The National Science Center's Fort Discovery known as Fort Discovery, was a 128,000-square-foot, children's science exhibition center and museum located in downtown Augusta, Georgia, at Riverwalk Augusta. The museum was located in the former Shoppes at Port Royal, which operated from 1991 to 1994. Fort Discovery featured over 250 hands-on exhibits, it featured several rides such as a high-wire bicycle, the human gyroscope, space moon walk, each demonstrating a fundamental concept of physics. The center opened in April 1997. In late 2003, the state cut off funds to the center and Fort Discovery was at danger of closing. In early 2004, the city and community funded Fort Discovery until January 2005, when the state started funding the center once more. National Science Center relocated to Washington, D. C. after Fort Discovery closed permanently on December 31, 2010. The property has since been gutted, the building still stands but remains vacant; the property is being rebuilt. Unisys has one portion of the building as its new center in Augusta.
Fort Discovery closing, National Science Center leaving, WRDW-TV YouTube video tours of Fort Discovery
Media in Augusta, Georgia
Media outlets in the Augusta, Georgia market include eight television stations, 24 FM radio stations, nine AM radio stations, one Internet radio station and numerous print media. All broadcast television stations are licensed to Augusta unless otherwise noted: Stations broadcasting on the FM frequency: Stations broadcasting on the AM frequency: Stations broadcasting on the Internet: Local newspapers based in Augusta: Arts and culture in Augusta, Georgia Georgia media Media of cities in Georgia: Athens, Columbus, Savannah "US Newspaper Directory: Georgia: Augusta". Chronicling America. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress
For the Department of Energy facility, see Savannah River Site The Savannah River is a major river in the southeastern United States, forming most of the border between the states of South Carolina and Georgia. Two tributaries of the Savannah, the Tugaloo River and the Chattooga River, form the northernmost part of the border; the Savannah River drainage basin extends into the southeastern side of the Appalachian Mountains just inside North Carolina, bounded by the Eastern Continental Divide. The river is around 301 miles long, it is formed by the confluence of the Seneca River. Today this confluence is submerged beneath Lake Hartwell; the Tallulah Gorge is located on the Tallulah River, a tributary of the Tugaloo River that forms the northwest branch of the Savannah River. Two major cities are located along the Savannah River: Savannah, Augusta, Georgia, they were nuclei of early English settlements during the Colonial period of American history. The Savannah River is tidal at Savannah proper.
Downstream from there, the river broadens into an estuary before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. The area where the river's estuary meets the ocean is known as "Tybee Roads"; the Intracoastal Waterway flows through a section of the Savannah River near the city of Savannah. The name "Savannah" comes from a group of Shawnee, they destroyed the Westo and occupied established Westo lands at the Savannah River's head of navigation on the Fall Line, near present-day Augusta. These Shawnee were called by several variant names that all derive from their native name, Ša·wano·ki; the local variants included Shawano, Savano and Savannah. Another theory is that the name was derived from the English term "savanna", a kind of tropical grassland, borrowed by the English from Spanish sabana and used in the colonial southeast; the Spanish word was borrowed from the Taino word zabana. Other theories interpret the name Savannah to come from Atlantic coastal tribes, who spoke Algonquian languages, as there are similar terms meaning not only "southerner" but "salt".
Historical and variant names of the Savannah River, as listed by the U. S. Geological Survey, include May River, Westobou River, Kosalu River, Isundiga River and Girande River, among others; the Westobou River was the former name of the Savannah River, derived from the Westo Native American Indians. The Westo were thought to have come from the northeast, pushed out by the more powerful tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, who had acquired firearms through trade; this migration beginning in the late 16th century resulted in the Westo Indians reaching the present area of Augusta, Georgia, in what was to be the 1660s. The Westo used the river for fishing and water supplies, for transportation, for trade, they were strong enough to hold off the Spanish colonists making incursions from Florida. The Carolina Colony needed the Westo alliance during its early years; when Carolinians desired to expand its trade to Charleston, they viewed the Westo tribe as an obstacle. In order to remove the tribe, they sent a group called the Goose Creek Men to arm the Savanna Indians, a Shawnee tribe, who defeated the Westo in the Westo War of 1680.
Following this, the English colonists renamed the river as the Savannah. They founded two major cities on the river during the colonial era: Savannah was established in 1733 as a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean, Augusta is located where the river crosses the Fall Line of the Piedmont; the two large cities on the Savannah served as Georgia's first two state capitals. In the nineteenth century, the sandy river channel changed causing numerous steamboat accidents. During the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a blockade around the Confederate states, forcing merchantmen to use specific ports along the coast best suited for this purpose; the harbor at Savannah became one of the busiest ports for blockade runners bringing in supplies for the Confederacy. The Savannah River was significant during the 1950s when construction started on the U. S. government's Savannah River Plant for making tritium for nuclear weapons. In 1956 Clyde L. Cowan and Frederick Reines detected neutrinos with an experiment carried out at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant, after a preliminary experiment at the Hanford Site.
They placed a 10-ton tank of water next to a powerful nuclear reactor engaged in making plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. After shielding the neutrino trap underground and running it for about 100 days over the course of a year, they detected a few synchronized flashes of gamma radiation that signaled the interaction of a few neutrinos with the protons in the water; the neutrinos were not themselves observed, they never have been. Their presence is inferred by an exceedingly rare interaction. One out of every billion billion neutrinos that pass through the water tank hits a proton, producing the telltale burst of radiation. In 1995 Reines was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for this accomplishment, but Cowen did not live long enough to share it. Between 1946 and 1985, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers built three major dams on the Savannah for hydroelectricity, flood control, navigation; the J. Strom Thurmond Dam, the Hartwell Dam, the Richard B. Russell Dam and their reservoirs combine in order to form over 120 miles of lakes.
Donnie Thompson named a small subdivision "Westobou Crossing", located in North Augusta, South Carolina. The area of the subdivision is located marks the first natural ford that crosses the Savannah River, thus promoting trade and allowing travel. Many native a
History of Augusta, Georgia
Augusta, Georgia was founded in 1736 as part of the British colony of Georgia, under the supervision of colony founder James Oglethorpe. It was the colony's second established town, after Savannah. Today, Augusta is the third-largest city in Georgia, the largest city of the Central Savannah River Area. Augusta, Georgia was first used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of Augusta's location on the Fall Line. In 1736, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops on a journey up the Savannah River, he gave them an order to build at the head of the navigable part of the river. The job fell into the hands of Noble Jones, who created the settlement to provide a first line of defense against the Spanish and the French. Oglethorpe named the town Augusta, in honor of Princess Augusta, wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales; the town was laid out on the flat slopes of the Savannah River, just east of the sand hills that would come to be known as Summerville.
The townspeople got along peacefully most of the time with the surrounding tribes of Chickasaw, Creek and Shawnee Indians. The Shawnees in the region were known as the Savano Indians; the name of the Savannah River is an Anglicization of their tribal name. In 1739, construction began on a road to connect Augusta to Savannah; this made it possible for people to reach Augusta by horse, rather than by boat, more people began to migrate inland to Augusta. In 1750, Augusta's first church, Saint Paul's, was built near Fort Augusta, it became the leader of the local parish. The town's relationship with the neighboring Cherokee who traded with Augusta was not as good as its relationships with other tribes. During the Anglo-Cherokee War their war parties came close to Augusta and were repulsed by the Creek. While slavery was banned in the colony by James Oglethorpe, it soon became an integral part of Georgia's history. Under Georgia's new constitution, a new political structure was laid out in 1777. During the American Revolution, Savannah fell to the British.
This left a new prime target of the British. By January 31, 1779, Augusta was captured by Lt. Col. Archibald Campbell, but Campbell soon withdrew, as American troops were gathering on the opposite shore of the Savannah River. Augusta again not for long. Augusta fell into British hands once more before the end of the war. From until the American Civil War, with the establishment of the Augusta Canal, Augusta became a leader in the production of textiles and paper; the Georgia Railroad was built by local contractors Fannin, Grant & Co in 1845, giving Augusta a rail link to Atlanta. The railroad connected to the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, thus providing access from inland Georgia to the Mississippi River; the cost-savings of this link from the middle of the country to the Atlantic Ocean via the Savannah River increased trade considerably. In 1845, Augusta was the location of the founding of the Southern Baptist Convention, today one of the largest Protestant denominations in the country. Due to increasing tensions between northern and southern Baptists on the subject of slavery in the 1840s, southern Baptists decided to withdraw formally from the national Baptist organizations.
They met at the First Baptist Church of Augusta in May 1845 and formed the new convention, naming it the Southern Baptist Convention. By 1860 Augusta had a population of 12,493. S. cities to have a population of over 10,000, was the second largest city in Georgia. Augustans welcomed the idea of the Civil War; the new Confederate Powderworks were the only permanent structures constructed and completed by the Confederacy. Over 2000 Augustans went away to fight in the war, but war did not set into the minds of Augustans until the summer of 1863, it was in that year that thousands of refugees from areas threatened by invasion came crowding into Augusta, leading to shortages in housing and provisions. Next came the threatening nearness of General Sherman's advancing army, causing panic in the streets of the once-quiet town. However, the city was never burned to the ground. After the War and Georgia were both under martial law during the period known as Reconstruction. During this time, African American civil rights were expanded.
Following the end of Reconstruction, the European American majority population of Georgia and other Southern U. S. states enacted Jim Crow laws to limit the rights of African Americans. These restrictions would not be lifted until the Civil Rights Movement of the mid-20th century; the Richmond County School System refused to educate African American students at all. In 1899, a group of parents took their objections in a class actions suit the Supreme Court in Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education; the court ruled that the use of state funds was not within federal purview under the Fourteenth Amendment. This ruling was overturned in Board of Education. In 1828, the Georgia General Assembly granted a formal charter for the Medical Academy of Georgia, the school began training physicians in two borrowed rooms of the City Hospital. By 1873, an affiliation was made with the University of Georgia, the school became the Medical Department of the University; the school would become the Medical College of Georgia in 1956.
In 1914, University Hospital was founded near the Medical College, forming the anchor of a developed medical sector in the city. Unlike most Southern cities, Postbellum life for Augusta was prosperous. By the beginning of the 20th century, Augusta had become one of the largest
Saint Paul's Church (Augusta, Georgia)
Saint Paul's Church is a historic Episcopal church in downtown Augusta, adjacent to Riverwalk Augusta. A member of the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia, Saint Paul's conducts its worship services using the 1979 Book of Common Prayer; the church, located on the corner of 6th and Reynolds Streets, is the oldest church congregation in Augusta. It was established in 1750 by the Church of England at the site of Fort Augusta. There have been five churches on the site; the current church building, which combines features of Federal architecture with those of the Georgian and Greek Revival styles, was designed by Henry Ten Eyck Wendell and dedicated in 1920. It can seat up to 600 people. Saint Paul's is an active congregation, its three Sunday worship services at 8 a.m. 11 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. include celebration of the Lord's Supper, known in the Episcopal Church as the Holy Eucharist. The 8 am service uses Rite I of the 1979 Book of Common Prayer; the 11 am choral. The 5:30 Celtic Communion is a meditative healing service that includes quiet music by local musicians.
The nave is open to the public for private prayer from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m, Monday through Thursday, 9 a.m. to noon, Friday. A guestbook and historical brochures are available in the narthex. For additional information on the activities and history of Saint Paul's Church, see the church website at http://www.saintpauls.org/ Christian formation classes for all ages are held each Sunday from 9:30 to 10:30 a.m. Nursery care is offered from 9 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. The 11 a.m. service is broadcast on local radio at WGAC 95.1 FM Radio. Listeners can hear the service on-line at http://wgac.com/listen-live/ Saint Paul's has a long history of service and hospitality to the wider Augusta community and to the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia. It is a member of Downtown Cooperative Church Ministries, a consortium of downtown Augusta churches which provides food, medical and financial assistance to those with limited means; the Saint Paul's Outreach Committee raises funds to support local charities. In cooperation with Golden Harvest Food Bank, the parish's bi-monthly Manna Pantry program provides nutritionally healthy foods to local residents dealing with food insecurity.
Through its River Room event facility, Saint Paul's provides a site for a wide range of community activities, including wedding receptions, school proms, training seminars, fund-raising galas, meetings of local community and business organizations. Saint Paul's hosts athletes competing in the Augusta Ironman Triathlon each September, providing a pasta dinner for competitors, a gear drop for the swim event and snacks for participants and volunteers, a quiet space for spiritual preparation. Since 1988, Saint Paul's has hosted Tuesday's Music Live, the nation's largest luncheon concert series, which brings nationally and internationally known musicians to perform for local audiences. From September to May, the 13-concert series annually attracts 5,000 attendees with a variety of classical, soft pop, choral performers; the free concerts are supported by a mix of individual donations. Saint Paul's Church was the third church associated with the Church of England established in the colony of Georgia after Saint John's Church and Christ Church, Frederica.
There have been five Saint Paul's churches at the corner of 6th and Reynolds Street, formal religious services associated with the name Saint Paul's Church in Augusta have been held since 1751. The mother church of Augusta, Saint Paul's began in 1749 when the President and Assistants of Georgia's governing council approved the petition of Augusta resident James Fraser for permission to build a church and burial ground. Residents of the town erected a small, half-timbered chapel beside Fort Augusta, appealed to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts to send a minister. At its dedication, this chapel was named Saint Paul's for London's historic St. Paul's Cathedral. Services were led by Lay Readers until the arrival of Rev. Jonathan Copp two years later. Rev. Copp brought with him a baptismal font, a gift from the S. P. G. which can be seen in the narthex of the current church. In 1758, the Colonial Assembly of Georgia divided the colony into eight parishes, with the parish in which Augusta was located being named for "The Parish Church and Burial Place of Saint Paul's."The original church building was of Gothic Revival architecture, but burned down during the American Revolutionary War.
The fourth church was designed by architect John Lund in the colonial architecture style. It burned to the ground during the Great Augusta Fire of March 1916, which destroyed the homes of many Saint Paul's parishioners of the time; the Episcopal Diocese of Georgia was founded at Saint Paul's on February 24, 1823. During the Civil War, the First General Council of the Episcopal Church in the Confederate States was held at Saint Paul's from November 12–22, 1862, during which time the delegates adopted a Constitution and Canons for the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States and elected Stephen Elliott, Bishop of Georgia, as its Presiding Bishop. Rev. John E. Hines carried the commitment to racial reconciliation and social justice he demonstrated as rector of Saint Paul's from 1937 to 1941 into his role as Bishop of Texas and as Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church from 1965 to 1974. In 1968, Saint Paul's Church was the site of another historic event, when the House of Bishops of the Episcopal Church met in joint session with the Bishops of the Anglican Church of Canada.
It was the first time in the history of the Episcopal Church that the House of Bishops held a formal meeting in which
Central Savannah River Area
The Central Savannah River Area is a trading and marketing region in the U. S. states of Georgia and South Carolina, spanning thirteen counties in Georgia and eight in South Carolina. The term was coined in 1950 by C. C. McCollum, the winner of a $250 contest held by The Augusta Chronicle to generate the best name for the area. Today the initialism is so used that the full name is not known to all residents; the region is located on and named after the Savannah River, which forms the border between the two states. The largest cities within the CSRA are Augusta and Aiken, South Carolina; the total population of the CSRA is 768,402 in 2010. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the seven-county Augusta-Richmond County Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 580,270 in 2013, making it the second most populous in the state of Georgia. Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia Pop: 197,872 Martinez, Georgia Pop: 35,795 Aiken, South Carolina Pop: 29,884 Evans, Georgia Pop: 29,011 North Augusta, South Carolina Pop: 21,873 Grovetown, Georgia Pop: 12,210 Thomson, Georgia Pop: 6,718 Belvedere, South Carolina Pop: 5,792 Waynesboro, Georgia Pop: 5,816 Sandersville, Georgia Pop: 5,912 CSRA Regional Commission CSRA Economic Opportunity Authority, Inc. Savannah River Site: CSRA Regional Science and Engineering Fair Regional science fair competition for science projects winning first-place at their respective schools Columbia County outpaces state population gains
Augusta National Golf Club
Augusta National Golf Club, located in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous golf clubs in the world. Founded by Bobby Jones and Clifford Roberts on the site of the former Fruitland Nursery, the course was designed by Jones and Alister MacKenzie and opened for play in January 1933, its first club professional was Ed Dudley, who served in the role until 1957. Since 1934, the club has played host to the annual Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships in professional golf, the only major played each year at the same course, it was the top-ranked course in Golf Digest's 2009 list of America's 100 greatest courses and was the number ten-ranked course based on course architecture on Golfweek Magazine's 2011 list of best classic courses in the United States. The club long held racist and sexist policies: Augusta National had no African American members until 1990 and women until 2012; the club, which long required all caddies to be black, barred black golfers from the Masters Tournament until Lee Elder participated in 1975.
In 1997, Tiger Woods became the first person of color to win the tournament. In 2019, the course began co-hosting the Augusta National Women's Amateur. In 2018, Augusta National Golf Club was voted the number one Platinum Club of the World, Golf & Country Clubs by the election conducted by Club Leaders Forum; the course was a plant nursery, each hole on the course is named after the tree or shrub with which it has become associated. Several of the holes on the first nine have been renamed, as well as hole #11. Lengths of the course for the Masters at the start of each decade: Unlike most other private or public golf courses in the US, Augusta National has never been rated. During the 1990 Masters Tournament, a team of USGA raters, organized by Golf Digest, evaluated the course and gave it an unofficial rating of 76.2. It was re-evaluated in 2009 and given an unofficial rating of 78.1. The golf course architecture website GolfClubAtlas.com has said, "Augusta National has gone through more changes since its inception than any of the world's twenty or so greatest courses.
To call it a MacKenzie course is false advertising as his features are long gone and his routing is all, left." The authors of the site add that MacKenzie and Jones were influenced by the Old Course at St Andrews, intended that the ground game be central to the course. From Augusta's opening, Roberts sought to make changes to minimize the ground game, got free rein to do so because MacKenzie died shortly after the course's opening and Jones went into inactivity due to World War II and a crippling illness; the authors add, "With the ground game gone, the course was vulnerable to changes in technology, this brought on a slew of changes from at least 15 different'architects'." Golf Course Histories has an aerial comparison of the architectural changes for Augusta National Golf Club for the year 1938 versus 2013. Among the changes to the course were several made by architect Perry Maxwell in 1937, including an important alteration involving the current 10th hole; when Augusta National opened for play in January 1933, the opening hole was a benign par 4 that played just in excess of 400 yards.
From an elevated tee, the hole required little more than a short wedge for the approach. Maxwell moved the green in 1937 to its present location – on top of the hill, about 50 yards back from the old site – and transformed it into the toughest hole in Masters Tournament history. Ben Crenshaw referred to Maxwell's work on the 10th hole as "one of the great strokes in golf architecture". For the 1999 tournament, a short rough was instated around the fairways. Referred to as the second cut, it is shorter than the comparable primary rough at other courses, with an average length of 1.625 inches. It is meant to reduce a player's ability to control the ball coming out of this lie, encourage better accuracy for driving onto the fairway; the second shot at the 11th, all of the 12th, the first two shots at the 13th hole at Augusta are nicknamed "Amen Corner". This term was first used in print by author Herbert Warren Wind in his April 21, 1958, Sports Illustrated article about the Masters that year. In a Golf Digest article in April 1984, 26 years Wind told about its origin.
He said he wanted a catchy phrase like baseball's "hot-corner" or football's "coffin-corner" to explain where some of the most exciting golf had taken place. Thus "Amen Corner" was born, he said it came from the title of a jazz record he had heard in the mid-1930s by a group led by Chicago's Mezz Mezzrow, Shouting in that Amen Corner. In a Golf Digest article in April 2008, writer Bill Fields added some new updated information about the origin of the name, he wrote that Richard Moore, a golf and jazz historian from South Carolina, tried to purchase a copy of the old Mezzrow 78 RPM disc for an "Amen Corner" exhibit he was putting together for his Golf Museum at Ahmic Lake, Ontario. After extensive research, Moore found; as Moore put it, himself a jazz buff, must have "unfortunately bogeyed his mind, 26 years later". While at Yale, he was no doubt familiar with, meant all along, the popular version of the song, recorded by the Dorsey Brothers Orchestra, vocal by Mildred Bailey in 1935. Moore told Fields that, being a great admirer of Wind's work over the years