Watsonville is a city in Santa Cruz County, United States. The population was 51,199 according to the 2010 census. Located on the central coast of California, the economy centers predominantly around the farming industry, it is known for growing strawberries, lettuce and a host of other vegetables. Watsonville is home to people of varied ethnic backgrounds. There is a large Hispanic population, as well as groups of Croatians, Portuguese and Japanese that live and work in the city; the Pajaro Valley, where Watsonville is located, has a climate, around 60 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit throughout much of the year. This climate makes Watsonville an attractive coastal environment for the neighboring inland communities with hot summers; the Pajaro Valley Unified School District has an attendance of about 18,000 students kindergarten through 12th grades. There are several private religious-based schools in Watsonville such as Notre Dame School, Monte Vista Christian, Salesian Sisters, St. Francis. There are several charter schools and the non-religious independent Pre-K through 12th grade Mount Madonna School.
These schools provide a wide range of educational options for local families. Watsonville is conservative on the political spectrum, average relative to the neighboring communities of Salinas and Prunedale, it is, however, a self-designated sanctuary city. The larger coastal town directly north of Watsonville is the city of Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz is a draw for many young college students who attend Cabrillo College or University of California, Santa Cruz; because Watsonville and Santa Cruz are beach towns, they draw many visitors from San Jose and from the Central Valley areas. Like neighboring Salinas in Monterey County, Watsonville produces a variety of fruits and vegetables apples, blackberries and table mushrooms. Watsonville's land was first inhabited by an Indian tribe called the Costanoans; this tribe settled along the Pajaro Dunes since the land was fertile and useful for the cultivation of their plants and animals. In 1796, European explorers came to the land where they claimed to have seen a big bird along the side of the river, this symbol helped explorers to establish the name of the main river, which they identified as Rio del Pajaro, or River of the Bird.
This river that runs along the boundaries of the city divides the Santa Cruz County and the Monterey County. In 1847, the second wave of European explorers was presented to this land where they decided to settle. Forty of these explorers lived in the city and had animals and some crops. In 1848, the gold rush in the Sierra Mountains was an important event for the city because people began to buy land for the low price that it had, allowing them to acquire large acres of property where farming and ranching would be among the simple practices that would shape the economy of the city; the community was incorporated as the Town of Watsonville on or about March 30, 1868 and named after Judge John Watson. The town changed its name to the City of Watsonville about 1889; the voters adopted a charter in 1903. The Watsonville Railway and Navigation Company operated an interurban railway to Port Watsonville on Monterey Bay where it connected with an overnight produce packet to San Francisco from 1904 to 1913.
The first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, passed through the area on its way north, camping at one of the lakes north of town for five nights, on October 10–14, 1769. Many of the expedition soldiers were suffering from scurvy, so progress was slow. While the sick recuperated, scouts led by Sergeant Ortega went ahead to find the best way forward. On the fifth day, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This afternoon the explorers returned; the sergeant reported that he had gone ahead twelve leagues without getting any information of the harbor that we are looking for, that he went to the foot of a high, white mountain range."During the October 10 march, the explorers first saw the Coast redwood tree. A bronze plaque at Pinto Lake commemorates the event. On October 15, the expedition continued to the northwest past today's community of Freedom, camping that night at Corralitos Lagoon. Watsonville is located on the Rancho Bolsa del Pajaro Mexican land grant made to Sebastian Rodríguez in 1837.
Judge John H. Watson and D. S. Gregory laid out the town in 1852. Watsonville was incorporated on March 30, 1868; the main industries in Watsonville are construction and manufacturing. Some of the largest companies headquartered in Watsonville are Monterey Mushrooms, Martinelli's, Fox Racing Shox, Nordic Naturals, Granite Construction, West Marine, California Giant, A&I Transport Inc. and Orion Telescopes & Binoculars. Watsonville is known for the production of crops and goods in the agricultural business along the Northern Pacific Coast; the city's economy is dependent on its agro-business market and in the distribution of crops to different parts of the world. The crops that are fundamental to the economy include: strawberries, broccoli, natural plants, raspberries. Companies such as Driscoll's and California Giant spend around $280 million every year in the processing and transportation of fresh food to most cities in the area, such as San Jose, Castroville and Santa Cruz, California where the numbers of these fruits and vegetables are insufficient for the demand of the people.
The large investments by big corporations in the city and the labor force, which accounts for 75% of Latino workers, have helped the city to become ranked amongst the top most important farming cities in the United States for i
Dirt track racing
Dirt track racing is a type of auto racing performed on clay or dirt surfaced oval tracks. It became widespread during the 1920s and 1930s. Two different types of race cars dominated—open wheel racers in the Northeast and West and stock cars in the South. While open wheel race cars are purpose-built racing vehicles, stock cars can be either purpose-built race cars or street vehicles that have been modified to varying degrees. Dirt track racing is the single most common form of auto racing in the United States. There are hundreds of regional racetracks throughout the nation; the sport is popular in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The track surface may be composed of any soil; the curation of a racetrack requires hours of work. The machines for track curation include a grader, cultivator and water truck however this varies at different dirt tracks around the world; the track is graded and'dug up' after the racing is finished and it is watered with a water truck. It may be broken down with a cultivator or rolled.
These steps are repeated however many times necessary and do vary according to climate and soil composition. Nearly all tracks are less than 1-mile in length with most being 1/2 mile or less; the most common increments in the U. S. are ½ mile, ⅜ mile, ⅓ mile, ¼ mile, ⅛ mile. With the longer tracks, the race cars achieve higher speeds up to 160 mph and the intervals between cars increase; this decreases the chance of crashes but increases the damage and chance of injury when cars do crash. In Great Britain the oval tracks are on grass with lengths of 400 meters to 800 meters; the races consist of several four lap. There is a final race featuring the fastest competitors. In mainland Europe, long tracks can be grass, sand or cinder, can be up to 1-kilometer long. Dirt track racing in Australia has a history dating back to the 1930s. Most oval track speedways are similar to those in the USA for car racing such as sprint cars and sedans, with most tracks around ¼ mile to ⅓ mile in length. Most tracks have a clay surface, though some use dolomite and clay mix or sand and clay mix.
During the 1970s and early 1980s, a small number of tracks were paved with asphalt, though this phase only lasted about a decade and all tracks paved over reverted to their former surfaces. Each racetrack or sponsoring organization maintains a rule book outlining each class of race car which includes dimensions, engine size, equipment requirements and prohibitions; the requirements for each class are coordinated with multiple tracks to allow for the widest available venue for each type of car. This coordination allows the drivers to compete at many different racetracks, increase competitors' chances of winning, lets racing associations develop a series of race events that promote fan interest. Many tracks support two types of racing in open wheel cars and stock cars. Both types range from large and powerful V8 engines to small yet still powerful, four-cylinder engines; some of the smaller open wheel race cars have classes for single-cylinder engines. Depending on the class, the cars may have wings to aid in handling at higher speeds.
Open wheel cars are manufactured with tubular frames and a body purchased for that particular class. The wheels of these vehicles are not protected by fenders. Classes include: Dwarf Mod lite - 1000-1250cc motorcycle engines Kart Mini sprint- 600-1200cc motorcycle engines. Utilize a top wing. Winged sprint- 410ci, 360ci engine, or 305ci engines; the top wing helps these powerful racecars with downforce. Non-wing sprint car Silver crown Midget Three quarter midget Quarter midget 600 and 270 micro sprintsOpen wheel sanctioning bodies include: USAC - The United States Automobile Club World of Outlaws Sprint Cars All Star Circuit of Champions National Sprint League American Sprint Car Series United Sprint Car Series MOWA POWRi Popular chassis manufacturers around the country for winged sprint cars are Eagle, Maxim, J&J, Triple X, GF1. There are several engine builders that build both 410ci and 360ci engines for traveling sprint car teams. Speedway, Gaerte, Shaver, Don Ott Racing Engines, Fisher Racing Engines are the more popular engine builders.
Modified cars are a hybrid of open wheel cars and stock cars. This class of car has the racing characteristics of a stock car; the rear wheels are covered by fenders but the front wheels are left exposed. There are sanctioning bodies; each sanctioning body has their own set of guidelines provided in an annual rule book and their own registration fees. Sanctioning bodies include: Super DIRTcar Series IMCA UMP USRA USMTS WISSOTA TSMA (Tri-State
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
The Merced Sun-Star is a daily broadsheet newspaper printed in Merced, California, in the United States. It has an estimated circulation of 20,000 copies; the newspaper is published every day except for Sundays. The Merced Sun-Star evolved from the San Joaquin Valley Argus, a weekly newspaper based in the nearby city of Snelling which began publishing the paper in 1869; the Argus merged with the Merced Journal in 1890 to become the Merced County Sun. In 1925 another consolidation created the Merced Sun-Star. In 1941, the Sun-Star was acquired by Dean Lesher. In 1995, Lesher's heirs sold the Sun-Star and the Madera Tribune to US Media renamed Pacific-Sierra Publishing; the newspaper was acquired by The McClatchy Company in 2004. The Sun-Star has more than 120 employees that prepare both a print newspaper and an online version; the Merced Sun-Star is owned by The McClatchy Company, which purchased it in 2004 along with five non-dailes in Atwater, Livingston, Los Banos, Oakhurst. The Sun-Star's managing editor is Michelle Morgante.
The paper is the county's only daily newspaper. Merced County is served by the Merced County Times, a weekly paper published each Thursday by Mid-Valley Publications; the newspaper has become known for its investigative journalism. A series of articles exposing wrongdoing by the local district attorney ended in the DA's resignation and garnered the newspaper a national Associated Press Managing Editors Association public service award; the stories won a California First Amendment Coalition Beacon Award, among other distinctions. The newspaper won its second APME award in 2009 after it exposed a series of racist emails sent by an Atwater city councilman; the Sun-Star has an online edition offering the latest news, sports and information affecting Merced and Mariposa counties. Official Merced Sun-Star website official Merced Sun-Star mobile website
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For
The Merced River, in the central part of the U. S. state of California, is a 145-mile -long tributary of the San Joaquin River flowing from the Sierra Nevada into the San Joaquin Valley. It is most well known for its swift and steep course through the southern part of Yosemite National Park, where it is the primary watercourse flowing through Yosemite Valley; the river's character changes once it reaches the plains of the agricultural San Joaquin Valley, where it becomes a slow-moving meandering stream. The river first formed as the Sierra Nevada rose about 10 million years ago, sediment eroded from its canyon helped form the flat floor of the San Joaquin Valley. Glaciation during the Ice Ages carved the high elevation parts of the watershed, including Yosemite Valley, into their present shape. There was an extensive riparian zone which provided habitat for millions of migrating birds, the river had one of the southernmost runs of chinook salmon in North America. Miwok and Paiute people lived along the river for thousands of years before Spanish and Mexican military expeditions passed through in the early 19th century.
The California Gold Rush brought many people into California and some settled in towns along the lower Merced River. A railroad was built along the Merced canyon, enabling mining and logging in the upper watershed, carrying tourists to Yosemite National Park. Conflicts between settlers and indigenous peoples resulted in wars, including the expulsion of the Ahwahnechee from Yosemite. Large-scale irrigation was introduced to the San Joaquin Valley in the late 19th century, led to the construction of numerous state and owned dams, which blocked migrating salmon and caused a large decline in riparian habitat. Diversion of water for irrigation reduces the river to a small stream by the time it reaches its mouth. Efforts to mitigate environmental damage include habitat conservation work, re-establishment of historic streamflow patterns, the construction of a salmon hatchery; the headwaters of the Merced River are at 8,017 feet at the foot of the Clark Range subrange of the Sierra Nevada, rising at the confluence of the Triple Peak Fork and Merced Peak Fork after they cascade down glacially polished slopes from the high country in the southeastern corner of Yosemite National Park.
From its headwaters, the river collects the Lyell Peak Fork. The course of the Merced turns to the north west and flows through a steep walled canyon for 2.5 miles where the river receives the Red Peak Fork and collects into Washburn Lake, 7,612 feet above sea level. The Merced continues to the northwest for 3 miles. Leaving Merced Lake, the river continues to the west northwest for 2.3 miles where the canyons open up into Echo Valley. The river turns westward for another 3 miles, where it snakes through a spectacular narrow gorge between massive, glacially resistant granite cliffs; the gorge opens up after Bunnell Point and Sugarloaf Dome confine the river to form Bunnell Cascade, before turning southward through the Lost Valley of the Merced, spills over a granite cliff into Little Yosemite Valley, named for its resemblance to Yosemite Valley downstream. The Merced River drops over Nevada Falls and Vernal Falls, together known as the "Giant Staircase" receives Illilouette Creek and flows into Yosemite Valley, where it meanders between pine forests and meadows that fill the valley floor.
Tenaya, Yosemite and Pigeon Creeks join the Merced River in Yosemite Valley. Beyond the glacial moraine at the western end of the valley the river flows through the steep Merced River Canyon, picks up Cascade Creek and turns south near El Portal. State Route 140 follows the river out of the west entrance to the national park, a few miles before the South Fork Merced River, the largest tributary, joins from the left; the river arcs northwest to receive the North Fork, a few miles after it enters Lake McClure, formed by New Exchequer Dam. Below New Exchequer, the river flows west through a irrigated region of the Central Valley, passing through McSwain and Crocker-Huffman Dams and the cities of Hopeton and Livingston, it joins the San Joaquin River at Hills Ferry, a few miles south of Turlock. The Merced River watershed encompasses 1,726 square miles in the central Sierra Nevada. To the north it is bordered by the watershed of the Tuolumne River, the other major river draining Yosemite National Park.
On the south, the Merced watershed borders on the headwaters of the San Joaquin River. To the east, it is bordered by the Sierra crest which divides it from the endorheic Great Basin watershed of Mono Lake. Much of the Merced River basin is at high elevation; the Sierra receives heavy snowfall in the winter, which melts in the spring and early summer causing annual flooding. By late autumn the river level has dropped and some smaller tributaries dry up altogether. Up to 85% of the flow above Happy Isles comes from melting snow. In the dry season, groundwater provides the only base flow to the river. In addition, the river is fed by dozens of high Sierra lakes, the largest of which include Merced Lake, Tenaya Lake, Ostrander Lake, the Chain Lakes, May Lake; the foothills experience a drier Mediterranean climate, while the San Joaquin Valley floor is dry enough to be considered semi-desert. The Merced River is the third largest tributary of the San Joaquin River. Before irrigation started in the Central Valley and dams were constructed, the river's natural flow at the mouth was much higher than the current average of 661 cubic feet per second, or about 479,000 acre feet
Riverside is a city in Riverside County, United States, located in the Inland Empire metropolitan area. Riverside is the county seat of the eponymous county and named for its location beside the Santa Ana River, it is the most populous city in the Inland Empire and in Riverside County, is located about 55 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. It is part of the Greater Los Angeles area. Riverside is the 59th most populous city in the United States and 12th most populous city in California; as of the 2010 Census, Riverside had a population of 303,871. Riverside was founded in the early 1870s, it is the birthplace of the California citrus industry and home of the Mission Inn, the largest Mission Revival Style building in the United States. It is home to the Riverside National Cemetery; the University of California, Riverside, is located in the northeastern part of the city. The university hosts the Riverside Sports Complex. Other attractions in Riverside include the Fox Performing Arts Center, Riverside Metropolitan Museum, which houses exhibits and artifacts of local history, the California Museum of Photography, the California Citrus State Historic Park, the Parent Washington Navel Orange Tree, the last of the two original navel orange trees in California.
In the late 1700s and early 1800s the area was inhabited by the Serrano people. Californios such as Bernardo Yorba and Juan Bandini established ranches during the first half of the 19th century. In the 1860s, Louis Prevost launched the California Silk Center Association, a short-lived experiment in sericulture. In the wake of its failure, John W. North purchased some of its land and formed the Southern California Colony Association to promote the area's development. In March 1870, North distributed posters announcing the formation of a colony in California. North, a staunch temperance-minded abolitionist from New York State, had founded Northfield, Minnesota. A few years some navel orange trees were planted and found to be such a success that full-scale planting began. Riverside was temperance minded, Republican. There were four saloons in Riverside; the license fees were raised. Investors from England and Canada transplanted traditions and activities adopted by prosperous citizens; as a result, the first golf course and polo field in southern California were built in Riverside.
The first orange trees were planted in 1871, with the citrus industry Riverside is famous for beginning three years when Eliza Tibbets received three Brazilian navel orange trees sent to her by a personal friend, William Saunders, a horticulturist at the United States Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C; the trees came from Brazil. The Bahia orange did not thrive in Florida; the three trees were planted on the Tibbetts' property. One of them died. After the trampling, the two remaining trees were transplanted to property belonging to Sam McCoy to receive better care than L. C. Tibbetts, Eliza's husband, could provide; the trees were again transplanted, one at the Mission Inn property in 1903 by President Theodore Roosevelt, the other was placed at the intersection of Magnolia and Arlington Ave. Eliza Tibbets was honored with a stone marker placed with the tree; that tree still stands to this day inside a protective fence abutting what is now a major intersection. The trees thrived in the southern California climate and the navel orange industry grew rapidly.
Many growers purchased bud wood and grafted the cuttings to root stock. Within a few years, the successful cultivation of many thousands of the newly discovered Brazilian navel orange led to a California Gold Rush of a different kind: the establishment of the citrus industry, commemorated in the landscapes and exhibits of the California Citrus State Historic Park and the restored packing houses in the downtown's Marketplace district. By 1882, there were more than half a million citrus trees in California half of which were in Riverside; the development of refrigerated railroad cars and innovative irrigation systems established Riverside as the richest city in the United States by 1895. As the city grew, a small guest hotel designed in the popular Mission Revival style, known as the Glenwood Tavern grew to become the Mission Inn, favored by presidents and movie stars. Inside was housed a special chair made for the sizable President William Howard Taft; the hotel was modeled after the missions left along the California coast by Franciscan friars in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Postcards of lush orange groves, swimming pools and magnificent homes have attracted vacationers and entrepreneurs throughout the years. Many relocated to the dry climate for reasons of health and to escape Eastern winters. Victoria Avenue, with its scattering of elegant turn-of-the-century homes, citrus-lined paseo, serves as a reminder of European investors who settled here. Riverside is the 59th largest city in the United States, the 12th largest city in California, the largest city in California's Inland Empire metro area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 81.4 square miles, of which 81.1 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The elevation of downtown Riverside is 860 feet. Hills within the city limits include Mount Rubidoux, a