Bridgnorth is a town in Shropshire, England. The Severn Valley splits it into a High Town and Low Town, the upper town on the right bank and the lower on the left bank of the River Severn; the population at the 2011 Census was 12,079. Bridgnorth is named after a bridge over the River Severn, built further north than an earlier bridge at Quatford; the earliest historical reference to the town is in 895, when it is recorded that the Danes created a camp at Cwatbridge. Earliest names for Bridgnorth include Brigge and Bruges, all referring to its position on the Severn. After the Norman conquest, William I granted the manor of Bridgnorth to Roger de Montgomerie; the town itself was not created until 1101, when Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, the son of Roger de Montgomerie, moved from Quatford, constructing a castle and a church on the site of the modern-day town. The town became a royal borough on Robert Bellême's attainder in 1102; the castle's purpose was to defend against attacks from Wales.
The town was attacked and burnt by Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March during the Despenser War in 1322. Bridgnorth's town walls were constructed in timber between 1216 and 1223. By the 16th century, the antiquarian John Leland reported them in ruins and of the five gates, only one survives today, it is probable that Henry I granted the burgesses certain privileges, for Henry II confirmed to them all the franchises and customs which they had had in the time of Henry I. King John in 1215 granted them freedom from toll throughout England except the city of London, in 1227 Henry III conferred several new rights and liberties, among which were a gild merchant with a hanse; these early charters were confirmed by several succeeding kings, Henry VI granting in addition Assize of Bread and Ale and other privileges. The burgesses were additionally granted two fairs: a yearly fair on the feast of the Translation of St Leonard and the three following days was granted in 1359, in 1630 Charles I granted them licence to hold another fair on the Thursday before the first week in Lent and two following days.
The burgesses returned two members to parliament in 1295, continued to do so until 1867, when they were assigned only one member. The town was disfranchised in 1885. During the Civil War, Bridgnorth was one of the Midlands' main royalist strongholds, in 1642 many royalist troops were garrisoned there. In 1646, Cromwell's Roundheads arrived with orders to take Bridgnorth for the Parliamentarians from the garrison led by Sir Robert Howard. After a three-week siege, Cromwell was successful and he ordered that the castle be demolished. More than 255 men from the Bridgnorth area volunteered in the first months of the First World War, their names were published in the Bridgnorth Journal on 26 December 1914 and several of those killed in action are remembered on the war memorial in the castle grounds. Until 1961 the Royal Air Force's initial recruit training unit was at RAF Bridgnorth, a station opened in 1939. During the Second World War, two women were killed in a German air raid in August 1940 when bombs hit neighbouring houses in High Town.
In 2005, unverified German papers dating from 1941 were found, outlining new details about Operation Sea Lion, the military plans of Nazi Germany for an invasion of Britain. Two quiet Shropshire towns were mentioned in the documentation: Bridgnorth; some experts believe that it was Hitler's intention to make Bridgnorth his personal headquarters in Britain, due to its central position in the UK, rural location, rail connections and now-disused airfield. In 1978, Bridgnorth twinned itself with the French town of Thiers, in 1992 it twinned with the Bavarian town of Schrobenhausen, Germany that had twinned with Thiers a few years earlier. On 21 August 2003 Bridgnorth was granted Fairtrade Town status. Bridgnorth is home to a funicular railway that links the high and low towns, the Castle Hill Railway, the steepest and only inland railway of its type in England. Additionally, within the High Town is Bridgnorth railway station on the Severn Valley Railway, which runs southwards to Kidderminster; the ruins of Bridgnorth Castle, built in 1101, are present in the town.
Due to damage caused during the English Civil War, the castle is inclined at an angle of 15 degrees. High Town is dominated by two Church of England churches. Church of St. Mary Magdalene, Bridgnorth, a church built in the classic style of the late 18th century, was designed by Thomas Telford. St. Leonard's was collegiate, Bridgnorth was a Royal Peculiar until 1856, it was subsequently rebuilt but is no longer used for regular worship. It is in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. Bishop Percy's House on the Cartway was built in 1580 by Richard Forster and has been a Grade 1 listed building since 18 July 1949, it was one of the few properties of its type to survive the great fire of Bridgnorth in April 1646, was the birthplace of Thomas Percy, author of ‘Reliques of Ancient English Poetry’. Other notable buildings in the town are the 17th century Bridgnorth Town Hall, a half-timbered building, a surviving town gate the Northgate which houses the museum. Daniel's Mill, a well known watermill is situated a short distance along the River Severn from Bridgnorth.
There are a number of Primary Schools in Bridgnorth, including: Castlefields County Primary School, two Church of England schools, St Mary's and St Leonard's.
River Avon, Warwickshire
The River Avon or Avon is located in central England, flowing southwestwards. It is known as the Warwickshire Avon or Shakespeare's Avon, to distinguish it from several other rivers of the same name in the United Kingdom. Beginning in Northamptonshire, the river flows through or adjoining the counties of Leicestershire, Warwickshire and Gloucestershire, near the Cotswold Hills area. Notable towns it flows through include Rugby, Stratford-upon-Avon, Evesham and Tewkesbury, where it joins the Severn, it has traditionally been divided since 1719 into the Lower Avon, below Evesham, the Upper Avon, from Evesham to above Stratford-upon-Avon. Improvements to aid navigation began in 1635, a series of locks and weirs made it possible to reach Stratford, to within 4 miles of Warwick; the Upper Avon was tortuous and prone to flooding, was abandoned as a means of navigation in 1877. The Lower Avon struggled on, never closed, although it was only navigable below Pershore by 1945. Restoration of the lower river as a navigable waterway began in 1950, was completed in 1962.
The upper river was a more daunting task, as most of the weirs were no longer extant. Work began in 1965 on the construction of nine new locks and 17 miles of river, using volunteer labour, was completed in 1974 when it was opened by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother; the Avon connects with the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal in the centre of Stratford, is used by leisure craft. Plans to extend the navigable river to provide a link with the Grand Union Canal at either Warwick or Leamington Spa have met with some opposition. "Avon" derives from the British language abona, "river", which survives as a number of other English and Scottish river names, as modern Welsh afon and Breton avon, "river". The source of the Avon is from a spring near the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire. For the first few miles of its length between Welford and the Dow Bridge on Watling Street, it forms the border between Northamptonshire and Leicestershire. On this section, it has been dammed to create Stanford Reservoir.
It flows in a west-southwesterly direction, not far north of the Cotswold Edge and through the Vale of Evesham, passing through the towns and villages of Welford, Wolston, Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon and Pershore, before it joins the River Severn at Tewkesbury. The river has a catchment size of 1,032 square miles; the Avon's tributaries include the Rivers Leam, Sowe, Arrow, Swift and Swilgate as well as many minor streams and brooks. A long distance footpath has been created which follows the river from its source to the River Severn at Tewkesbury; the route is marketed as Shakespeare's Avon Way, is 88 miles long. It uses existing tracks to stay as close to the river as is reasonably possible. Before the last Ice Age about 50,000 years ago, the Warwickshire Avon was a small river which drained northwards to the River Trent. During the Wolstonian glacial period, ice advanced into the Midlands from the north and west blocking the flow of the Avon to its former confluence with the Trent.
The waters were thus trapped: on the north and west by the glacier, by the Cotswolds to the south, resulting in the formation of a large glacial lake, called Lake Harrison. At its maximum, it is considered that this glacial lake covered the whole of Warwickshire and was over 200 feet deep. After about 10,000 years, when the glacier retreated, the water was able to cut through the previous watershed and to escape to the southwest, so forming the present day route of the river. From Alveston weir, 2 miles upstream of Stratford-upon-Avon, downstream to Tewkesbury and the River Severn, the river has been rendered navigable by the construction of locks and weirs; the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal links to the Avon through a lock in the park in front of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon. The River Avon can be used by boats with a maximum length of 70 ft, beam of 13 ft 6 in, height of 10 ft and draught of 4 ft from Tewkesbury to Evesham. Above Evesham, beam is restricted to 12 ft 6 in and draught to 3 ft.
The river is crossed by two manually operated pedestrian chain ferries, these being the Hampton Ferry in Evesham and the Stratford-upon-Avon Ferry in Stratford-upon-Avon. Traffic is now leisure-oriented. Overnight moorings are available at Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon, Offenham, Craycombe, Pershore, Comberton, Eckington and Tewkesbury. There are boatyards at Stratford-upon-Avon, Welford-on-Avon, Bidford-on-Avon and Tewkesbury; the river forms part of the Avon Ring, a circular cruising route, 109 miles long, includes 129 locks. From Tewkesbury it follows the course of the River Severn, the Worcester and Birmingham Canal and the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal to arrive back at the Avon at Stratford-upon-Avon; the navigation works on the Avon were authorised by an Order in Council and Letters Patent of Charles I in 1635, which named William Sandys as the grantee, with powers to improve both this river and the River Teme. He had bought a number of mills on the river, but there were few objections from millers at those he did not own, for he built pound locks with two sets of gates, to enable vessels to pass by without the larg
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
The Severn Estuary is the estuary of the River Severn, the longest river in Great Britain. It is the confluence of four major rivers, being the Severn, Wye and Avon, other smaller rivers, its high tidal range 50 feet, means that it has been at the centre of discussions in the UK regarding renewable energy. Definitions of the limits of the Severn Estuary vary. A narrower definition adopted by some maps is that the river becomes the Severn Estuary after the Second Severn Crossing near Severn Beach, South Gloucestershire, stretches to a line from Lavernock Point to Sand Point near Weston-super-Mare; the definition used on Admiralty Chart SC1179 and the Bristol Channel and Severn Cruising Guide is that the estuary extends upstream to Aust, the site of the old Severn Bridge. The estuary is about 2 miles wide at Aust, about 9 miles wide between Cardiff and Weston-super-Mare; the Estuary forms the boundary between England in this stretch. On the northern side of the estuary are the Caldicot and Wentloog Levels which are on either side of the city of Newport.
On the southern, side, are Avonmouth, Portishead and Weston-super-Mare. Denny Island is a small rocky island of 0.24 hectares, with scrub vegetation three miles north of Portishead. Its rocky southern foreshore marks the boundary between England and Wales, but the island itself is reckoned administratively to Monmouthshire, Wales; the estuary has one of the highest tidal ranges in the world — about 50 feet. The estuary's funnel shape, its tidal range and the underlying geology of rock and sand, produce strong tidal streams and high turbidity, giving the water a notably brown coloration. West of the line between Lavernock Point and Sand Point is the Bristol Channel, which in turn discharges into the Celtic Sea and the wider Atlantic Ocean; the islands of Steep Holm and Flat Holm are located close to that line, in the middle of the estuary. Sometimes the term Severn Estuary is used to include the tidal upstream stretch between Gloucester and Aust. During the highest tides on the upper reaches of this stretch, the rising water is funnelled up the estuary into the Severn bore, a self-reinforcing solitary wave that travels upstream against the river current.
The tidal range results in the estuary having one of the most extensive intertidal wildlife habitats in the UK, comprising mudflats, rocky platforms and islands. These form a basis for plant and animal communities typical of extreme physical conditions of liquid mud and tide-swept sand and rock; the estuary is recognised as a wetland area of international importance and is designated as a Ramsar site. The estuary is recognised as a Special Protection Area under the EC Directive on the conservation of Wild Birds; the estuary is recognised as a Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive. Parts of the estuary have been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest; the SSSI includes most of the foreshore upstream from Cardiff and Brean Down and most of the upper estuary as far as Sharpness. The Upper Severn Estuary SSSI covers the tidal river between Frampton on Severn; the Severn Estuary SSSI original designation involves the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire in England, Gwent and South Glamorgan in Wales.
The Severn Estuary SSSI designation overlaps individual site designations for separate sites in Avon and South Glamorgan. The 1976 designation includes two sites notified in 1952; the SSSI forms the major part of a larger area which includes the Taf/Ely Estuary and Bridgwater Bay The Upper Severn Estuary SSSI designation involves the English county of Gloucestershire. The site is listed in the'Forest of Dean Local Plan Review' as a Key Wildlife Site. Both SSSI citations provide detail of the geological and biological interest and of particular note is the international importance for wintering and wading birds of passage, of estuarine habits of outstanding ornithological significance, it is stated that the estuary supports over 10% of the British wintering population and is the single most important wintering ground for dunlin, for significant numbers of Bewick's swans, European white-fronted geese and wigeon. Nationally important wintering populations are supported such as gadwall and pochard.
There are notably seven species of migratory fish. These include significant numbers of common eel. A huge tidal range and high level of surrounding industry and population have long made the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel a focus for tidal energy schemes and ideas. Plans for a Severn Barrage — running 16 km across the Bristol Channel from Lavernock Point near to and south west of Cardiff to Brean Down near and just south west of Weston-super-Mare in Somerset — would generate a massive 8640 MW when the tide flows, have been discussed for several decades now; the power generated would come from a lake of 185 square miles with a potential energy depth of 14 metres. Tidal power only runs for around ten hours a day, but by using the enclosed lake as a reservoir of potential energy more hours of operation could be achieved. Other energy sources, such as wind and solar power create electricity at times that do not always match when it is needed. Excess power could be stored by pumping water uphill
Ironbridge is a town on the River Severn, at the heart of the Ironbridge Gorge, in Shropshire, England. It lies in the borough of Telford and Wrekin. Ironbridge developed beside, takes its name from, The Iron Bridge, a 30-metre cast iron bridge that opened in 1781; the area around Ironbridge is described by those promoting it as a tourist destination as the "Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution". This description is based on the idea that Abraham Darby perfected the technique of smelting iron with coke, in Coalbrookdale, allowing much cheaper production of iron. However, the industrial revolution did not begin in any one place. Darby's iron smelting was but one small part of this generalised revolution and was soon superseded by the great iron-smelting areas. However, the bridge – being the first of its kind fabricated from cast iron, one of the few which have survived to the present day – remains an important symbol representative of the dawn of the industrial age; the grandson of the first Abraham Darby, Abraham Darby III, built the bridge – designed by Thomas Farnolls Pritchard – to link the two areas.
Construction began in 1779 and the bridge opened on New Year's Day 1781. Soon afterwards the ancient Madeley market was relocated to the new purpose-built square and Georgian Butter Cross and the former dispersed settlement of Madeley Wood gained a planned urban focus as Ironbridge, the commercial and administrative centre of the Coalbrookdale coalfield; the Iron Bridge proprietors built the Tontine Hotel to accommodate visitors to the new bridge and the industrial sites of the Severn Gorge. Across a square facing the hotel was erected in 1924 the town's war memorial in form of a bronze statue of a First World War soldier in marching order, sculpted by Arthur George Walker, whose signature appears as does that of A. B. Burton, the foundry worker who erected it. On the hillside above the river are situated the stone-built 16th-century hunting lodge at Lincoln Hill, many 17th- and 18th-century workers' cottages, some imposing Georgian houses built by ironmasters and mine and river barge owners, many early Victorian villas built from the various coloured bricks and tiles of the locality.
St Luke's Church in simple Commissioners' Gothic by Samuel Smith of Madeley, has stained glass by David Evans of Shrewsbury. Its design is unusual in that the sanctuary is at the west end and the tower at the east, in reverse to the majority of churches, because the land at the west end was unstable and unable to take the weight of a tower; the bells in the church tower were installed in 1920 as a memorial to parishioners who died in World War I, the external church clock was illuminated in memory of those who died in World War II. The living was endowed as a rectory when the parish was created from Madeley in 1847 and is now a united benefice with Coalbrookdale and Little Wenlock, in the Diocese of Hereford; the former Iron Bridge and Broseley railway station, on the Severn Valley line from Hartlebury to Shrewsbury, was situated on the south side of the Iron Bridge until 1966. The village was the birthplace of England National Football Team captain Billy Wright. By the 19th century, Ironbridge had had many well-known visitors, including Benjamin Disraeli, but by the mid-20th century the settlements and industries of the gorge were in decline.
In 1986, Ironbridge became part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has become a major tourist attraction within Shropshire. Most industries in Ironbridge are now tourist-related. Amongst other things, the village is still host to a Post Office, various pubs, cafés and many successful small shops. Ironbridge was struck by an F1/T2 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. On Thursday 10 July 2003 The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh made a visit to Shropshire which included a visit to Ironbridge, a walk over the bridge itself. An annual Coracle Regatta is held in August on the River Severn at Ironbridge, along with many other events throughout the year; this is because the coracle-making family of Rogers lived in Ironbridge for several generations. Just outside Ironbridge in Coalbrookdale is the Ironbridge Institute, a partnership between the University of Birmingham and the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust offering postgraduate and professional development in heritage.
Ironbridge has an annually recurring problem of flooding from the River Severn, as do many other parts of Shropshire. Flooding has caused much damage and disruption to the Wharfage, which accommodates both The Swan and White Hart pubs, various private homes. Starting in February 2004, DEFRA in association with the Environment Agency implemented a portable barrier, erected at times of floods. At its peak, the flood water has reached a depth of one metre against the barrier; the Rogers Family known for building and using coracles on the River Severn for generations George Sedgwick was a British trade union leader. Billy Wright CBE was an English footballer, who spent his whole career at Wolverhampton Wanderers F. C. and the first footballer in the world to earn 100 international caps Roger Squires is a British crossword compiler, lives in Ironbridge, the world's most prolific compiler Ian Blakemore was an English cricketer, left-handed batsman and left-arm slow bowler who played for Herefordshire Cancer are a death/thrash metal band formed in Ironbridge in 1988, released five full-length albums, broke up and re-formed at least twice Ironbridge Gorge Museums The I
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Vale of Glamorgan
The Vale of Glamorgan referred to as The Vale, is a county borough in Wales, bordering Bridgend and Rhondda Cynon Taf. With an economy based on agriculture and chemicals, it is the southernmost unitary authority in Wales. Attractions include Barry Island Pleasure Park, the Barry Tourist Railway, Porthkerry Park, St Donat's Castle, Cosmeston Lakes Country Park and Cosmeston Medieval Village, it is the location of Atlantic College, one of the United World Colleges. The largest town is Barry. Other towns include Llantwit Major and Cowbridge. There are many villages in the county borough. In medieval times, the village of Cosmeston, near what is today Penarth in the south east of the county, grew up around a fortified manor house constructed sometime around the 12th century by the De Costentin family; the De Costentins, who originated on the Cotentin peninsula in northern France, were among the first Norman invaders of Wales in the early 12th century following William the Conqueror's invasion of neighbouring England in 1066.
The village would have consisted of a number of small stone round houses, or crofts, with thatched roofs. Clemenstone, to the west, was the seat of several high sheriffs of Glamorganshire, including John Curre, known have occupied the estate in 1712. William Curre, known to have lived in Clemenstone in 1766, was an occupant of Itton Court in Monmouthshire. In the early 19th century, Lady Sale née Wynch, wife of Sir Robert Sale, spent much of her early life on the Clemenstone Estate. In 1974, the area became part of South Glamorgan, under the Local Government Act 1972, it created several problems in local governance, between the South Glamorgan County Council, Cardiff City Council and the Vale of Glamorgan Borough Council owing to their conflicting interests. It was a turbulent time for governance in the city of Cardiff, as for the first time in its history it had to share authority with the county council, larger and better resourced. In April 1996, the Vale of Glamorgan became a county borough of Wales, after forming part of South Glamorgan county.
Located to the west of Cardiff between the M4 motorway and the Severn Estuary, the Vale of Glamorgan covers 33,097 hectares and has 53 km of coastline. The largest centre of population is Barry. Other towns include Dinas Powys, Llantwit Major and Penarth. Much of the population inhabits villages and individual farms; the area is low-lying, with a maximum height of 137.3 metres above sea level at Tair Onen to the east of Cowbridge. The borough borders Cardiff to the north east, Rhondda Cynon Taf to the north, Bridgend to the north west and the Bristol Channel to the south; the yellow-grey cliffs on the Glamorgan Heritage Coast are unique on the Celtic Sea coastline as they are formed of a combination of liassic limestone and carboniferous sandstone/limestone. They were formed 200 million years ago when the whole area lay underneath a warm, equatorial sea at the start of the Jurassic Era, thus today the cliffs contain traces such as ammonites. The stratification of overlapping shale and limestone was caused by a geological upheaval known as the Variscan orogeny, which pushed the cliffs out of the sea, contorting them as they did so.
This stratification can be found on other parts of the Celtic seaboard, such as Bude in Cornwall, across the Bristol Channel. The calcium carbonate in the soil allows crops to be grown which would be difficult elsewhere in Wales or the West Country: most of the West Country has poor quality and acidic Devonian soils); the liassic limestone and carboniferous sandstone are used in the Vale as building materials. As the Glamorgan Heritage Coast faces westwards out to the Atlantic, it bears the brunt of onshore winds: ideal for surfing, but a nuisance for ships sailing up the Bristol Channel to Cardiff; as in North Cornwall and South-West Ireland, the fierce Atlantic gales created ideal conditions for deliberate shipwrecking, which until 100 years ago was common along the coast. Nash Point and Ogmore-by-Sea have some of the highest shipwreck victims on the coast of Wales; the Vale of Glamorgan was determined to be the wealthiest area in Wales in a 2003 survey conducted by Barclays Bank that measured disposable income.
Chemical industries are located to the east of the port of Barry while further inland the main activity is agriculture beef and dairy cattle, with marketing facilities at Cowbridge. The Vale of Glamorgan parliamentary and assembly constituencies sway between Labour control and Conservative Party control in both the National Assembly for Wales and Westminster. There is substantial Labour support in the east of the constituency and in the town of Barry, substantial Conservative support in the agricultural area in the west. Since 2017, there has