to the Marmion family before passing to the de Camvilles through marriage, it was captured by Maredudd ap Gruffydd in 1146 against the forces of Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan and his brother William FitzGerald, Lord of Emlyn who were the leading Norman settlers of the region. The castle was retaken by the Normans in 1158. Llywelyn the Great recaptured the castle for the Welsh in 1215 and taken back by the de Camville family sometime after 1223.
The castle returned to the de Camvilles by the 1260s. By 1367, it was described as in a poor state; the castle was captured twice by the forces of Owain Glyndŵr in 1403 and c.1405. It was recaptured by Sir John Pennes in 1408; the castle was granted to the Crown and the two-tower Gatehouse was converted into a residence. The castle, owned, is under a deed of guardianship with Cadw. List of hillforts in Wales
A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Anglesey is an island off the north coast of Wales with an area of 276 square miles. Anglesey is by the seventh largest in the British Isles. Anglesey is the largest island in the Irish Sea by area, the second most populous island; the ferry port of Holyhead handles more than 2 million passengers each year. The Menai Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford in 1826, the Britannia Bridge span the Menai Strait to connect Anglesey with the mainland. Anglesey, one of the historic counties of Wales, was administered as part of Gwynedd, but along with Holy Island and other smaller islands, it is now governed by the Isle of Anglesey County Council. Much of this article covers the whole of this administrative area; the majority of Anglesey's inhabitants are Welsh speakers and Ynys Môn, the Welsh name for the island, is used for the UK Parliament and National Assembly constituencies. The population at the 2011 census was 69,751; the island falls within the LL postcode area, covering LL58 to LL78. The name of the island may be derived from the Old Norse.
No record of such an Ǫngli survives, but the place name was used in the Viking raiders as early as the 10th century and was adopted by the Normans during their invasions of Gwynedd. The traditional folk etymology reading the name as the "Island of the Angles" may account for its Norman use but has no merit, although the Angles' name itself is a cognate reference to the shape of the Angeln peninsula. All of these derive from the proposed Proto-Indo-European root *ank-. Through the 18th and 19th centuries and into the 20th, it was spelt Anglesea in documents. Ynys Môn, the island's Welsh name, was first recorded as Latin Mona by various Roman sources, it was known to the Saxons as Monez. The Brittonic original was in the past taken to have meant "Island of the Cow"; this view is untenable, according to modern scientific philology, the etymology remains a mystery. Poetic names for Anglesey include the Old Welsh Ynys Dywyll for its former groves and Ynys y Cedairn for its royal courts. There are numerous megalithic monuments and menhirs on Anglesey, testifying to the presence of humans in prehistory.
Plas Newydd is near one of 28 cromlechs. The Welsh Triads claim. Anglesey has long been associated with the druids. In AD 60 the Roman general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, determined to break the power of the druids, attacked the island using his amphibious Batavian contingent as a surprise vanguard assault and destroying the shrine and the nemeta. News of Boudica's revolt reached him just after his victory, causing him to withdraw his army before consolidating his conquest; the island was brought into the Roman Empire by Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain, in AD 78. During the Roman occupation, the area was notable for the mining of copper; the foundations of Caer Gybi, a fort in Holyhead, are Roman, the present road from Holyhead to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll was a Roman road. The island was grouped by Ptolemy with Ireland rather than with Britain. British Iron Age and Roman sites have been excavated and coins and ornaments discovered by the 19th century antiquarian William Owen Stanley.
After the Roman departure from Britain in the early 5th century, pirates from Ireland colonised Anglesey and the nearby Llŷn Peninsula. In response to this, Cunedda ap Edern, a Gododdin warlord from Scotland, came to the area and began to drive the Irish out; this was continued by grandson Cadwallon Lawhir ap Einion. As an island, Anglesey was in a good defensive position, so Aberffraw became the site of the court, or Llys, of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. Apart from a devastating Danish raid in 853 it remained the capital until the 13th century, when improvements to the English navy made the location indefensible. Anglesey was briefly the most southerly possession of the Norwegian Empire. After the Irish, the island was invaded by Vikings — some of these raids were noted in famous sagas — and by Saxons, Normans, before falling to Edward I of England in the 13th century. Anglesey is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales. In medieval times, before the conquest of Wales in 1283, Môn had periods of temporary independence, as it was bequeathed to the heirs of kings as a sub-kingdom of Gwynedd.
The last times this occurred were a few years after 1171, following the death of Owain Gwynedd, when the island was inherited by Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd, between 1246 and c. 1255, when it was granted to Owain Goch as his share of the kingdom. Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, Anglesey was created a county under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. Prior to this it had been divided into the cantrefi of Aberffraw and Cemaes. During the First World War, the Presbyterian minister and celebrity preacher John Williams toured the island as part of an effort to recruit young men to volunteer for a “just war”. German POWs were kept on the island. By the end of the war, some 1,000 of the island's men had died while on active service. In 1936 the NSPCC opened its first branch on Anglesey. During the Second World War, Anglesey received Italian POWs; the isla