Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Perris–Downtown is a train station in Perris, United States, that opened on June 6, 2016, along with the Perris Valley Line extension of the Metrolink commuter rail system. It is located near the Perris Depot. Perris Downtown at the Metrolink website
Demand responsive transport
Demand-responsive transport known as demand-responsive transit, demand-responsive service, Dial-a-Ride transit or flexible transport services is a form of transport where vehicles alter their routes based on particular transport demand rather than using a fixed route or timetable. These vehicles pick-up and drop-off passengers in locations according to passengers needs and can include taxis, buses or other vehicles. One of the most widespread types of demand-responsive transport is to provide a public transport service in areas of low passenger demand where a regular bus service is not considered to be financially viable, such as rural and peri-urban areas. Services may be provided for particular types of passengers. One example is the paratransit programs for people with a disability; the provision of public transport in this manner emphasises one of its functions as a social service rather than creating a viable movement network. DRT can be used to refer to many different types of transport.
When taxicabs were first introduced to many cities, they were hailed as an innovative form of DRT. They are still referred to as DRT in some jurisdictions around the world as their nature is to take people from point-to-point based on their needs. More DRT refers to a type of public transport, they are disinct from fixed-route services as they do not always operate to a specific timetable or route. While specific operations vary generally a particular area is designated for service by DRT. Once a certain number of people have requested a trip, the most efficient route will be calculated depending on the origins and destinations of passengers. Share taxis are another form of DRT, they are operated on an ad-hoc basis but do not have fixed routes or times and change their route and frequency depending on demand. Some DRT systems operate as a service; these operate along a fixed alignment or path at specific times but may deviate to collect or drop off passengers who have requested the deviation. A DRT service will be restricted to a defined operating zone, within which journeys must start and finish.
Journeys may be free form, or accommodated onto skeleton routes and schedules, varied as required. As such, users will be given a time window for collection; some DRT systems may have defined termini, at one or both ends of a route, such as an urban centre, airport or transport interchange, for onward connections. DRT systems require passengers to request a journey by booking with a central dispatcher who determines the journey options available given the users' location and destination. DRT systems take advantage of fleet telematics technology in the form of vehicle location systems and dispatching software and hand-held/in vehicle computing. Vehicles used for DRT services will be small minibuses, reflecting the low ridership, but allowing the service to provide as near a door to door service as practical, by being able to use residential streets. In some cases Taxicabs are hired by the DRT provider to serve their routes on request. DRT schemes may be or funded by the local transit authority.
As such, operators of DRT schemes may be selected by public tendering. Other schemes may be or self-funded as community centred not for profit social enterprises, they may be provided by private companies for commercial reasons. For a model of a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, simulation results published in 2005 demonstrated that “in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health and other detrimental impacts of car traffic by 50–70%, if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies”. DRT schemes may require new or amended legislation, or special dispensation, to operate, as they do not meet the traditional licensing model of authorised bus transport providers or licensed taxicab operators; the status has caused controversy between bus and taxi operators when the DRT service picks up passengers without pre-booking, due to the licensing issues.
Issues may arise surrounding tax and fuel subsidy for DRT services. Ridership on DRT services is quite low, but DRT can provide coverage effectively. Kan-go, Demand Responsive Transport service in Hervey Bay and Toowoomba, Queensland SmartLink, Demand Responsive Transport service in Blue Mountains. Skybus hotel transfer service in Melbourne, Victoria. Telebus in Melbourne, Victoria providing demand-responsive bus services to some outer suburbs of the metropolitan area since the 1970s. RufbusLinie 326 Leopoldschlag - Summerau - Freistadt Belleville, Ontario - BT Let's Go, operated by Belleville Transit, replaces fixed route night bus services with an on-demand transit service; this provides stop-to-stop scheduled pick-ups and drop-offs requested by riders through a web-based application. Buses are dynamically routed to riders in real-time by an autonomous algorithm. Winnipeg, Manitoba - Dial-a-Ride Transit, operated by Winnipeg Transit, replaces regular fixed transit route service in three neighbourhoods during low-use hours and provides door-to-door transit service in one inner-city neighbourhood during daytime hours.
Red minibuses which serve non-franchised routes across the country, depending on routes, allow passengers to reserve their seats by phone such that operators a
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
Perris is a city in Riverside County, United States, located 71 miles east-southeast of Los Angeles, 80.9 miles north of San Diego, California. It is known for Lake Perris, which houses many fauna; the city is most recognized for having many choices involving aerial activities, such as skydiving and hot-air ballooning. Perris is within the Inland Empire metropolitan area of Southern California; the Perris Valley was settled in the 1880s, a boom period for Southern California. Prior to 1880, the land was used for pastures; the coming of the California Southern Railroad led to the founding of the city around the new depot. The California Southern was built through the future town site in 1882 to open a rail connection between the present day cities of Barstow and San Diego. Due to a land title dispute at Pinacate, most of its citizens moved two miles north on the railroad and established Perris in 1885; the city is named in honor of chief engineer of the California Southern Railroad. The city of Perris was incorporated in 1911.
It was part of San Diego County, but in 1892 was transferred to the newly established Riverside County. Perris now incorporates Pinacate Station, the home of the Orange Empire Railway Museum - the largest operating museum of its kind on the West Coast of the United States. On March 20, 2007, Perris was featured on ABC's Nightline news show during its "Realty Check" segment; the story dealt with the rising trend of home foreclosures in Riverside County, Perris was referred to as the "epicenter". The Farmer Boys restaurant chain, which has many locations throughout the Inland Empire, was started in Perris in 1981. Perris is known for the Rock Castle house set on a hill above town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.5 square miles, of which, 31.4 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. Perris has a Mediterranean climate, with cool winters. In the summer, highs average in the mid to high 90s, during the winter, the lows can get as cold as 25, with averages in the mid to upper 30s.
The climate in this area is described by the Köppen Climate Classification System as "dry-summer subtropical" referred to as "Mediterranean" and abbreviated as Csa. The 2010 United States Census reported that Perris had a population of 68,386; the population density was 2,170.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Perris was 28,937 White, 8,307 African American, 589 Native American, 2,461 Asian, 286 Pacific Islander, 24,345 from other races, 3,461 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 49,079 persons; the Census reported that 68,146 people lived in households, 140 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 100 were institutionalized. There were 16,365 households, out of which 10,836 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,778 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,128 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,441 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,314 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 120 same-sex married couples or partnerships.
1,442 households were made up of individuals and 383 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.16. There were 14,347 families; the population was spread out with 25,288 people under the age of 18, 7,951 people aged 18 to 24, 20,088 people aged 25 to 44, 11,711 people aged 45 to 64, 3,348 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. There were 17,906 housing units at an average density of 568.4 per square mile, of which 10,854 were owner-occupied, 5,511 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.5%. 44,695 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 23,451 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Perris had a median household income of $46,435, with 28.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. At the 2000 census, there were 36,189 people, 9,652 households, 8,117 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,153.5 per square mile. There were 10,553 housing units at an average density of 336.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was predominately Hispanic, with figures as follows: 22% White, 30.9% African American, 1.5% Native American, 2.8% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 32.6% from other races, 5.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 76.2% of the population. The median household income was $35,522, the median family income was $36,063. Males had a median income of $31,891 versus $24,634 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,425. About 18.1% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. There were 9,652 households out of which 56.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.9% were non-families. 12.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fuel which can be used in place of gasoline, diesel fuel and propane/LPG. CNG combustion produces fewer undesirable gases than the aforementioned fuels. In comparison to other fuels, natural gas poses less of a threat in the event of a spill, because it is lighter than air and disperses when released. Biomethane – cleaned-up biogas from anaerobic digestion or landfills – can be used. CNG is made by compressing natural gas, to less than 1 percent of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure, it is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 20–25 MPa in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in traditional gasoline/internal combustion engine automobiles that have been modified or in vehicles which were manufactured for CNG use, either alone, with a segregated gasoline system to extend range or in conjunction with another fuel such as diesel. Natural gas vehicles are used in Iran Pakistan, the Asia-Pacific region, Indian capital of Delhi, other large cities like Ahmedabad, Pune, Kolkata—as well as cities such as Lucknow, Varanasi, etc.
Its use is increasing in South America and North America because of rising gasoline prices. In response to high fuel prices and environmental concerns, CNG is starting to be used in tuk-tuks and pickup trucks and school buses, trains; the cost and placement of fuel storage tanks is the major barrier to wider/quicker adoption of CNG as a fuel. It is why municipal government, public transportation vehicles were the most visible early adopters of it, as they can more amortize the money invested in the new fuel. In spite of these circumstances, the number of vehicles in the world using CNG has grown steadily. Now, as a result of the industry's steady growth, the cost of such fuel storage tanks has been brought down to a much more acceptable level. For the CNG Type 1 and Type 2 tanks, many countries are able to make reliable and cost effective tanks for conversion need. CNG's volumetric energy density is estimated to be 42 percent that of liquefied natural gas, 25 percent that of diesel fuel. Worldwide, there were 14.8 million natural gas vehicles by 2011, led by Iran with 2.86 million, Argentina and India.
With the Asia-Pacific region leading with 5.7 million NGVs, followed by Latin America with four million vehicles. Several manufacturers sell bi-fuel cars. In 2006, Fiat introduced the Siena Tetrafuel in the Brazilian market, equipped with a 1.4L FIRE engine that runs on E100, E25, Ethanol and CNG. Any existing gasoline vehicle can be converted to a dual-fuel vehicle. Authorized shops can do the retrofitting and involves installing a CNG cylinder, plumbing, a CNG injection system and the electronics; the cost of installing a CNG conversion kit can reach $8,000 on passenger cars and light trucks and is reserved for vehicles that travel many miles each year. CNG costs emits up to 90 % fewer emissions than gasoline. CNG locomotives are operated by several railroads; the Napa Valley Wine Train retrofit a diesel locomotive to run on compressed natural gas before 2002. This converted locomotive was upgraded to utilize a computer controlled fuel injection system in May 2008, is now the Napa Valley Wine Train's primary locomotive.
Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru, has run a CNG locomotive on a freight line since 2005. CNG locomotives are diesel locomotives that have been converted to use compressed natural gas generators instead of diesel generators to generate the electricity that drives the traction motors; some CNG locomotives are able to fire their cylinders only when there is a demand for power, theoretically, gives them a higher fuel efficiency than conventional diesel engines. CNG is cheaper than petrol or diesel. Natural gas vehicle have lower maintenance costs than other hydrocarbon-fuel-powered vehicles. CNG fuel systems are sealed. Increased life of lubricating oils, as CNG does not dilute the crankcase oil. Being a gaseous fuel, CNG mixes and evenly in air. CNG is less to ignite on hot surfaces, since it has a high auto-ignition temperature, a narrow range of flammability. CNG-powered vehicles are considered to be safer than gasoline-powered vehicles. Less pollution and more efficiency: CNG emits less pollution directly than gasoline or oil when combusted.
For example, an engine running on petrol for 100 km emits 22 kilograms of CO2, while covering the same distance on CNG emits only 16.3 kilograms of CO2. Due to lower carbon dioxide emissions, switching to CNG can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, natural gas leaks represent an increase in greenhouse gas emissions; the ability of CNG to reduce greenhouse gas emissions over the entire fuel lifecycle will depend on the source of the natural gas and the fuel it is replacing. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for CNG compressed from California's pipeline natural gas is given a value of 67.70 grams of CO2-equivalent per megajoule by CARB (the California Air Resource
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au