An academic library is a library, attached to a higher education institution which serves two complementary purposes to support the school's curriculum, to support the research of the university faculty and students. It is unknown. An academic and research portal maintained by UNESCO links to 3,785 libraries. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, there are an estimated 3,700 academic libraries in the United States; the support of teaching and learning requires material for student papers. In the past, the material for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor, has been called reserves. In the period before electronic resources became available, the reserves were supplied as actual books or as photocopies of appropriate journal articles. Academic libraries must determine a focus for collection development since comprehensive collections are not feasible. Librarians do this by identifying the needs of the faculty and student body, as well as the mission and academic programs of the college or university.
When there are particular areas of specialization in academic libraries, these are referred to as niche collections. These collections are the basis of a special collection department and may include original papers and artifacts written or created by a single author or about a specific subject. There is a great deal of variation among academic libraries based on their size, resources and services; the Harvard University Library is considered to be the largest strict academic library in the world, although the Danish Royal Library—a combined national and academic library—has a larger collection. Another notable example is the University of the South Pacific which has academic libraries distributed throughout its twelve member countries; the University of California operates the largest academic library system in the world, it manages more than 34 million items in 100 libraries on ten campuses. The first colleges in the United States were intended to train members of the clergy; the libraries associated with these institutions consisted of donated books on the subjects of theology and the classics.
In 1766, Yale had 4,000 volumes, second only to Harvard. Access to these libraries was restricted to faculty members and a few students: the only staff was a part-time faculty member or the president of the college; the priority of the library was to protect the books. In 1849, Yale was open 30 hours a week, the University of Virginia was open nine hours a week, Columbia University four, Bowdoin College only three. Students instead created literary societies and assessed entrance fees in order to build a small collection of usable volumes in excess of what the university library held. Around the turn of the century, this approach began to change; the American Library Association was formed in 1876, with members including Melvil Dewey and Charles Ammi Cutter. Libraries re-prioritized in favor of improving access to materials, found funding increasing as a result of increased demand for said materials. Academic libraries today vary in regard to the extent to which they accommodate those who are not affiliated with their parent universities.
Some offer borrowing privileges to members of the public on payment of an annual fee. The privileges so obtained do not extend to such services as computer usage, other than to search the catalog, or Internet access. Alumni and students of cooperating local universities may be given discounts or other consideration when arranging for borrowing privileges. On the other hand, access to the libraries of some universities is restricted to students and staff. In this case, they may make it possible for others to borrow materials through inter-library loan programs. Libraries of land-grant universities are more accessible to the public. In some cases, they are official government document repositories and so are required to be open to the public. Still, members of the public are charged fees for borrowing privileges, are not allowed to access everything they would be able to as students. Academic libraries in Canada are a recent development in relation to other countries; the first academic library in Canada was opened in 1789 in Windsor, Nova Scotia.
Academic libraries were small during the 19th century and up until the 1950s, when Canadian academic libraries began to grow as a result of greater importance being placed on education and research. The growth of libraries throughout the 1960s was a direct result of many overwhelming factors including inflated student enrollments, increased graduate programs, higher budget allowance, general advocacy of the importance of these libraries; as a result of this growth and the Ontario New Universities Library Project that occurred during the early 1960s, 5 new universities were established in Ontario that all included catalogued collections. The establishment of libraries was widespread throughout Canada and was furthered by grants provided by the Canada Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, which sought to enhance library collections. Since many academic libraries were constructed after World War Two, a majority of the Canadian academic libraries that were built before 1940 that have not been updated to modern lighting, air conditioning, etc. are either no longer in use or are on the verge of decline.
The total number of college and university libraries increased from 31 in 1959-1960 to 105 in 1969-1970. Following the growth of academic libraries in Canada during the 1960s, there was a br
Ateneo de Manila University Dormitory
The Ateneo de Manila University Dormitory is a twin-building, on-campus dormitory for college students of the Ateneo de Manila University. Built in 2008, the Dormitory buildings stand seven stories high, can accommodate over 600 students, it is located behind the Church of the Gesù, overlooks the scenic Marikina Valley. Resident students are provided with individual bed and mattress, closet for clothes and shoes, study table with lamp, book shelves. There is a common shoe cabinet for the occupants of the room. There are four occupants to a room that has three built in ceiling fans, a provision for two refrigerators. Amenities include a study hall, a laundry area with token-operated washing machines, an infirmary, a dining/assembly area, a multi-purpose open roof deck; the University Dormitory features 24-hour room-to-room internet access. Most dorm activities and support services are organized and managed by the residents themselves through the Ateneo Resident Students Association and its working committees.
These include the orientation for freshmen dormers. CERSA is active in opportunities for social awareness and involvement like disaster relief operations, socio-political mobilizations, social education. Applicants to the Dormitory must accomplish the dorm Application Form secured only at the Residence Halls. Alternatively, the form may be sent by mail/courier to the applicant who will pay the cost of mailing. Completed forms should be submitted to the Residence Halls. Only those who have passed the Ateneo College Entrance Test and are accepted into the Loyola Schools of the Ateneo de Manila University will be considered for admission. Admission procedures are performed by the Committee on Dorm Admissions
Intramuros is the 0.67 square kilometres historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is administered by the Intramuros Administration, created through the Presidential Decree No. 1616 signed on April 10, 1979. IA is tasked to rebuild, redevelop and preserve the remaining pre-war buildings and fortifications of Intramuros. Intramuros is called the Walled City, at the time of the Spanish Colonial Period was synonymous to the City of Manila. Other towns and arrabales located beyond the walls are referred to as "extramuros", the Spanish for "outside the walls", it was the seat of government and political power when the Philippines was a component realm of the Spanish Empire. It was the center of religion and economy; the standard way of life in Intramuros became the standard way of life throughout the Philippines. The Manila Galleons which sailed the Pacific for 250 years, carried goods to and from Intramuros and Acapulco, Mexico. Construction of the defensive walls was started by the Spanish colonial government in the late 16th century to protect the city from foreign invasions.
The Walled City was located along the shores of the Manila Bay, south of the entrance to Pasig River. Guarding the old city is Fort Santiago, its citadel located at the mouth of the river. Land reclamations during the early 20th century subsequently obscured the walls and fort from the bay; the Battle of Manila in 1945 devastated Intramuros. It is the place where the occupying Japanese Imperial Army made their last stand against Allied soldiers and Filipino guerillas; the battle destroyed its churches, universities and government buildings, most of which dated back to the Spanish Colonial Period. Intramuros the Fort Santiago, was designated as a National Historical Landmark in 1951; the fortifications of Intramuros, collectively called "Fortifications of Manila", were declared as National Cultural Treasures, by the National Museum of the Philippines, owing to its architectural and archaeological significance. San Agustin Church, a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the Baroque Churches of the Philippines, is located within Intramuros.
The strategic location of Manila along the bay and at the mouth of Pasig River made it an ideal location for the Tagalog and Kapampangan tribes and kingdoms to trade with merchants from what would be today's China, India and Indonesia. Before the first arrival of Europeans on Luzon island, the island was part of the Hindu Majapahit empire around the 14th century, according to the epic eulogy poem Nagarakretagama which described its conquest by Mahārāja Hayam Wuruk; the region became a part of the Sultanate of Brunei. The site of Intramuros became a part of the Islamic Kingdom of Maynila a Bruneian puppet-state ruled by Rajah Sulayman, a Muslim Rajah who swore fealty to the Sultan of Brunei. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailed from New Spain, arrived on the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, establishing the first Spanish colony in the Philippines. Having heard from the natives about the rich resources in Manila, Legazpi dispatched two of his lieutenant-commanders, Martín de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo, to explore the island of Luzon.
The Spaniards arrived on the island of Luzon in 1570. After quarrels and misunderstandings between the Muslim natives and the Spaniards, they fought for control of the land and settlements. After several months of warfare the natives were defeated, the Spaniards made a peace pact with the councils of Rajah Sulaiman III, Lakan Dula, Rajah Matanda who handed over Manila to the Spaniards. Legazpi declared the area of Manila as the new capital of the Spanish colony on June 24, 1571, because of its strategic location and rich resources, he proclaimed the sovereignty of the Monarchy of Spain over the whole archipelago. King Philip II of Spain delighted at the new conquest achieved by Legazpi and his men, awarding the city a coat of arms and declaring it as: Ciudad Insigne y Siempre Leal, it was settled and became the political and religious center of the Spanish Empire in Asia. The city was in constant danger of natural and man-made disasters and worse, attacks from foreign invaders. In 1574, a fleet of Chinese pirates led by Limahong attacked the city and destroyed it before the Spaniards drove them away.
The colony had to be rebuilt again by the survivors. These attacks prompted the construction of the wall; the city of stone began during the rule of Governor-General Santiago de Vera. The city was planned and executed by Jesuit Priest Antonio Sedeno in accordance to the Laws of the Indies, was approved by King Philip II's Royal Ordinance, issued in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain; the succeeding governor-general, Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas brought with him from Spain the royal instructions to carry into effect the said decree stating that "to enclose the city with stone and erect a suitable fort at the junction of the sea and river". Leonardo Iturriano, a Spanish military engineer specializing in fortifications, headed the project. Chinese and Filipino workers built the walls. Fort Santiago was rebuilt and a circular fort, known as Nuestra Senora de Guia, was erected to defend the land and sea on the southwestern side of the city. Funds came from a monopoly on playing fines imposed on its excessive play.
Chinese goods were taxed for two years. Designed by Geronimo Tongco and Pedro Jusepe, construction of the walls began on 1590 and continued under many governor-generals until 1872. By the middle of 1592, Dasmarinas wrote the King about the satisf
Matanglawin "Hawk's Eye" and contracted as Mata, is the official student publication of the Ateneo de Manila University in the Filipino language. The student paper dedicates itself to discussing socio-political issues in the Philippines, the plight and suffering of the working class, as well as pressing student rights issues, it is part of the Ateneo's Confederation including The GUIDON and Heights. From a circulation of a few mimeographed copies hidden in books at the Rizal Library in the 1970s, Matanglawin is now published in glossy form and has a circulation of more than 2,000, serving the Loyola Schools community. Copies of the publication are sent to student publications across the Philippines; the word or name Matanglawin contained negative connotations based from Philippine literary canon. The character of Cabesang Tales from Jose Rizal's novel El filibusterismo took the word as his moniker when he descended into terrorism and banditry after having been maltreated and denied justice by the Spanish colonial government.
There were characters in the plays of patriot playwrights Aurelio Tolentino and Onofre Pagsanghan representing the Filipinos who became bootlickers and lapdogs of the colonial masters named as such, characterized by their rapacity and brutality against fellow Filipinos. The publication, offers a different explanation as to how the name defines its work by breaking down the word into three other words: "mata" for the student journalist's meticulous attention to detail, data and critical observation; the publication does not limit itself to being a dead piece of paper. In view of this, the organization is divided into seven branches or "bagwisan": Sulatin at Saliksikan: The lifeblood of the publication, it molds its members to be critical and observant of the myriad issues confronting students inside and outside campus, they propagate a so-called new brand of journalism, one, not "objective" as they believe it is obsolete in such period in time. Sining: Through works of art or taken photographs, this branch gives life to the publication's otherwise pure and stale text, providing the readers an accurate glimpse of the issues they are reading about.
Disenyo: Following the principle of "organization in chaos", this branch strives to make the publication palatable to the reader's viewing through effective design and layout of text and images for the magazine issues and online materials. Pandayan: The vanguard of the publication's organizational characteristics, it is given the responsibility of preparing the members and journalists in fulfilling their objectives through educational discussions, team building seminars and outside activities. Proyekto: This branch gives its members a chance of being able to do projects for the entire year, aimed to make people aware of sociopolitical issues and current events that are relevant to the society. Social Media: Through online communication, this branch connects with netizens using the organization's official website and other platforms for efficient posting of articles and other information that involves the organization. Matanglawin has garnered a multitude of awards in its 40 years of existence.
It has been nominated for the Catholic Mass Media Awards. In 2002, it has won the Best Magazine Award at the annual Gawad Ernesto Rodriguez Jr, sponsored by the College Editors Guild of the Philippines, its website and spoof issues have been recognized by the said organization. The publication is known for the quality of its investigative journalism, its editorial columns; the spoof issue, has been cited for mixing tabloid humor with scathing political commentary. To make the organization more enticing to aspiring members who do not just want to write, it has included projects that allowed members to be involved in the planning and execution, as well as for participants to be able to have a discussion on relevant issues in the current context in a light and unconventional manner; such projects include Tumpak, a competition for college students, Bertigo, a competition for high school students in Metro Manila and nearby cities. Fr. Jose Magadia, S. J. Philippine Jesuit Provincial Fr. Albert Alejo, S.
J. Fr. Emmanuel "Nono" Alfonso, S. J. Jesuit Communications head Allan Madrilejos, editor-in-chief of FHM Philippines Chay Hofileña, managing editor of Newsbreak Magazine Mikael de Lara Co, one of the recipients of Palanca Awards Dr. Agustin Martin Rodriguez, chairperson of the Ateneo de Manila University's Department of Philosophy Dr. Benjamin Tolosa, former chairperson of the Department of Political Science Aaron Rom Moralina, History instructor of the Ateneo de Manila University Michael Pante, History instructor of the Ateneo de Manila University Mark Benedict F. Lim, Filipino instructor of the Ateneo de Manila University, Palanca Awards recipient Victoria Camille C. Tulad, senior news correspondent of GMA News and Public Affairs Anne Lan K. Candelaria, Ateneo Center for Asian Studies Matanglawin official website Matanglawin official Facebook page Matanglawin official Twitter page Matanglawin official Issuu page
José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Realonda was a Filipino nationalist and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. An ophthalmologist by profession, Rizal became a writer and a key member of the Filipino Propaganda Movement which advocated political reforms for the colony under Spain, he was executed by the Spanish colonial government for the crime of rebellion after the Philippine Revolution, inspired in part by his writings, broke out. Though he was not involved in its planning or conduct, he approved of its goals which led to Philippine independence, he is considered one of the greatest heroes of the Philippines and has been recommended to be so honored by an empaneled National Heroes Committee. However, no law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero, he was the author of the novels Noli Me Tángere and El filibusterismo, a number of poems and essays. José Rizal was born in 1861 to Francisco Rizal Mercado y Alejandro and Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos in the town of Calamba in Laguna province.
He had one brother. His parents were leaseholders of an accompanying rice farm by the Dominicans. Both their families had adopted the additional surnames of Rizal and Realonda in 1849, after Governor General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa decreed the adoption of Spanish surnames among the Filipinos for census purposes. Like many families in the Philippines, the Rizals were of mixed origin. José's patrilineal lineage could be traced back to Fujian in China through his father's ancestor Lam-Co, a Chinese merchant who immigrated to the Philippines in the late 17th century. Lam-Co traveled to Manila from Amoy, China to avoid the famine or plague in his home district, more to escape the Manchu invasion during the Transition from Ming to Qing, he decided to stay in the islands as a farmer. In 1697, to escape the bitter anti-Chinese prejudice that existed in the Philippines, he converted to Catholicism, changed his name to Domingo Mercado and married the daughter of Chinese friend Augustin Chin-co. On his mother's side, Rizal's ancestry included Chinese and Tagalog blood.
His mother's lineage can be traced to the affluent Florentina family of Chinese mestizo families originating in Baliuag, Bulacan. José Rizal had Spanish ancestry, his grandfather was a half Spaniard engineer named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo. From an early age, José showed a precocious intellect, he learned the alphabet from his mother at 3, could read and write at age 5. Upon enrolling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila, he dropped the last three names that made up his full name, on the advice of his brother and the Mercado family, thus rendering his name as "José Protasio Rizal". Of this, he wrote: "My family never paid much attention, but now I had to use it, thus giving me the appearance of an illegitimate child!" This was to enable him to travel and disassociate him from his brother, who had gained notoriety with his earlier links to Filipino priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora, accused and executed for treason. Despite the name change, José, as "Rizal" soon distinguished himself in poetry writing contests, impressing his professors with his facility with Castilian and other foreign languages, in writing essays that were critical of the Spanish historical accounts of the pre-colonial Philippine societies.
Indeed, by 1891, the year he finished his El Filibusterismo, this second surname had become so well known that, as he writes to another friend, "All my family now carry the name Rizal instead of Mercado because the name Rizal means persecution! Good! I too want to join them and be worthy of this family name..." Rizal first studied under Justiniano Aquino Cruz in Biñan, before he was sent to Manila. As to his father's request, he took the entrance examination in Colegio de San Juan de Letran but he enrolled at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and graduated as one of the nine students in his class declared sobresaliente or outstanding, he continued his education at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila to obtain a land surveyor and assessor's degree, at the same time at the University of Santo Tomas where he did take up a preparatory course in law. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he decided to switch to medicine at the medical school of Santo Tomas specializing in ophthalmology. Without his parents' knowledge and consent, but secretly supported by his brother Paciano, he traveled alone to Madrid, Spain in May 1882 and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he earned the degree, Licentiate in Medicine.
He attended medical lectures at the University of Paris and the University of Heidelberg. In Berlin, he was inducted as a member of the Berlin Ethnological Society and the Berlin Anthropological Society under the patronage of the famous pathologist Rudolf Virchow. Following custom, he delivered an address in German in April 1887 before the Anthropological Society on the orthography and structure of the Tagalog language, he left Heidelberg a poem, "A las flores del Heidelberg", both an evocation and a prayer for the welfare of his native land and the unification of common values between East and West. At Heidelberg, the 25-year-old Rizal, completed in 1887 his eye specialization under the renowned professor, Otto Becker. There he used the newly invented ophthalmoscope to operate on his own mother's eye. From Heidelberg, Rizal wrote his parents: "I
The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. Ahead of the foundation selling its Ford Motor Company holdings, in 1949 Henry Ford II created the Ford Motor Company Fund, a separate corporate foundation which to this day serves as the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company and is not associated with the foundation. For years it was the largest, one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, human rights, the creative arts, Third World development; the foundation makes grants through ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it approved US$507.9 million in grants.
After its establishment in 1936, Ford Foundation shifted its focus from Michigan philanthropic support to four areas of action. In the 1950 Report of the Study of the Ford Foundation on Policy and Program, the trustees set forth five "areas of action," according to Richard Magat: economic improvements, education and democracy, human behaviour, world peace. Since the middle of the 20th century, many of the Ford Foundation's programs have focused on increased under-represented or "minority" group representation in education and policy-making. For over eight decades their mission decisively advocates and supports the reduction of poverty and injustice among other values including the maintenance of democratic values, promoting engagement with other nations, sustaining human progress and achievement at home and abroad; the Ford Foundation is one of the primary foundations offering grants that support and maintain diversity in higher education with fellowships for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholarship to increase diverse representation among Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos/Latinas and other under-represented Asian and Latino sub-groups throughout the U.
S. academic labor market. The outcomes of scholarship by its grantees from the late 20th century through the 21st century have contributed to substantial data and scholarship including national surveys such as the Nelson Diversity Surveys in STEM; the foundation was established January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare." During its early years, the foundation operated in Michigan under the leadership of Ford family members and their associates and supported the Henry Ford Hospital and the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, among other organizations. After the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsel's eldest son, Henry Ford II, it became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropic organisation in the world. The board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundation's future.
The committee, headed by California attorney H. Rowan Gaither, recommended that the foundation become an international philanthropic organisation dedicated to the advancement of human welfare and "urged the foundation to focus on solving humankind's most pressing problems, whatever they might be, rather than work in any particular field...." The board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundation's portfolio and divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974; this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company. Henry Ford II resigned from his trustee's role in a surprise move in December 1976. In his resignation letter, he cited his dissatisfaction with the foundation holding on to their old programs, large staff and what he saw as anti-capitalist undertones in the foundation's work. In February 2019, Henry Ford III was elected to the Foundation's Board of Trustees, becoming the first Ford family member to serve on the board since his grandfather resigned in 1976.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, the foundation transferred its archives from New York City to the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Based on recommendations made by the Gaither Study Committee and embraced by the foundation's board of trustees in 1949, the foundation expanded its grant making to include support for higher education, the arts, economic development, civil rights, the environment, among other areas. In 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952; these grants continued, in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Children's Television Workshop to help create and launch Sesame Street. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5, 1970; the foundation underwrote the Fund for the Republic in the 1950s. The foundation's first international field office opened in 1952 in India.
Throughout the 1950s, the foundation provided arts and humanities fellowships that supported the work of figures like Josef Albers, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Herbert Blau, E. E. Cummings, Flannery O'Connor, Jacob Lawrence, Maurice Valency, Robert Lowell, Margaret Mead. In 1961, Kofi Annan received an educati
Ateneo School of Humanities
The Ateneo de Manila School of Humanities is one of the four Loyola Schools of the Ateneo de Manila University. In 2000, the School of Arts and Sciences of the university, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, restructured into the four Loyola Schools of Humanities, Management and Engineering, Social Sciences; the School of Humanities offers graduate programs in the humanities. Bachelor of Arts in Literature Minor in Literature Master of Arts in Literary/Cultural Studies Master of Arts in English Language and Literature Teaching Doctor of Philosophy in English Language and Literature Master of Arts in Filipino Language and Literature Minor in Filipino Literature Master of Arts in Literature