China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)
The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces; the invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and by the Ming dynasty, respectively. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese with righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.
The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.
In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.
The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.
It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering bot
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along the bottoms of valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal plains, as plateaus or uplands. In a valley, a plain is enclosed on two sides, but in other cases a plain may be delineated by a complete or partial ring of hills, by mountains, or by cliffs. Where a geological region contains more than one plain, they may be connected by a pass. Coastal plains would rise from sea level until they run into elevated features such as mountains or plateaus. Plains are one of the major landforms on earth, where they are present on all continents, would cover more than one-third of the world’s land area. Plains may have been formed from flowing lava, deposited by water, wind, or formed by erosion by these agents from hills and mountains. Plains would be under the grassland, savannah or tundra biomes. In a few instances and rainforests can be plains. Plains in many areas are important for agriculture because where the soils were deposited as sediments they may be deep and fertile, the flatness facilitates mechanization of crop production.
Depositional plains formed by the deposition of materials brought by various agents of transportation such as glaciers, rivers and wind. Their fertility and economic relevance depend on the types of sediments that are laid down; the types of depositional plains include: Abyssal plains, flat or gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin. Planitia, the Latin word for plain, is used in the naming of plains on extraterrestrial objects, such as Hellas Planitia on Mars or Sedna Planitia on Venus. Alluvial plains, which are formed by rivers and which may be one of these overlapping types: Alluvial plains, formed over a long period of time by a river depositing sediment on their flood plains or beds, which become alluvial soil; the difference between a flood plain and an alluvial plain is: a flood plain represents areas experiencing flooding regularly in the present or whereas an alluvial plain includes areas where a flood plain is now and used to be, or areas which only experience flooding a few times a century.
Flood plain, adjacent to a lake, stream, or wetland that experiences occasional or periodic flooding. Scroll plain, a plain through which a river meanders with a low gradient. Glacial plains, formed by the movement of glaciers under the force of gravity: Outwash plain, a glacial out-wash plain formed of sediments deposited by melt-water at the terminus of a glacier. Sandar consist of stratified gravel and sand. Till plains, plain of glacial till that form when a sheet of ice becomes detached from the main body of a glacier and melts in place depositing the sediments it carries. Till plains are composed of unsorted material of all sizes. Lacustrine plains, plains that formed in a lacustrine environment, that is, as the bed of a lake. Lava plains, formed by sheets of flowing lava. Erosional plains have been leveled by various agents of denudation such as running water, rivers and glacier which wear out the rugged surface and smoothens them. Plain resulting from the action of these agents of denudation are called peneplains while plains formed from wind action are called pediplains.
Structural plains are undisturbed horizontal surfaces of the Earth. They are structurally depressed areas of the world that make up some of the most extensive natural lowlands on the Earth's surface. Altiplano Altiplano Cundiboyacense Caroni Plain Chilean Central Valley Gran Chaco Los Llanos Venezuelan Llanos Argentine Pampas Atlantic coastal plain Carrizo Plain Great Plains Gulf Coastal Plain Interior Plains Lake Superior Lowland Laramie Plains Mississippi Alluvial Plain Oxnard Plain Snake River Plain Chianan Plain Depsang Plains Kantō Plain Kedu Plain Kewu Plain Mallig Plains Nōbi Plain North China Plain Osaka Plain Pingtung Plain Sarobetsu plain West Siberian Plain Yilan Plain Bhuikhel Depsang Plains Dooars Eastern coastal plains Indo-Gangetic Plains More plains North Bengal plains Punjab Plains Terai Utkal Plains Western coastal plains Al-Ghab Plain Aleppo plateau Ararat plain Israeli coastal plain Khuzestan Plain Mugan plain Nineveh Plains Shiraki Plain Limagne North German Plain Ochsenfeld Pannonian Basin Parndorf Plain Westphalian Lowland Bărăgan Plain Danubian Plain Dnieper Lowland East European Plain European Plain Great Hungarian Plain Kosovo field Little Hungarian Plain Pannonian Steppe Polesian Lowland Upper Thracian Plain Wallachian Plain Cheshire Plain Hardangervidda Kaffiøyra Muddus plains North
Engineer Special Brigade (United States)
Engineer special brigades were amphibious forces of the United States Army developed during World War II. Designated engineer amphibian brigades, the first four brigades were redesignated ESBs in 1943. At the onset of direct American involvement in World War II, it was obvious that the U. S. military would need a large tactical amphibious capability. In 1941, the United States' amphibious forces were divided into two corps: one Atlantic. Both amphibious corps were combined Army and Marine Corps commands, administered by the U. S. Navy; the Atlantic Corps consisted of the 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Marine Division, the Pacific Corps consisted of the 3rd Infantry Division and the 2nd Marine Division. As this set-up proved itself unwieldy, the Joint Staff appointed the U. S. Army, not the Marine Corps, to develop doctrine for sustained amphibious operations. On 20 May 1942, the Army activated its Amphibious Training Command at Massachusetts. Subsequently, the Army activated the Engineer Amphibian Command.
The Amphibious Training Command was tasked to train no fewer than 12 Army divisions in amphibious operations. As the war progressed, the Marine Corps expanded to six divisions and the Army and the Navy began to fight over the procurement and assignment of landing craft and other amphibious assault equipment, resulting in the Army's decision to close the Amphibious Training Center. Per its agreement with the Navy, the Army continued to train Engineer Amphibian Brigades, for while the Marine Corps was adept at the initial waves of amphibious assaults, the Marine Corps had yet to create an effective doctrine concerning subsequent support waves; this task fell to the EABs. The 1st, 5th, 6th Engineer Special Brigades were assigned to the European Theater of Operations, while the 2nd and 4th Engineer Special Brigades were assigned to the Pacific Theater of Operations; the 3rd Engineer Special Brigade was assigned directly to the Amphibious Training Center. It was assigned to the Pacific Theater of Operations.
The 1st Engineer Special Brigade was the only ESB to fight in both theaters of the war. The various subordinate engineer boat, engineer amphibian, engineer shore regiments were all redesignated as engineer boat & shore regiments by the end of the war. 1st Engineer Special Brigade was activated on 15 June 1942, at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts as the 1st Engineer Amphibian Brigade. Due to necessity, it was pulled from the Amphibious Training Center early and sent to England, arriving in August 1942. In December of that year, it landed in North Africa, where it was redesignated the 1st Engineer Special Brigade, skillfully commanded by Brigadier General Henry Charles Wolfe. BGen. Wolfe was promoted to become the Deputy Operations Officer of Eisenhower's Allied Force Headquarters; the 1st ESB, under Wolfe's successor Colonel Eugene M. Caffey, subsequently participated in the assaults on Sicily and Italy. In December 1943, the 1st ESB returned to England. A mishap in a May 1944 training exercise—which happened to be for the Normandy invasion, just happened to have been observed by General Bradley—caused the temporary shelving of Col. Caffey from command of the 1st ESB, but just for the Normandy landings.
In June 1944, under the temporary command of Bradley's G-1, Brigadier General James E. Wharton, the 1st ESB participated in the Invasion of Normandy; the Brigade operated as Utah Beach Command until 23 October 1944, apparently continued Cherbourg Port operations until 7 December 1944, under the new command of Colonel B. B. Talley it began its transition to the Pacific Theater of Operations. Staging in England for a couple of weeks, it embarked on 23 December 1944 for America. Arriving at Ft. Dix, NJ, on 30 December 1944, the Brigade was given four weeks leave reassembled at Ft. Lewis, WA, to prepare to leave for the far side of the Pacific and the Okinawa invasion, it participated in the assault on Okinawa and was inactivated in Korea on 18 February 1946. 531st Engineer Shore Regiment 591st Engineer Boat Regiment 2759th Engineer Combat BattalionCommanders: BGen. Henry Charles Wolfe Col. R. L. Brown Col. Eugene M. Caffey BGen. James Edward Wharton Col. Benjamin Branche Talley 2nd Engineer Special Brigade was activated on 20 June 1942, at Camp Edwards, as the 2nd Engineer Amphibian Brigade.
The brigade arrived in Australia on 17 April 1943, where it was redesignated an Engineer Special Brigade. Over the next ten days the 2nd Engineer Special Brigade made its way to the Capricorn Coast, a part of the Central Queensland Coastline. Camp Keppel had been established in March for the 24th Division on the both sides of Cowooral Road, Cowooral between the township of Rockhampton and the small coastal village of Keppel Sands. Within a week of their arrival "Tokyo Rose" had broadcast a welcome to "the three new amphibian regiments and service units in Australia"; the 2nd Engineer Special Brigade set up in Area B and in Area A, which extended from Limpus Avenue in Keppel Sands to Pumpkin Creek where the original small b
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China and its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China. The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force, the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location; the PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. China is the third largest arms exporter in the world; the PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC. It is obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party.
Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council, does not exercise any authority over the PLA and is far less powerful than the CMC. Military service is compulsory by law. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF. Former CMC chairman Hu Jintao had defined the missions of the PLA as: To consolidate the ruling status of the Communist Party To ensure China's sovereignty, territorial integrity, domestic security to continue national development To safeguard China's national interests To help maintain world peace The People's Liberation Army was founded on 1 August 1927 during the Nanchang uprising when troops of the Kuomintang rebelled under the leadership of Zhu De, He Long, Ye Jianying and Zhou Enlai after the massacre of the Communists by Chiang Kai-shek, they were known as the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, or the Red Army.
Between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, the Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China forming two main units known as the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. During this time, these two military groups employed guerrilla tactics avoiding large-scale battles with the Japanese with some exceptions while at the same time consolidating their ground by absorbing nationalist troops and paramilitary forces behind Japanese lines into their forces. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army, renaming the new million-strong force the "People's Liberation Army", they won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the People's Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a huge reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April.
In 1950, the leadership structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces, worker–soldier militias were established. The chemical warfare defence forces, the railroad forces, the communications forces, the strategic forces, as well as other separate forces, were established on, all these depended on the leadership of the Communist Party and the National People's Congress via the Central Military Commission. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one. Part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955; the PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general defected to the PLA. In November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the People's Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River.
Under the weight of this offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthur's forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul, but were subsequently pushed back south of Pyongyang north of the 38th Parallel. The war served as a catalyst for the rapid modernization of the PLAAF. In 1962, the PLA ground force fought India in the Sino-Indian War, achieving all objectives. Prior to the Cultural Revolution, military region commanders tended to remain in their posts for long periods of time; as the PLA took a stronger role in politics, this began to be seen as somewhat of a threat to the party's control of the military. The longest-serving military region commanders were Xu Shiyou in the Nanjing Military Region, Yang Dezhi in the Jinan Military Region, Chen Xilian in the Shenyang Military Region, Han Xianchu in the Fuzhou Military Region; the establishment of a professional military force equipped with modern weapons and doctrine was the last of the Four Modernizations announced by Zhou Enlai and supported by Deng Xiaoping.
In keeping with Deng's mandate to reform, the PLA has demobilized millions o
1st Marine Division (United States)
The 1st Marine Division is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force, it is the oldest and largest active duty division in the United States Marine Corps, representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps today and is a multi-role, expeditionary ground combat force, it is nicknamed "The Old Breed". The division is employed as the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force or may provide task-organized forces for assault operations and such operations as may be directed; the 1st Marine Division must be able to provide the ground amphibious forcible entry capability to the naval expeditionary force and to conduct subsequent land operations in any operational environment. The 1st Marine Division is organized around four regiments and several Battalions which includes the following: Headquarters Battalion 1st Marine Regiment 5th Marine Regiment 7th Marine Regiment 11th Marine Regiment 1st Tank Battalion 1st Reconnaissance Battalion 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 1st Combat Engineer Battalion 3rd Combat Engineer Battalion 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion The lineal forebear of the 1st Marine Division is the 1st Advance Base Brigade, activated on 23 December 1913 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania..
The brigade consisted of the Fixed Defense Regiment and the Mobile Defense Regiment designated as the 1st and 2nd Regiments, 1st Brigade, respectively. In 1916, while deployed in Haiti, the two regiments were again redesignated, exchanging numerals, to become the 2nd and 1st Regiments, 1st Brigade. Between April 1914 and August 1934, elements of the 1st Brigade participated in operations in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, receiving campaign credit for service in each nation. While the 1st Brigade did not serve ashore in the European theater during the First World War, the brigade was awarded the World War I Victory Medal Streamer, with one bronze star, in recognition of the brigade's service during that conflict. On 16 September 1935, the brigade was redesignated as the 1st Marine Brigade and deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in October 1940; the 1st Marine Division was activated aboard the USS Texas on 1 February 1941. In May 1941, the 1st MARDIV relocated to Quantico and Parris Island, South Carolina and in April 1942, the division began deploying to Samoa and Wellington, New Zealand.
The division's units were scattered over the Pacific with the support elements and the 1st Marine Regiment transported en route to New Zealand on three ships, the USATs Ericsson and Elliott from Naval Reserve Air Base Oakland to New Zealand, were landed on the island of Guadalcanal, part of the Solomon Islands, on 7 August 1942. Only the 7th Marine Regiment was in garrison on British Samoa, with the 5th Marine Regiment having just encamped at Wellington, New Zealand after disembarking from USAT Wakefield, the 1st Marine Regiment not scheduled to arrive in New Zealand until 11 July; the 1st Raider Battalion was on New Caledonia, the 3rd Defense Battalion was in Pearl Harbor. All of the division's units, with the 11th Marines and 75mm howitzer armed 10th Marines battalion would rendezvous at Fiji. Due to the change in orders and shortage of attack and combat cargo vessels, all of the division's 2.5 ton trucks, M1918 155-mm howitzers and the sound and flash-ranging equipment needed for counter-battery fire had to be left in Wellington.
Because the Wellington dock workers were on strike at the time, the Marines had to do all the load reconfiguration from administrative to combat configuration. After 11 days of logistical challenges, the division, with 16,000 Marines, departed Wellington in eighty-nine ships embarked for the Solomon Islands with a 60-day combat load which did not include tents, spare clothing or bed rolls, office equipment, unit muster rolls or pay clerks. Other things not yet available to this first wave of Marine deployments were insect repellent and mosquito netting. Attached to the division was the 1st Parachute Battalion, which along with the rest of the division, conducted landing rehearsals from 28 to 30 July on Koro Island, which Major General Alexander Vandegrift described as a "disaster". On 31 July the entire Marine task force was placed under the command of Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher's Task Force 61; the division as a whole would fight in the Guadalcanal Campaign until relieved at 1400 on 9 December 1942 by Alexander Patch's Americal Division.
This operation won the Division its first of three World War II Presidential Unit Citations. The battle would cost the division 650 killed in action, 1,278 wounded in action with a further 8,580 contracting malaria and 31 missing in action. Others were awarded for the battles of Okinawa. Following the Guadalcanal Campaign, the division's Marines were sent to Melbourne, Australia for rest and refit, it was during this time that the division took the traditional Australian folk song "Waltzing Matilda" as its battle hymn. To this day, 1st Division Marines still ship out to this song being played; the division would next see action during Operation Cartwheel, the codename for the campaigns in Eastern New Guinea and New Britain. They came ashore at the Battle of Cape Gloucester on 26 December 1943 and fought on New Britain until March 1944 at such places as Suicide Creek and Ajar Ridge. During the course of the battle the division had 310 killed and 1,08
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.