Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
Electoral district of Belmont
Belmont is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of Western Australia. Belmont is named for the inner eastern Perth suburb of Belmont; the seat was in its present incarnation considered a safe Labor seat prior to 2013, was held by former Labor leader Eric Ripper. Belmont reverted to its status as a safe Labor seat when Cassie Rowe won it at the 2017 state election. Belmont was within the vast electorate of Canning. In 1911, just 50 people voted at the Belmont and Welshpool Road booths, by 1950, this had grown to 410 at Belmont, 685 at Welshpool and 692 at Queens Park. However, the area grew following the Second World War as industry developed at Belmont and Forrestfield, Housing Commission areas were built to support them. At the 1955 redistribution, the new electorate of Beeloo was created—the only district to be so created; the previous member for Canning, Labor member Colin Jamieson, first elected in 1953, secured the seat at the 1956 election. At the 1962 election, Beeloo moved further south into Cannington and Queens Park, whilst a new seat of Belmont was created with boundaries not dissimilar to the present seat.
It was represented by former Speaker James Hegney until 1968. At the redistribution taking effect from the 1968 election, Beeloo was abolished, a new seat of Ascot was created north and south of the Swan River. Belmont was won by Jamieson at the election; when the electorate lost the suburb of Belmont to Ascot in the distribution prior to the 1974 election, the electorate was renamed Welshpool. Ascot represented by Merv Toms until his death while presiding as Speaker on 8 October 1971, was won by schoolteacher Mal Bryce who went on to become Deputy Premier to Brian Burke from 1983 to 1988. At the by-election held to replace him on 17 February 1988, schoolteacher and union organiser Eric Ripper was successful. At the 1988 redistribution, both Welshpool and Ascot were abolished, Belmont was recreated, with Ripper transferring into the seat. Belmont is bounded by the Swan River to the northwest, the Helena River to the north, the freight railway to the east, Welshpool Road to the south and Orrong Road to the southwest.
Its boundaries include the suburbs of Ascot, Cloverdale, Redcliffe, South Guildford and Welshpool, as well as Perth Airport. The 2007 redistribution, which took effect at the 2008 election, only removed a section of High Wycombe, added in 2005. Electorate Profile
Swan River (Western Australia)
The Swan River is a river in the south west of Western Australia. Its Aboriginal Noongar name is the Derbarl Yerrigan; the river runs through Western Australia's capital and largest city. The Swan River estuary flows through the city of Perth, its lower reaches are wide and deep, with few constrictions, while the upper reaches are quite narrow and shallow. The Swan River drains the Avon and coastal plain catchments, which have a total area of about 121,000 square kilometres, it has the Avon River, Canning River and Helena River. The latter two have dams which provide a sizeable part of the potable water requirements for Perth and the regions surrounding; the Avon River contributes the majority of the freshwater flow. The climate of the catchment is Mediterranean, with mild wet winters, hot dry summers, the associated seasonal rainfall and flow regime; the Avon rises near Yealering, 221 kilometres southeast of Perth: it meanders north-northwest to Toodyay about 90 kilometres northeast of Perth turns southwest in Walyunga National Park – at the confluence of the Wooroloo Brook, it becomes the Swan River.
The Canning River rises not far from North Bannister, 100 kilometres southeast of Perth and joins the Swan at Applecross, opening into Melville Water. The river narrows into Blackwall Reach, a narrow and deep stretch leading the river through Fremantle Harbour to the sea; the Noongar people believe that the Darling Scarp represents the body of a Wagyl – a snakelike being from Dreamtime that meandered over the land creating rivers and lakes. It is thought; the estuary is subject to a microtidal regime, with a maximum tidal amplitude of about 1 metre, although water levels are subject to barometric pressure fluctuations. Before the Tertiary, when the sea level was much lower than at present, the Swan River curved around to the north of Rottnest Island, disgorged itself into the Indian Ocean to the north and west of Rottnest. In doing so, it carved a gorge about the size of the Grand Canyon. Now known as Perth Canyon, this feature still exists as a submarine canyon near the edge of the continental shelf.
The Swan River drains the Swan Coastal Plain, a total catchment area of over 100,000 square kilometres in area. The river is located in a Mediterranean climate, with hot dry summers and cool wet winters, although this balance appears to be changing due to climate change; the Swan is located on the edge of the Darling Scarp, flowing downhill across the coastal plain to its mouth at Fremantle. The Swan begins as the Avon River, rising near Yealering in the Darling Range 175 kilometres from its mouth at Fremantle; the Avon flows north, passing through the towns of Brookton, York and Toodyay. It is joined by tributaries including the Mortlock River and the Brockman River; the Avon becomes the Swan. More tributaries including Ellen Brook, Jane Brook, Henley Brook, Wandoo Creek, Bennett Brook, Blackadder Creek, Limestone Creek, Susannah Brook, the Helena River enter the river between Wooroloo Brook and Guildford. Between Perth and Guildford the river goes through several loops. Areas including the Maylands Peninsula and Burswood, through Claise Brook and north of the city to Herdsman Lake were swampy wetlands.
Most of the wetlands have since been reclaimed for land development. Heirisson Island, upon which The Causeway passes over, was once a collection of small islets known as the Hierrison Islands. Perth Water, between the city and South Perth, is separated from the main estuary by the Narrows, over which the Narrows Bridge was built in 1959; the river opens up into the large expanse of the river known as Melville Water. The Canning River enters the river at Canning Bridge in Applecross from its source 50 kilometres south-east of Armadale; the river is at its widest here. Point Walter has a protruding spit that extends up to 800 metres into the river, forcing river traffic to detour around it; the river narrows between Chidley Point and Blackwall Reach, curving around Point Roe and Preston Point before narrowing into the harbour. Stirling Bridge and the Fremantle Traffic Bridge cross the river north of the rivermouth; the Swan River empties into the Indian Ocean at Fremantle Harbour. Plant and animal life found in or near the Swan-Canning Estuary include: Over 130 species of fish including bull sharks, cobblers, pilchard, flatheads and blowfish Jellyfish including Phyllorhiza punctata and Aurelia aurita Bottlenose dolphins Crustaceans including prawns and blue manna crabs Amphipod Melita zeylanica kauerti described based on specimen, collected from under middle swan bridge.
Molluscs including Mytilidae, Galeommatidae Birds including the eponymous black swan, silver gull, twenty-eight parrots, rainbow lorikeet, red-tailed black cockatoo, Australian pelican, Australian magpie and ducks. The river was named Swarte Swaene-Revier by Dutch explorer, Willem de Vlamingh in 1697, after the famous black swans of the area. Vlamingh sailed with a small party up the river to around Heirisson
Ascot, Western Australia
Ascot is a suburb of Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, covering a narrow strip of land along the southern bank of the Swan River 10 kilometres east of Perth's central business district. Its local government area is the City of Belmont; the suburb, part of Belmont and Redcliffe, was established on 7 March 1991, with the boundaries being approved on 22 March 1991. It was named after the Ascot Racecourse, a major horse-racing track located within the suburb's boundaries managed by the Western Australian Turf Club; the suburb is a narrow strip of about 5 kilometres in length, extending along the Swan River's southern foreshore from Abernethy Road in Belmont to the City of Belmont's boundary with the City of Swan at South Guildford. Ascot Racecourse Ron Courtney Island Ascot Island - Rubbish to Recreation
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Maylands, Western Australia
Maylands is a riverside suburb 4.5 kilometres northeast of Perth centred on the Midland railway line on the northern bank of the Swan River. The suburb was developed during the 1890s and is an administrative locality within the City of Bayswater, bordered by the suburbs of Mount Lawley, East Perth and Bayswater. Maylands railway station provides easy access beyond; the railway line was built in the 1880s, the railway station was extensively refurbished in 2000. A shared bicycle / pedestrian path was built to link Maylands with neighbouring suburbs via the shoreline of the Swan River. There is a small yacht club and a golf course. Maylands was once a source of clay for brick and tile making, the pits from these activities are now part of a golf course and residential area, it was home to Perth's main airport which serviced all kinds of aircraft and flying boats until the early 1960s, when the airport moved to Perth Airport. The facilities were converted to a training area for the Western Australian Police Service.
In December 2009, the City of Bayswater endorsed the Maylands Activity Centre Urban Design Framework following widespread community consultation. The Urban Design Framework provides the strategic direction for the future of the Maylands town centre; this document has been instrumental in guiding the ongoing revitalisation of the Maylands town centre. Over recent years, Maylands' revitalisation has gathered significant momentum, with a variety of new developments and businesses bringing new residents and vibrancy to the town centre. New bars, cafés and restaurants, along with gourmet food and retail outlets have all contributed to an ongoing transformation of the Maylands town centre into a lively and inclusive destination. Maylands continues to evolve as a cultural and creative hub, with the relocation of the Western Australian Ballet to the former Western Australian Institute for the Blind building on Whatley Crescent in 2012. Estudio Nuevo, Studio 281, Swallow Bar and the Maylands Hawkers Markets each provide a variety of music, dance, artistic and culinary experiences that exemplify Maylands' unique creative and community flavour.
The West Australian Ballet Centre is situated on the historical site of the former Blind Institute in Maylands. The history of the building site dates back to 1897 when the Victoria Institute and the Industrial School for the Blind was developed as a part of the celebrations for the 60th year of Queen Victoria’s reign; this magnificent building has become a symbol. With its high ceilings, rustic wooded floors, classical charm and character, the building sets a perfect tone for the West Australian Ballet; the building’s disposition provides the artistic team with a creative and innovative backdrop to aid in the creation of world class productions. The recent Council approval of the Lyric Lane Bar and Café will see the establishment of a purpose built venue consisting of a bar, cafe and a live music basement, which will provide for new cultural pursuits in the town center; the project is now in the construction phase and due to open mid 2018. It has been announced that the Western Australian Youth Jazz Orchestra will soon take up residence in the old Maylands Hall at the corner of Eighth Avenue and Guildford Road.
A variety of community groups including Creative Maylands, Local Arts and Community Events Inc, Maylands Residents and Ratepayers Association, Maylands Historical and Peninsula Association and Maylands Business Association provide a supportive backbone of active and passionate community members who seek to ensure that the values of the Maylands people are reflected both in its present and future. LACE is the not-for-profit organiser of the Maylands Hawker Markets, new organiser of the Maylands Street Festival. LACE is about creating free to attend. Since October 2010, Creative Maylands has been managing and supporting activities that creatively enrich the Maylands neighbourhood, they aim to connect people and ideas to help make Maylands a great place to live and visit. The association has a strong group of local businesses working together to improve Maylands and make it a destination venue for the community and the promotion of business interests, The group is active with Council and State Government to help form policies consistent to their vision for Maylands.
Maylands Historical and Peninsula Association was formed in October 1992 at a public meeting held in the Maylands Library. They were promoted by the Maylands Ratepayers and Residents Association and declared the Maylands Historical Society by the Mayor of the City of Stirling; the Association was registered on 1 December 1992, as the Maylands Historical Society Incorporated. On 5 June 2003, they were renamed the Maylands Historical and Peninsula Association Inc. to reflect their caretaker work at the Old Peninsula Hotel in Maylands, in addition to other historical work. The City of Bayswater's RISE was opened in July 2011 and replaced the former Alma Venville Centre with a larger, more contemporary facility; the RISE is a multi purpose community centre that includes a library, cafe, dry courts, function rooms, meeting rooms and a community hall. The Maylands Yacht Club is located on the Swan River on the Maylands foreshore; the MYC is a family oriented club, with a strong emphasis on enjoyment and helping those who want to learn to sail.
The Club sails a variety of classes from the single handed Laser and Spiral, to a number of two-handed dinghies including Mirrors and 125s, an