Amsterdam Zuid station
Amsterdam Zuid is a railway station situated in the borough of Amsterdam-Zuid in Amsterdam, Netherlands. For a number of years it was named Amsterdam Zuid WTC, in 2006, with the area surrounding the station rapidly developing, the station was enlarged and the reference to the WTC was dropped. Amsterdam Zuid station is now at the heart of the modern Zuidas business district, home of large banks, accounting. It is the gateway for the VU University campus located just south of the station. Amsterdam Zuid lies on the rail route known as the Zuidtak, which was completed in 1993. Since 2006, Utrecht and other south of Amsterdam have been served. In that year, the Utrechtboog was completed, so that changes at Duivendrecht are no longer necessary for passengers from Schiphol to Utrecht and it is anticipated that in the future Amsterdam Zuid will be served by a number of the trains using the HSL-Zuid. There are plans to rebuild the station, as well as the Amsterdam ring road A10, in May 2008 tram line 5 which used to stop at the station was moved to the Strawinskylaan, where the bus services stop.
This is so that the new metro line 52 building works can take place here, in recent years Station Zuid has become a major station. In December 2006 the extension of the station, platforms 3 and 4, was opened, trains are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Route 50 was opened in 1997 and it runs next to the railway line from Isolatorweg to Gein. Route 51 was opened in 1990, when it ran from Centraal Station to Zuid, in 1993 it was extended to Poortwachter and in 2004 to Amstelveen Westwijk. In May 2008 the tram stop was moved from in between the lines to the Strawinskylaan, where the bus services stop. At the western end of the platforms is the stop Parnassusweg situated. 5 Central Station - Leidseplein - Museumplein - Station Zuid - Buitenveldert - Amstelveen Stadshart Bus services the busstation located at the Strawinskylaan and these are city services, operated by GVB
North Holland is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands. It is situated on the North Sea, north of South Holland and Utrecht, in 2015, it had a population of 2,762,163 and a total area of 2,670 km2. From the 9th to the 16th century, the area was a part of the County of Holland. During this period West Friesland was incorporated, in the 17th and 18th century, the area was part of the province of Holland. At that time, the distinction between the Noorderkwartier and the Zuiderkwartier became common, in 1840, the province of Holland was split into the two provinces of North Holland and South Holland. In 1855, the Haarlemmermeer was drained and turned into land, the capital and seat of the provincial government is Haarlem, and Amsterdam, the Netherlands capital city, is the provinces largest city. The Kings Commissioner of North Holland is Johan Remkes, there are 51 municipalities and three water boards in the province. For most of its history, the province of North Holland was an integral part of Holland.
From the 9th century to the 16th century, Holland was a county ruled by the counts of Holland, during this period an area known as West Friesland was conquered and integrated into Holland. For centuries afterwards Holland would be officially called Holland and West Friesland, the people of West Friesland had a strong sense of identity as a region within Holland. From the 16th century to 1795, Holland was the wealthiest and most important province in the United Provinces in the Dutch Republic, as the richest and most powerful province, Holland dominated the union. During this period a distinction was made between the North Quarter and the South Quarter, areas that roughly correspond to the two modern provinces. The province of North Holland as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813 and this was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795 the old order was swept away and the Batavian Republic was established, in the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed.
The republic was reorganised into eight departments with roughly equal populations, Holland was split up into five departments named Texel, Delf, Schelde en Maas, and Rijn. The first three of these lay within the borders of the old Holland, the two were made up of parts of different provinces. In 1801 the old borders were restored when the department of Holland was created and this reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of breaking up Holland and making it a less powerful province. This time the two departments were called Amstelland and Maasland and this did not last long
Rail transport in the Netherlands
Rail transport in the Netherlands uses a dense railway network, that connects virtually all major towns and cities, counting as many train stations as there are municipalities in the Netherlands. The network totals 3,223 route km, three quarters of which has been electrified, the Dutch rail network supports predominantly passenger transport and most distance travelled on Dutch public transport is done by rail. The national rail infrastructure is managed and maintained by public task company ProRail, the entire network is standard gauge. The Netherlands is a member of the International Union of Railways, the UIC Country Code for the Netherlands is 84. Public transport authorities in the Netherlands issue concessions for collections of lines, most trains consist of both 1st and 2nd class compartiments and occasionally Arriva only offer 2nd class compartiments. The largest cargo carrier in the Netherlands is DB Schenker, others are ACTS, Crossrail, ERS Railways, Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln, Rail4chem, the whole network itself is maintained from the public owned agency ProRail, which is responsible for allocating slots to the different companies.
The first Dutch railway was built and opened in 1839, on a stretch between Amsterdam and Haarlem, and was expanded between 1840 and 1847 to The Hague and Rotterdam. It was originally built to a gauge of 1,945 mm. Further expansion happened in the 19th century to connect the rest of the country, during the 20th century most of the main lines were electrified, starting in 1908 with the Hofpleinlijn. Most freight routes run east-west, connecting the Port of Rotterdam, freight trains usually share the tracks with passenger trains, the only exception is the new Betuweroute, which opened in 2007 as the first freight-only route. The network is developed and dense. One focuses on upgrading the network in terms of efficiency and capacity, more over, some sections might need an increase of the maximum speed up to 160 km/h. Some important new lines were built in recent years and these include the HSL-Zuid high speed line, the Betuweroute and the Hanzelijn, connecting the province of Flevoland with the railway node Zwolle.
Most of the network is electrified at 1.5 kV DC, both the HSL-Zuid and the Betuweroute have been electrified at 25 kV AC, and it is planned to convert old lines to this voltage in the future. Speed is generally limited to 130–140 km/h, but on most secondary lines actual maximum speed is significantly lower, on the HSL-Zuid line, the maximum speed is much higher at 300 km/h. Technically, more recent lines have been constructed to allow for higher speeds, an overview of maximum speeds on all lines is available in the Train routes in the Netherlands article. Trains are frequent, with one or two trains per hour on lines, two to four trains per hour on rural sections and up to 8 or 10 trains an hour in urban regions. One could distinguish two types of trains and intercities, providing faster long-distance services, an intermediate category of sneltreinen is being phased out, starting in 2007, although regional operators continue to use this brand
The Amsterdam School is a style of architecture that arose from 1910 through about 1930 in the Netherlands. The Amsterdam School movement is part of international Expressionist architecture, sometimes linked to German Brick Expressionism, the aim was to create a total architectural experience and exterior. Imbued with socialist ideals, the Amsterdam School style was applied to working-class housing estates, local institutions. For many Dutch towns Hendrik Berlage designed the new urban schemes, with regard to the architectural style, Michel de Klerk had a different vision than Berlage. In the magazine Bouwkundig Weekblad 45/1916 Michel de Klerk criticized Berlages recent buildings in the style of Dutch Traditionalism, in this context, the Stock Exchange by Berlage of 1905 can be seen as the starting point of Traditionalist architecture. From 1920 to 1930 different parallel movements developed in the Netherlands, Traditionalism Expressionism De Stijl Rationalism Constructivism The specific Brick-Cubism by Dudok, the Expressionist architecture of the Amsterdam School was the most successful style of the 1920s.
For many foreign architects, Amsterdam was the Mecca for new town extensions, but the Traditionalist movement lasted longer, until the 1950s, thanks to the so-called Delft School, represented by Martinus Grampré Molière at the Delft University of Technology. In the 1960s the Rationalist movement was dominant, in a well-known speech, the Dutch Rationalist, Willem van Tijen declared the Amsterdam School a warning example for architects. After the death of Piet Kramer in 1961, no institution or museum was interested in his Expressionist work. For that reason, all his drawings and models were burnt, the Amsterdam School had its origins in the office of architect Eduard Cuypers in Amsterdam. Although Cuypers was not an architect himself, he gave his employees plenty of opportunity to develop. The three leaders of the Amsterdam School Michel de Klerk, Johan van der Mey and Piet Kramer all worked for Cuypers until about 1910. Van der Meys major commission, the 1912 cooperative-commercial Scheepvaarthuis, is considered the point of the movement.
The most Amsterdam School buildings are found in this city, the movement and its followers played an important role in Berlages overall plans for the expansion of Amsterdam. The most important architects and virtuoso artists of the Amsterdam School were Michel de Klerk, other members included Jan Gratama, Berend Tobia Boeyinga, P. H. Endt, H. Th. Wijdeveld, J. F. Staal, C. J. Blaauw, the journal Wendingen, published between 1918 and 1931, was the magazine of the Amsterdam School movement. After De Klerk died in 1923, the style lost its importance, the De Bijenkorf Store in the Hague by Piet Kramer from 1926 is considered to be the last example of classic Amsterdam School Expressionism. The influence of the Amsterdam School continued in the Dutch East Indies, the Amsterdam School style spread beyond architecture to encompass interior design, with the result that items ranging from furniture and carpets to lamps and clocks were produced
Amsterdam-Zuid is a borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. The borough was formed in 2010 as a merger of the former boroughs Oud-Zuid, the borough has almost 138,000 inhabitants. With 8,500 homes per square kilometer, it is one of the most densely populated boroughs of Amsterdam and it has the highest income per household of all boroughs in Amsterdam. Amsterdam-Zuid is the borough of Amsterdam situated to the south and southwest of the Singelgracht canal, the Singelgracht canal had been Amsterdams city border since the 17th century, when the Amsterdam canal belt was constructed. The taking down of the surrounding the Singelgracht, the outer canal. South of the wall, the first neighborhoods to develop were the Oude Pijp neighborhood, the neighborhood surrounding the Rijksmuseum. This area is now known as Oud Zuid. In 1917, the area was further developed southwards on the basis of Plan Zuid, berlages plan included wide streets lined with four-story apartment blocks for the middle class. The plan included public art to be installed in the new residential areas, between 1920 and 1940, the Plan Zuid neighborhoods of Nieuwe Pijp, Rivierenbuurt and Apollobuurt were constructed, with many buildings designed in Amsterdam School style.
This area is known as Nieuw Zuid. Another neighborhood built in the 1920s is the Hoofddorppleinbuurt, west of the Schinkel river and this neighborhood is part of Plan West, another urban expansion plan by Berlage which was designed for the western area of the city on the territory of the former municipality of Sloten. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Buitenveldert neighborhood and the smaller Prinses Irenebuurt became the last major developments in the southern part of the city. In 1961, the Amsterdam RAI Exhibition and Convention Centre opened, the A10 motorway, which runs through the southern borough, was constructed in 1962. In 1978, the first section of the Weesp–Leiden railway and the Amsterdam Zuid railway station opened along the part of the A10 motorway. In the 1990s and 2000s, the surrounding the railway station became the rapidly developing business district of Zuidas. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the councils have been abolished and replaced by smaller. The district committees are elected every four years, on the day as the citys central municipal council.
Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
A10 motorway (Netherlands)
The A10 motorway is a motorway in the Netherlands. This motorway is the road around the city of Amsterdam. It has a length of 32 km, part of the A10 is the Coentunnel, crossing the Noordzeekanaal. This twin tube tunnel is notorious for traffic jams for decades and these new tubes opened on 13 May 2013 and the old tubes were closed for extensive renovation. On 21 July 2014 the old tubes were reopened after completing the renovations, the city of Amsterdam has a network of numbered stadsroutes. These routes are indicated with an s prefix followed by a three digit number starting at 100, since these s-routes are connected to the A10 motorway and each s-route only crosses the motorway once, these numbers can be considered as the first exit numbers on Dutch motorways. Recently, regular exit numbering has been implemented based on the numbers of the s-routes, for example, the junction leading towards the s106 used to be exit number s106 and is now numbered as exit 6. Construction started in 1962 and the first part was completed four years later, the Coentunnel was opened on 21 June 1966.
The western part of the A10 was finished on 2 April 1975, the eastern and northern part were finished in 1990, with the completion of another tunnel under the IJ, the Zeeburgertunnel. The western part of the A10, between interchange De Nieuwe Meer and exit 2 the speed limit is 80 km/h, the rest of the A10 is 100 km/h. During rush hour the speed on the part can be reduced to 80 km/h. The entire route is in North Holland Province, media related to Rijksweg 10 at Wikimedia Commons
A rijksmonument is a national heritage site of the Netherlands, listed by the agency Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed acting for the Dutch Ministry of Education and Science. To be designated, a place must be over 50 years old, there are around 51,000 designated rijksmonuments in the Netherlands. The program was started during the Hague Convention in 1954, the current legislation governing the monuments is the Monumentenwet van 1988. The organization responsible for caring for the monuments, which used to be called Monumentenzorg, was recently renamed, and is now called Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed. In June 2009, the Court of The Hague decided that individual purchasers of buildings that were listed as rijksmonuments would be exempt from paying transfer tax, previously this exemption had only applied to legal entities. Many Dutch tourist attractions are rijksmonuments, such as castles or windmills, among the rijksmonuments are many churches. A provincial monument is a monument designated by a province, in the Netherlands there are only two provinces that assign monuments, North Holland and Drenthe.
The designation allows the provinces to protect the monuments and are a base for the regulation of subsidy for restoring the monuments, a municipal monument is a monuments designated by a municipality. A municipal monument is not of importance but it is important for the region or city/village. List of Rijksmonuments List of heritage registers Monumentenregister, official database of heritage sites Monumenten. nl
Pieter Lodewijk Kramer was a Dutch architect, one of the most important architects of the Amsterdam School. From 1903 to 1911 Piet Kramer worked in the practice of Eduard Cuypers. In 1911 van der Mey received the commission to design the Scheepvaarthuis, van der Mey sought the assistance of his former colleague-architects Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk to realize this building. The Scheepvaarthuis is considered the point of the Amsterdam School movement. Later Piet Kramer collaborated with Michel de Klerk on the well-known De Dageraad housing project in Amsterdam South, outside Amsterdam he built one of his masterpieces, the De Bijenkorf Store in The Hague. After the death of Michel de Klerk in 1923, Piet Kramer was the architect of the Amsterdam School until the end of this movement in the beginning of the 1930s. In the years of crisis of the 1930s the expensive architecture of the Amsterdam School was passé. A new architecture and town planning was in process of development in Amsterdam, in the new architecture the principle of spatial corridors between functionalistic blocks was relevant.
On the contrary, the Amsterdam School town planning was based on a structure with streets. In the second half of his life, the main job of Piet Kramer was architect for canal bridges in the municipal public works department in Amsterdam. He made the drawings for more than 500 bridges, the total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 220,64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park. Besides the bridges he designed the additional bridge houses, ironwork. The sculptural work was generally done by Hildo Krop, after the death of Piet Kramer in 1961, on the high point of the Rationalist movement, no architectural institution or museum was interested in his Expressionist work. For that reason all his drawings and models were burnt, De Dageraad, working-class Socialist housing by Piet Kramer and Michel de Klerk. The architectural contribution by Piet Kramer is shown in this article, buildings by different architects of the Amsterdam School Piet Kramer made the drawings for more than 500 bridges. The total number of realized Piet Kramer bridges is 220,64 of them in the Amsterdamse Bos park
Boroughs of Amsterdam
The boroughs of Amsterdam are the eight principal subdivisions of the municipality of Amsterdam, Netherlands. Each borough is governed by an elected district committee. The first Amsterdam boroughs were created in 1981, with other boroughs created in years, the last area to be granted the status of borough was Amsterdam-Centrum. The existing system of eight boroughs, covering all parts of Amsterdam, is the result of a major reform in 2010. The current boroughs have populations of around 80,000 to 140,000, until 2014, the Amsterdam boroughs had the status of submunicipalities, a form of government which existed only in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The borough of Westpoort, was governed by the municipal authorities. The submunicipalities were recognized under the Dutch Municipalities Act and enjoyed far-going autonomy, with the municipal authorities abiding to the submunicipalities decide. The submunicipalities were governed by an elected district council as well as a separate district executive board.
The central municipal authorities retained some power, especially in the areas of public order, public transport, in 2013, the Dutch parliament adopted a revision of the Municipalities Act abolishing submunicipalities as a form of government. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the Amsterdam district councils have ceased to exist, under a municipal ordinance, they were replaced by smaller, but still directly elected district committees. Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council. As the new district committees depend on powers being delegated by the municipal council. Since 2010, the eight Amsterdam boroughs are, Amsterdam-Centrum Amsterdam-Noord Amsterdam Nieuw-West Amsterdam-Oost Amsterdam-West Amsterdam Westpoort Amsterdam-Zuid Amsterdam Zuidoost
Anne Frank House
The Anne Frank House is a writers house and biographical museum dedicated to Jewish wartime diarist Anne Frank. The building is located on a called the Prinsengracht, close to the Westerkerk. During World War II, Anne Frank hid from Nazi persecution with her family and four people in hidden rooms at the rear of the 17th-century canal house. Anne Frank did not survive the war, but in 1947 her wartime diary was published, in 1957, the Anne Frank Foundation was established to protect the property from developers who wanted to demolish the block. The museum opened on 3 May 1960 and it preserves the hiding place, has a permanent exhibition on the life and times of Anne Frank, and has an exhibition space about all forms of persecution and discrimination. In 2013 and 2014, the museum had 1.2 million visitors and was the 3rd most visited museum in the Netherlands, after the Rijksmuseum and Van Gogh Museum. The house — and the one door at number 265. The canal-side façade dates from a renovation of 1740 when the annex was demolished.
It was originally a residence, a warehouse, and in the nineteenth century. At the start of the 20th century a manufacturer of household appliances occupied the building, succeeded in 1930 by a producer of piano rolls, who vacated the property by 1939. On 1 December 1940 Annes father Otto Frank moved the offices of the spice and gelling companies he worked for and Pectacon, from an address on Singel canal to Prinsengracht 263. The Achterhuis or Secret Annex — as it was called in The Diary of a Young Girl and it was concealed from view by houses on all four sides of a quadrangle. Its secluded position made it an ideal hiding place for Otto Frank, his wife Edith and they remained hidden here for two years and one month until they were anonymously betrayed to the Nazi authorities and deported to their deaths in concentration camps. Of the hidden group, only Otto Frank survived the death camps. Before the building was cleared, Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl, amongst the items they retrieved was The Diary of Anne Frank.
Otto Franks contributions to the diary were such that he is recognized as a co-author, shortly after the book was published, visitors were shown around by the employees who had hidden the families and could see the secret rooms. A campaign to save the building and to list it as a monument was started by the Dutch paper Het Vrije Volk on 23 November 1955. The building was saved by campaigners who staged a protest outside the building on the day of demolition, the Anne Frank Foundation was set up by Otto Frank and Johannes Kleiman on 3 May 1957 with the primary aim of collecting enough funds to purchase and restore the building