Rize Province is a province of northeast Turkey, on the eastern Black Sea coast between Trabzon and Artvin. The province of Erzurum is to the south, it was known as Lazistan, the designation of the term of Lazistan was banned in 1926, by Kemalists. Its capital is the city of Rize; the province is home to Laz, Turkish people and Georgian communities. Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spent his early childhood in Rize, where his father was a member of the Turkish Coast Guard; the name comes from Greek ρίζα, meaning "mountain slopes". The Georgian and Armenian names are all derived from Greek as well: their names in respective order are Rize and Rize. We have little information as to the prehistory of this region, which being covered in thick forest is difficult to excavate and reveals little. Colchis which existed from the 13th to the 1st centuries BC is regarded as an early proto-Georgian polity in this area. According to Pliny the Elder, from 670 BC onwards the Aegean Ancient Greek community of Miletus established a series of trading posts along the Black Sea coast.
The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great, however following of Alexander's death a number of separate kingdoms were established in Anatolia, including Pontus, in the corner of the south-eastern Black Sea, ruled by Mithridates. Rize was brought into the Kingdom of Pontus by Pharnaces in 180 BC; the small number of Hellenistic Greek inscriptions that have been found anywhere in Pontus suggest that Greek culture did not penetrate beyond the coastal cities and the court. The kingdom was absorbed into the Roman Empire between 10 AD and 395 AD, when it passed to the Byzantines. By this time writers including Pliny and the Roman adventurer Arrian were describing the inhabitants as Laz. During the whole medieval period, the region was under Byzantine control, was populated by Greeks and indigenous Lazs. During the reign of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I the warlike tribes of the interior, called Sannoi or Tzannoi, the ancestors of modern Laz people, were subdued and brought to central rule.
Locals began to have closer contact with the Greeks and acquired various Hellenic cultural traits, including in some cases the language. Locals were under nominal Byzantine suzerainty in the theme of Chaldia, with its capital at Trebizond, governed by the native semi-autonomous rulers, like the Gabras family. Following the Seljuk Turks invasion, there has been continuous influx of Armenians resulting partial armenization of the local Tzan population and formation of new Hemshin identity. With the Georgian intervention in Chaldia and collapse of Byzantine Empire in 1204, Empire of Trebizond was established along the southwestern coast of the Black Sea, populated by a large Lazian-speaking population. In the eastern part of the same empire, an autonomous coastal theme of Greater Lazia was established. Byzantine authors, such as Pachymeres, to some extent Trapezuntines such as Lazaropoulos and Bessarion, regarded the Trapezuntian Empire as being no more than a Lazian border state. Though Greek in higher culture, the rural areas of Trebizond empire appear to have been predominantly Laz in ethnic composition.
Laz family names, with Hellenized terminations, are noticeable in the records of the mediaeval empire of Trebizond, it is not too venturesome to suggest that the antagonism between the "town-party" and the "country-party," which existed in the politics of "the Empire," was in fact a national antagonism of Laz against Greek. In 1282, kingdom of Imereti besieged Trebizond, however after the failed attempt to take the city, the Georgians occupied several provinces and all the Trebizontine province of Lazia threw off its allegiance to the king of the'Iberian' and'Lazian' tribes and united itself with the Georgian Kingdom of Imereti. Laz populated area was contested by different Georgian principalities, however through Battle of Murjakheti, Principality of Guria ensured control over it, until 1547, when it was conquered by resurgent Ottoman forces and reorganized into the Lazistan sanjak as part of eyalet of Trabzon. From the late-17th century onwards, the Ottoman administration built many elegant bridges across the Fırtına River and its tributaries.
The province was a site of battles between Ottoman and Russian armies during Caucasus Campaign of World War I and was occupied by the Russian forces in 1916-1918. It was returned to the Ottomans with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. From 1924 onwards, Rize has been a province of the Republic of Turkey; until tea was planted here in the 1940s this was a poor area at the far end of the country, with only the Soviet Union beyond the Iron Curtain. Many generations of Rize people left to look for jobs in Istanbul or overseas; the city of Rize is a coastal town on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea. Today the area is wealthier although there is a marked difference between the lifestyle of the people in the wealthy city of Rize and those in the remote villages where wooden houses perch on the steep mountainside with the rain beating down; the province is known in Turkey for the production of Rize Tea. Rize is located between the Black Sea, it is considered to be the "wettest" corner of Turkey and is the country's main tea producing region.
In addition to tea, the region is known for growing kiwi fruit. The province is rural and scenic, containing many mountain valleys and elevated yaylas; the district of Çamlı
A riza or oklad, sometimes called a "revetment" in English, is a metal cover protecting an icon. It is made of gilt or silvered metal with repoussé work and is pierced to expose elements of the underlying painting, it is sometimes enameled, filigreed, or set with artificial, semi-precious or precious stones and pearls. Although the practice of using rizas originated in Byzantine art, the Russian term is applied to Greek icons. Icons are described as επίχρυσες: silver-covered and gold-covered, respectively; the purpose of a riza is to honour and venerate an icon, the figure depicted on it, such as Christ or a saint. Because candles and lampadas are burned in front of icons, incense is used during services, icons can become darkened over time; the riza helps protect the icon. A riza is designed for the icon it is to cover, it leaves open spaces where the face and feet of the icon's subject can be seen. The haloes on rizas are more elaborate than on the original icons. Rizas for icons of the Theotokos have a crown on them.
The robes worn by the subjects are adorned with pearls or jewels. A riza covers the entire surface of the icon except for the face and hands. In older examples, the riza may cover only the halo of the subject and is called a venets. Sometimes the riza includes a stylized gorget, called a tsata in Russian; some icons late Byzantine ones, were designed with a riza from their first painting. Only the areas not covered by the riza were painted. Media related to riza at Wikimedia Commons "Oklad Cover for the Tikhvin Mother of God", Treasures of the Czars, Moscow Kremlin Museums, St. Petersburg Times
Outlawz is an American hip hop group founded by rapper Tupac Shakur in late 1995 after Shakur's release from prison. Collectively, they were best known for their association with 2Pac. In the earlier years of the Outlawz, they were known as Dramacydal. Dramacydal first appeared on the B-side of Tupac Shakur's 1993 single "Holler If Ya Hear Me", on the track "Flex". Dramacydal was composed of K-Dog, Young Hollywood, Mutah or Mu, Big Malcolm, they appeared on 2Pac's Me Against The World and All Eyez on Me albums. They were known as "Thoro Headz" and "Young Thugz"; when 2Pac signed to Death Row upon his release from prison, he recruited his stepbrother, Mopreme Shakur, Big Syke from Thug Life. Hussein Fatal, Napoleon, E. D. I. Mean, Yaki Kadafi, Storm were added. Together they formed the original lineup of the Outlaw Immortalz that debuted on 2Pac's multi-platinum smash hit album All Eyez on Me, they dropped the title of "Immortalz" after the untimely deaths of 2Pac and Yaki Kadafi. Subsequently, some of the members of Thug Life, not joined by the others, moved on as the "Outlawz".
When Tupac Shakur recorded "Hit'Em Up", a diss track beamed towards his former friend and rival The Notorious B. I. G. Puff Daddy, Lil' Kim, he recruited three members from the group he had worked with, eager to work with them again. Together with New Jersey rappers and other associates they formed the original lineup of the Outlawz. Young Noble was added and appeared on 2Pac's second Death Row release, The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory, that carried 2Pac's new stage name, Makaveli, it was on this Makaveli album that Outlawz, appearing on a few songs, first came to the greater rap community's notice. The idea behind the group was for each member to have a rap name coinciding with the names of various leaders who resisted control by the new world order and present. Outlawz chose in years to make a backronym out of the letters of their group name, "Operating Under Thug Laws As Warriorz", although it does not stand for the group's name and is used infrequently. There were 10 original members of the Outlawz, including Makaveli: Makaveli was the leader of the group.
Shakur was fatally injured in a drive-by shooting on September 7, 1996 in Nevada. Yaki Kadafi known as Young Hollywood, Killer Kadafi and The Prince, was given the name Yaki Kadafi after Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, he was Shakur's godbrother and an original member of Dramacydal. He was shot and killed by Napoleon's cousin in what is believed to have been an accident on November 10, 1996, 2 months after the death of Tupac Shakur. Kastro known as K-Dog, was given the alias Kastro after Cuban communist revolutionary and leader Fidel Castro, he is a blood cousin of Shakur and an original member of Dramacydal. E. D. I. Mean known as Big Malcolm, was given the alias E. D. I. Mean after Ugandan president and dictator Idi Amin and was an original member of Dramacydal. Hussein Fatal, introduced to Yildirum by childhood friend Yaki Kadafi, was given the alias after former President and leader of Iraq, Saddam Hussein. Hussein left the group after the killings of Yaki, he felt that the remaining group members were going against Tupac's wishes by signing contracts with Death Row.
He more rejoined the Outlawz, which comprised him, Young Noble and Edi before being killed in a car accident on July 10, 2015. Napoleon, childhood friend of Kadafi, was given the alias after French military leader Napoleon Bonaparte and was an original member of Dramacydal. Napoleon left the group to be a Muslim motivational speaker. Moozaliny known as Big Syke, in 2Pac's previous group Thug Life, joined the Outlawz and Makaveli gave him the name Moozaliny after Italian fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, he died December 5, 2016. Komani, 2Pac's stepbrother, in 2Pac's previous group Thug Life, joined the Outlawz under the alias Komani after the Iranian political figure Ruhollah Khomeini. Storm, The only female member of the group, she met Tupac during the shooting of a film. After he found out how well she could rap, he signed her on the spot and added her to the group, which became known as The Outlaw Immortalz, she was introduced on the multiplatinum selling album All Eyez on Me. Young Noble, the last official Outlaw member picked up by Tupac himself, he had worked with Tupac.
He was introduced to Tupac by Kadafi and Hussein Fatal in Los Angeles, a few months before his death. He appeared in many of 2Pac's last recordings, featured on 2Pac's last album and The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory, he was never given an alias from Tupac. Nutt-so New Child Muszamil Gonzoe Stormey Coleman Shortly after joining the group and Big Syke severed all ties with Death Row and left the Outlawz for financial and personal reasons. Two months after the death of Shakur, Kadafi was killed in a housing project in New Jersey. Though Tupac had told them to never sign to Death Row Records and were going to sign to Makaveli Records, but afte
Rize is an American documentary film starring Lil' C, Tommy Johnson known as Tommy the Clown, Miss Prissy. The documentary exposes the new dance forms known as Clowning and Krumping, which started in Los Angeles around the time of the 1992 riots that followed the Rodney King verdict; the film was directed by David LaChapelle. Working alongside LaChapelle were executive producers, Ishbel Whitaker, Barry Peele, Ellen Jacobson-Clarke, Stavros Merjos, Rebecca Skinner. Rize was produced by Lions Gate Entertainment with a production budget of $700 thousand. Rize was released domestically on June 2005 grossing $3.3 million at the box office. Rize is a documentary following an interview schedule of two related dancing subcultures of Los Angeles called Clowning and Krumping; the first series of interviews introduces and develops the dance style known as Clowning. A descendent of 1980s breakdancing, Clowning is a contemporary street art all its own, characterized by speedy, flowing limbs, feverish shakes and confounding athletic tricks.
Tommy Johnson, better known by his alias Tommy the Clown, is a former drug dealer and a man with a mission. For Tommy, Clowning is more than an aesthetic pastime: In an area besieged by drive-by shootings, drug deals and unemployment; the second series of interviews and footage explains how the dance style known as Krumping evolved from Clowning and matured into its own identity. Like Clowning, Krumping is characterized by free, expressive exaggerated, energetic movement; the youths who started Krumping, known as Lil C' and Miss Prissy, saw the dance as a way for them to escape gang life and "to release anger and frustration positively, in a non-violent way." The third section of the film depicts a dance battle called The Battle Zone which takes place between Clowns and Krumpers at the Great Western Forum in 2004. The film style and soundtrack draws creative ties between African dance rituals and the developing style of Krumping; the film Rize was directed by David LaChapelle. Working alongside LaChapelle were executive producers Ishbel Whitaker, Barry Peele, Ellen Jacobson-Clarke, Stavros Merjos, Rebecca Skinner.
Rize focuses on the African-American communities of Clowns and Krumpers in South Central Los Angeles. Most of these dancers are young and would be classified as "at risk." Director David LaChapelle follows these dancers from rehearsal to Battlezone, an annual dance competition, alternating between footage of the dancing and interviews with the dancers and their families. The film is set in the outskirts of South Central Los Angeles–areas like Inglewood and Compton that have become synonymous in the American popular imagination with deviances of all kinds, due to representations in news media and film. However, LaChapelle does not begin the film in the present day. Focusing instead on the history of racial conflict in South Central, including footage of the Watts riots of 1965 and the 1992 Rodney King riots. LaChapelle situates his film deliberately within a racially specific violence; the film is dedicated to a dancer named Quinesha Dunford, killed with a 13-year old friend in a 2003 drive-by shooting, not one of the dancers within the film is without a story like Quinesha's to tell.
Rize The documentary features original material by Flii Stylz, Christina Aguilera, an entry by UK hip-hop star Dizzee Rascal. The inclusion of a number of traditional gospel songs, such as the Edwin Hawkins Singers' familiar "Oh Happy Day", makes less sense to those who haven't seen the movie, but they're a comfortable musical fit, rounding out this compelling, energetic soundtrack. FranceAustraliaGermanyUnited KingdomNew ZealandAustriaSouth Africa Rize received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an 84% rating based on 91 reviews, with an average rating of 4.0/5. The site's consensus reads, “ The dances in Rize are electric if the documentary doesn’t go that into the performers’ lives. Metacritic reports a 74 out of 100 rating based on 29 critics. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times stated “the most remarkable thing about Rize is that it is real.” Sid Smith of the Chicago Tribune stated that Rize is, “a compelling, bittersweet hybrid of a movie, one celebrating an enormous and hitherto unsung underground talent, while suggesting that art goes only so far in solving the enormous challenges of the underprivileged life.”Robert Koehler of Variety gave the film an 80 out of 100 and stated that, “Rize is an eye-popping lensing and an appreciation of social complexities combined for an satisfying experience.”
Lil' C as himself Tommy the Clown as himself Dragon as himself Ceasare "Tight Eyez" Willis as himself La Niña as herself Miss Prissy as herself Wild Boi as himself Larry as himself Lil' Mama as herself Big Mijo as himself Baby Tight Eyez as Christian Jones Daisy as herself Lil Tommy the Clown as himself Termite Aspen Short Fest: Best DocumentaryBangkok International Film Festival: Best DocumentarySundance Film Festival: Short Filmmaking Award Krumping IMDB Movie Database LaChapelle official site Lions Gate Films official site Entertainment Weekly Film Review Slant Magazine Film Review Rotten Tomatoes Review Aggregator The Spirit's Dance in Africa by ED Esther A. Dagan. Galerie Amrad African Arts Publications 1997. Rodney King Rebellion by Brenda Wall. African American Images: Chicago, IL 1992. Radical L. A. by Errol Wayne Stevens. Norman: University of Oklah
Vaporizer (inhalation device)
A vaporizer or vaporiser, colloquially known as a vape, is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation. Plant substances can be used cannabis, tobacco, or other herbs or blends. However, they can be filled with a combination propylene glycol and drugs such as nicotine or tetrahydrocannabinol as a liquid solution. Vaporizers contain various forms of extraction chambers including straight bore, venturi, or sequential venturi, are made of materials such as metal or glass; the extracted vapor may be collected in an inflatable bag, or inhaled directly through a hose or pipe. When used properly, cooler temperatures due to lack of combustion result in more efficient extraction of the ingredients. Hence, the irritating and harmful effects of smoking are reduced, as is its secondhand smoke. An electronic cigarette is a battery-powered vaporizer which simulates the feeling of smoking, but without burning tobacco, their use is called "vaping". The user activates the e-cigarette by pressing a button.
They are cylindrical, but come in many variations. Some look like traditional cigarettes. Most are reusable but there are disposable versions called first generation cigalikes. There are second and fourth generation devices. Instead of cigarette smoke, the user inhales an aerosol called vapor. E-cigarettes have a heating element that atomizes a liquid solution known as e-liquid. E-liquids contain propylene glycol, water and flavorings. E-liquids are sold without propylene glycol, without nicotine, or without flavors; the benefits and the health risks of e-cigarettes are uncertain. There is tentative evidence that they can help people quit smoking, but they have not been proven better than regulated medication; as of 2014, their usefulness in tobacco harm reduction is unclear, but they have a potential to be part of the strategy to decrease tobacco related death and disease. Their safety risk to users is estimated to be similar to that of smokeless tobacco. Regulated US Food and Drug Administration nicotine replacement products are safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes are safer than smoking.
Dry herb vaporizers can be used to inhale marijuana. Of the studies about vaporizing marijuana, few have addressed the quality of the vapor extracted and delivered. There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the cannabis plant, at least 85 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the plant; the aromatic terpenoids begin to vaporize at 126.0 °C, but the more bio-active tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol do not vaporize until near their respective boiling points: THC 157 °C, CBD 160–180 °C, CBN 185 °C. Vaporizers can be used to inhale cannabis oil and waxy concentrates that have been extracted from the plant. Sometimes the oil is mixed with propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol to make it less viscous. Vaporizing is more efficient than smoking, because 30% of THC in marijuana or hashish cigarettes is destroyed by pyrolysis during smoking. Vaporizers can be used to inhale other recreational drugs as well. A wide variety can be either dissolved in e-liquid or vaporized directly.
The use of e-cigarettes to inhale the psychedelic drug DMT has been reported. Studies have shown that vaporizing cannabis exposes the user to lower levels of harmful substances than smoking cannabis; these findings are important for it is estimated that 10–20 percent of patients with chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS have admitted to smoking cannabis for therapeutic purposes. For patients, a study found that smoking cannabis sativa reduced daily pain by 34%, a statistically significant amount. In a study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology in May 2008, it was stated that vaporizers were a "suitable method for the administration of THC". A 2007 study by the University of California, San Francisco, published in the Journal of the American Academy of Neurology, found that "there was no exposure to harmful combustion products using the vaporizing device". A 2006 study performed by researchers at Leiden University found that vaporizers were "safe and effective cannabinoid delivery system".
The study stated that the amount of THC delivered by vaporizers were equivalent to the amount delivered by smoking. Because of those studies and other studies, vaporizers are considered medically sound devices for delivering THC; the proposed factors affecting output include: Temperature Specimen density Weight, content of water and essential oils Consistency of material in the filling chamber Storage time of the vapor Inhalation method Not all those have been scientifically tested. Research using vaporizers found the delivery efficiency highest at around 226 °C, falling to about half efficiency at 150 °C to 180 °C degrees depending on material; the purest preparations produced the highest efficiencies, about 56% for pure THC versus 29% for plant material with 12% THCA content. Besides THC, several other cannabinoids as well as a range of other plant components including terpenoids were detected in the plant material. Using pure THC in the vaporizer, no degradation products were detected by HPLC analysis.
The longer vapor is stored, the more THC is lost as it condenses on the surface of the vaporizer or the balloon. This loss may exceed 50 % after 90 minutes; the Leiden University study found that as much as 30–40% of in
Rize tea or Rize çayı is the black tea used for Turkish tea. Produced in Rize Province on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil, when brewed it is mahogany in color. In addition to being consumed at home, it is served in Turkish cafés by a çaycı, in small, narrow-waisted glasses, it can be taken strong or weak, is traditionally served with beet sugar crystals or a couple of sugar lumps. Kathie Janger. Just Your Cup of Tea. Standard International Media. Pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-60081-649-9
Rize is the capital city of Rize Province in the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey. The name comes from Greek ρίζα or Ριζαίον, meaning "mountain slopes",ρίζα in Greek means root. In modern times, its name in Greek was Ριζούντα, its Latin forms are Rhizus and Rhizaeum, the latter of, used in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees as the name of bishopric of the town, once part of the late Roman province of Pontus Polemoniacus). The name Rize is spelled ريزه in Ottoman Turkish, რიზე in Georgian; the name in Laz is Rizini. The first written mention of Rize is made by Arrian in a work named Periplus of the Euxine Sea, as a city founded at the mouth of the homonymous river. Dated at 130–131 AD and written as a letter to Roman Emperor Hadrian, the work records how its author, the governor of Cappadocia, made an inspection tour of the Eastern Black Sea territories that were part of his jurisdiction, first visiting the Roman Empire's Eastern Anatolian frontier garrisons before pushing on to the Black Sea coast in the Trabzon region.
The city of Rize formed part of historic Georgian province of Chaneti. From 1547 Chaneti province was incorporated by the Ottoman Empire and became a part of the sancak of Lazistan; the city was claimed by the short-lived Democratic Republic of Georgia between 1918 and 1920. On the basis of the 1921 Treaty of Kars, Soviet Russia granted Rize to Turkey just as the other territories of Artvin and Hopa; the city is built around a small bay on the Black Sea coast, on a narrow strip of flat land between the sea and the mountains behind. The coastal strip is being expanded with landfill and the city is growing up the steep hillsides away from the coast. Rize enjoys a mild wet climate, vulnerable to storms coming off the Black Sea and therefore the surrounding countryside is rich with vegetation and is attracting more and more visitors every year. Rize is a center for shipping Rize Tea, the tea grown in the surrounding area. Tea was introduced in the region in the 1940s and 1950s, changing the destiny of the region, poor until then.
The city has a tea research institute founded in 1958 and tea gardens are the main sight in the town's panoramic view. Tea and kiwifruit plants are planted in gardens around the town; the secondary activity is fishing. Rize is linked by road with Trabzon, Hopa (55 miles east on the Georgian border, Erzurum; the nearest airport is in Trabzon. Rize is a quiet town, a typical Turkish provincial capital with little in the way of night life or entertainment; however the border with Georgia has been open since the early 90's, the Black Sea coast road has been widened and Rize is now wealthier than in previous decades. The visitors to the surrounding countryside contribute to the economy of the town. Rize has a humid subtropical climate. Snowfall can be heavy; the climate turns continental on the hillsides and subarctic on mountain slopes and yaylas, a term used in Turkish for highlands and highland plateaus. Rize and the eastern part of the Black Sea coast where it is situated has the highest precipitation in western Asia, with an annual precipitation averaging around 2,500 millimetres, with heavy rainfall year-round and a maximum in late autumn.
The Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation in Turkey and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The water temperature, as in the whole Turkish Black Sea coast, is always cool, fluctuating between 8 and 20 °C throughout the year. Rize grew oranges. However, weather destroyed the crops in the early 20th century, the industry declined; the area produced small amounts of manganese. The economic structure of Rize is based around its geographic location. Rize is a mountainous city, making industrial development difficult and impractical. Given the lack of air and rail transit, most goods have to travel by truck or ship, which makes exporting and importing difficult. Rize's primary trading partner is the most developed city of northeast Black Sea region. Rize's main exports are agriculturally based. Rize University was founded in 2006, its name was changed to Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University by the university senate's approval. Rize Castle, a partly-ruined medieval castle southwest of the city center.
Sports venues in Rize are Rize Atatürk Stadium, Yeni Rize Şehir Stadı and Rize Sports Complex consisting of Rize Sports Hall and Rize Indoor Swimming Pool. The football team of Çaykur Rizespor play in the Süper Lig. Pazarspor football team compete in the TFF Third League. Kazım Ayvaz – Olympic medalist and world champion in wrestling Zafer Biryol – football player Nikos Kapetanidis – journalist and newspaper publisher İbrahim Çolak- member of Istanbul provincial council Recep Tayyip Erdoğan – politician, former prime minister and current president of Turkey Temel Kotil – aeronautical engineer and CEO of Turkish Airlines Tuncay Mataracı – convicted former government minister Mehmet Akif Pirim – Olympic medalist in Greco-Roman wrestling Köksal Toptan – politician İsmail Türüt – singer of folk music of the Black Sea region Yaşar Yılmaz – wrestler Mesut Yılmaz – politician and former prime ministerÇaykur Rizespor, the local football team, play in the Turkish Super League and are local heroes capable of d