Sulaymaniyah called Slemani, is a city in Iraqi Kurdistan. It is surrounded by the Azmer Range, Goyija Range and the Qaiwan Range in the northeast, Baranan Mountain in the south and the Tasluja Hills in the west; the city has a semi-arid climate with hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Sulaymaniyah served as the capital of the historic principality of Baban from 1784 to 1850; the modern city of Sulaymaniyah was founded on 14 November 1784 by the Kurdish prince Ibrahim Pasha Baban who named it after his father Sulaiman Pasha. From its foundation Sulaymaniyah was always a center of great poets, historians, politicians and singers, such as Nalî, Piramerd; the city is known as the capital of enlightenment among the Kurds, but the official nickname of the city on national level is: Sulaimaniyah is the Paris of Iraq or the bride of Iraq's cities. The region of Sulaymaniyah was known as Zamwa prior to the foundation of the modern city in 1784; the capital of the Kurdish Baban principality, before Sulaymaniyah was a territory named "Qelaçiwalan".
At the time of the Babani's rule there were major conflicts between the Safavid dynasty and the Ottoman Empire. Qelaçiwalan became a battleground for the two rivals. Being of strategic importance and lying deep inside Safavid territory, there was concern that Qelaçiwalan would be attacked and captured if the Babani did not give the Safavids military support, as both Sultan Mahmud II and Nader Shah were trying to gain the support of the dispersed Kurdish Emirates; this obliged Mahmud Pasha of Baban in 1781 to think about moving the center of its Emirate to another safer place. He chose Melkendî a village but now a district in central Sulaymaniyah, to construct a number of Serahs for his political and armed units. In 1783, Ibrahim Pasha of Baban became ruler of the Emirate and began the construction of a new city which would become the capital of the Baban Emirate. In 1784 he finished erecting a number of palaces for trade called Qeyserîs and bazaars, which were used as baths, began inviting people from the surrounding villages and Emirates to move to the newly established city.
Soon Melkendî, intended to be the city itself, instead became one of its quarters and still is today. The new city of Sulaymaniyah was named after Sulaiman Baba, the first Baban prince to gain control of the province of Shahrizor and its capital, Kirkuk. Sulaiman Baba invaded Iran, defeating forces from the principality of Ardalan in 1694. Ottoman Sultan Mustafa II assigned him the district of Baban. In the early 1800s refugees from Ardalan moved to Sulaymaniyah including Mastura Ardalan, the widow of Khasraw Khani Ardalan, the ruler of the kingdom. Ardalan wrote an account of Kurdish history in Persian and was buried in Sulaymaniyah when he died in 1848. From 1922 to 1924, Sulaymaniyah was designated the capital of the Kingdom of Kurdistan, a short lived unrecognized State declared by Iraqi Kurds following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. In 1820, only 26 years after the creation of the city, a British man named Rech visited the city and estimated that its population was more than ten thousand, containing 2,144 families of which 2,000 were Muslim, 130 Jewish, 14 Christian.
Ottoman documents from 1907 suggest that there were 8,702 Muslim and 360 non-Muslim residents living in the city at that time. The Peshkawtin newspaper, distributed in Sulaymaniyah in 1920 estimated its population to be around ten thousand. According to Iraqi government documents, by 1947 the number of residents had increased to 23,475. Of the main population centers in the country, it is characterized by its cooler summer temperatures and its rainier winters. Average temperatures range from 0 to 39 °C. In the winters, there can be a significant amount of snow. Snow is not frequent in winter, but snow has fallen in Sulaymaniyah in January 2008, January 2010, March 2012, January 2013, January 2015. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Public education is free from primary school until graduation from university; the University of Sulaymaniyah was opened in 1968 with instruction in Kurdish and English. It has faculties in engineering, the arts and medicine.
It is the largest university in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. A new University of Sulaymaniyah was established in 1991, teaching in Kurdish and Arabic. A second, new university is Sulaimani Polytechnic University was established in 2012, teaching in Kurdish and Arabic. In 2007 The American University of Iraq – Sulaimani, was a new addition to the American universities in the Middle East, graduating its fifth class in 2016. Instruction at this private, not-for-profit liberal arts university is in English only, featuring a US-accredited program in English as a Second Language; the Komar University of Science and Technology, - Sulaymaniyah was established and licensed by the Ministry of High Education and Scientific Research in Kurdistan Region Government, by the official letter no. 17867/7 on 18 October 2009. KUST is a private university run by an Administration Council, its main campus is located in Sulaymaniyah. KUST offered its first teaching classes in 2010 with an English language summer course.
Sulaymaniyah is considered the center of the Sorani Kurdish culture in Kurdistan. It is recognized as the cultural capital of South Kurdistan. Development of Sorani as a modern literary language started in this city in the early 19th century, when many Kurdish poet
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003. A leading member of the revolutionary Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, the Baghdad-based Ba'ath Party and its regional organization the Iraqi Ba'ath Party—which espoused Ba'athism, a mix of Arab nationalism and socialism—Saddam played a key role in the 1968 coup that brought the party to power in Iraq; as vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, at a time when many groups were considered capable of overthrowing the government, Saddam created security forces through which he controlled conflicts between the government and the armed forces. In the early 1970s, Saddam nationalized oil and foreign banks leaving the system insolvent due to the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War, UN sanctions. Through the 1970s, Saddam cemented his authority over the apparatus of government as oil money helped Iraq's economy to grow at a rapid pace. Positions of power in the country were filled with Sunni Arabs, a minority that made up only a fifth of the population.
Saddam formally rose to power in 1979, although he had been the de facto head of Iraq for several years. He suppressed several movements Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War. Whereas some in the Arab world lauded Saddam for opposing the United States and attacking Israel, he was condemned for the brutality of his dictatorship; the total number of Iraqis killed by the security services of Saddam's government in various purges and genocides is conservatively estimated to be 250,000, or liberally estimated at 1.5 million. Saddam's invasions of Iran and Kuwait resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths, he acquired the title "Butcher of Baghdad". In 2003, a coalition led by the United States invaded Iraq to depose Saddam, in which U. S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair falsely accused him of possessing weapons of mass destruction and having ties to al-Qaeda.
Saddam's Ba'ath party was disbanded and elections were held. Following his capture on 13 December 2003, the trial of Saddam took place under the Iraqi Interim Government. On 5 November 2006, Saddam was convicted by an Iraqi court of crimes against humanity related to the 1982 killing of 148 Iraqi Shi'a, sentenced to death by hanging, he was executed on 30 December 2006. Before he was born, cancer killed both Saddam's brother; these deaths so depressed Saddam's mother that she attempted to abort her pregnancy and commit suicide. When her son was born, Sabha "would have nothing to do with him", Saddam was taken in by an uncle, his mother remarried, Saddam gained three half-brothers through this marriage. His stepfather, Ibrahim al-Hassan, treated Saddam harshly after his return. At about age 10, Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle Kharaillah Talfah. Talfah, the father of Saddam's future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran of the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi nationalists and the United Kingdom, which remained a major colonial power in the region.
In his life relatives from his native Tikrit became some of his closest advisors and supporters. Under the guidance of his uncle he attended a nationalistic high school in Baghdad. After secondary school Saddam studied at an Iraqi law school for three years, dropping out in 1957 at the age of 20 to join the revolutionary pan-Arab Ba'ath Party, of which his uncle was a supporter. During this time, Saddam supported himself as a secondary school teacher. Revolutionary sentiment was characteristic throughout the Middle East. In Iraq progressives and socialists assailed traditional political elites. Moreover, the pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt profoundly influenced young Ba'athists like Saddam; the rise of Nasser foreshadowed a wave of revolutions throughout the Middle East in the 1950s and 1960s, with the collapse of the monarchies of Iraq and Libya. Nasser inspired nationalists throughout the Middle East by fighting the British and the French during the Suez Crisis of 1956, modernizing Egypt, uniting the Arab world politically.
In 1958, a year after Saddam had joined the Ba'ath party, army officers led by General Abd al-Karim Qasim overthrew Faisal II of Iraq in the 14 July Revolution. Of the 16 members of Qasim's cabinet, 12 were Ba'ath Party members. To strengthen his own position within the government, Qasim created an alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party, opposed to any notion of pan-Arabism; that year, the Ba'ath Party leadership was planning to assassinate Qasim. Saddam was a leading member of the operation. At the time, the Ba'ath Party was more of an ideological experiment than a strong anti-government fighting machine; the majority of its members were either educated professionals or students, Saddam fit the bill. The choice of Saddam was, according to historian Con Coughlin, "hardly surprising"; the idea of assassinating Qasim may have been Nasser's, there is speculation that some of those who participated in the operation received training in Damascus, part of the UAR. However, "no evidence has been produced to implicate Nasser directly in the plot."
The assassination attempt was conceived as revenge for communist massacres that killed h
University of Baghdad
The University of Baghdad is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world, behind the University of Cairo. Both University of Baghdad and Baghdad University are used interchangeably; the College of Islamic Sciences claims that it originated in 1067 A. D. as Abu-Haneefa. However, the College of Law, the earliest of the modern institutions that were to become the first constituent Colleges of the University of Baghdad, was founded in 1908; the College of Engineering was established in 1921. In 1942, the first higher institution for girls, Queen Alia College, was established. In 1943, proposals for further new Colleges appeared, leading to the foundation of the College of Arts and the College of Science in 1949, Abu Ghraib College of Agriculture in 1950. In 1922, a scheme had been initiated by the King for the organisation of a university at Bab al-Mu’azzam, but there were insufficient students qualified for admission. Nonetheless, a start was made on the creation of the university with the building of the Theological College.
In January 1925, the Engineering School was transferred to the vacant upper floor of the Theological College building. In 1935, the Monroe Commission had argued that Iraq was not ready for a university, the next attempt to establish a University did not commence until 1945; the ‘Morgan Report’ was prepared for the Iraqi government in 1947 by a senior member of the British Council’s staff. In 1948, the British Council’s proposals were rejected in favour of a plan drawn up by the Ministry, but no action followed. In May 1953, the British Council sponsored a further visit to Baghdad by a group of British university professors to give encouragement, once again, to the establishment of a university. However, the first university in the country, Al-Hikma University, was founded by the American Roman Catholic Fathers in 1956. In the same year, the government announced plans to amalgamate the existing state funded Colleges, enacting Royal decree number 60 of 1956 to establish the University of Baghdad.
Its first President was appointed by Royal decree in 1957, it commenced operations in 1958. Following the Ba’athist coup, in autumn 1968, Al Hikma University was taken over by the state and integrated into Baghdad University. A new university campus was commissioned by the Royal Government of Iraq in the late 1950s and situated near the Tigris river, its buildings were designed by Walter Gropius, Louis McMillen and Robert McMillan of The Architects Collaborative, who commenced their master plan in the 1950s for a new university campus for the Colleges of Engineering and Liberal Arts for a total of 6,800 students. The campus was expanded in 1982 to accommodate 20,000 students plus support facilities. Architect Hisham N. Ashkouri and Robert Owen developed the full academic space program for the entire campus. In September 2018, the university was listed in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, a yearly classification of the best 1,250 universities in the world, for the first time.
Dr. Matti Aqrawi - 5 /10/1957- 1 /8 /1958 Dr. Abdul Jabbar Abdullah - 19/3 /1959 - 8 /3 /1963 Dr. Abed Al-Azeez Al-Duri - 10/2 /1963 -27/11/1965 and 10/9 /1966 - 7 /8 /1968 Dr. Jassem Mohammad Al-Kallaf - 9 /9 /1968 - 8 /8 /1970 Dr. Abed Allatif Al-Badry - 8 /8 /1970 - 1 /3 /1971 Dr. Saad Abed Al-Bakki Al-Rawi - 15/6 /1971 - 23/1 /1974 Dr. Taha Ibrahim Al-Abdalla - 14/3 /1974 - 15/10/1977 Dr. Sulttan Abed Al-Kader Al-Shawi - 18/10/1977 - 1 /3 /1978 Dr. Taha Tayh Diab Al-Ne'ami - 30/6 /1980 - 27/12/1990 Dr. Adil Shakir Al-Tai - 10/7/1990 - 28/2/1991 Dr. Khidir Jasim Al-Duri - 1/3/1991 - 10/11/1993 Dr. Abed Al-Iillah Yossif Al-Kashab - 14/11/1993 - 7 /6 /2001 Dr. Mohammad Abed Allah Falah Al-Rawi - 12/6 /2001 - 30/4 /2003 Dr. Sammi Abed Al-Mahdi Al-Mudaffar - 24/5 /2003 - 28/9 /2003 Dr. Musa Juwad Aziz Al-Musawi - 2003– 20/11/2012 Dr. Alaa Abdulrasool Alkashwan- 20/11/2012–present. College of Engineering Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering College of Science College of Political Science College of Physical Education College of Science for Women College of Education for Women Institute of Laser for Postgraduate Studies Institute of Urban and Regional Planning Institute of Genetic Engineering Institute of Accounting & Financial Studies college of agricultural College of Medicine College of Dentistry College of Pharmacy College of Nursing College of Education - Ibn Rushd College of Arts College of Languages College of Information College of Islamic Sciences College of Physical Education for Women College of Law College of Administration and Economy College of Education - Ibn Al-Haytham College of Fine Arts College of Veterinary Al-Kindi College of Medicine Mohammed Alkobaisi - Islamic scholar Hisham N. Ashkouri - Architect Serwan Baban - Minister in the Kurdistan Regional Government Abd al-Rahman al-Bazzaz – Former Prime Minister of Iraq Emad Zaki Yehya - International Petroleum Consultant & Former President of Reservoir Engineering in the Ministry of Oil Saadoun al-Dulaimi - Former Iraqi Defense Minister Ghanim Al-Jumaily – Professor of engineering at Southern New Hampshire University.
Trial of Saddam Hussein
The Trial of Saddam Hussein was the trial of the deposed President of Iraq Saddam Hussein by the Iraqi Interim Government for crimes against humanity during his time in office. The Coalition Provisional Authority voted to create the Iraqi Special Tribunal, consisting of five Iraqi judges, on 9 December 2003, to try Saddam Hussein and his aides for charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide. Critics viewed the trial as a show trial that did not meet international standards on the right to a fair trial. Amnesty International stated that the trial was "unfair," and Human Rights Watch judged that Saddam's execution "follows a flawed trial and marks a significant step away from the rule of law in Iraq." Several months before the trial took place, Salem Chalabi, the former head of the Iraq Special Tribunal, accused interim Iraqi Prime Minister Iyad Allawi of pushing for a hasty show trial and execution, stating: "Show trials followed by speedy executions may help the interim government politically in the short term but will be counterproductive for the development of democracy and the rule of law in Iraq in the long term."Saddam was captured by U.
S. forces on 13 December 2003. He remained in custody by United States forces at Camp Cropper in Baghdad, along with eleven senior Ba'athist officials. Particular attention was paid during the trial to activities in violent campaigns against the Kurds in the north during the Iran–Iraq War, against the Shiites in the south in 1991 and 1999 to put down revolts, in Dujail after a failed assassination attempt on 8 July 1982, during the Iran–Iraq War. Saddam asserted in his defense that he had been unlawfully overthrown, was still the president of Iraq; the first trial began before the Iraqi Special Tribunal on 19 October 2005. At this trial Saddam and seven other defendants were tried for crimes against humanity with regard to events that took place after a failed assassination attempt in Dujail in 1982 by members of the Islamic Dawa Party. A second and separate trial began on 21 August 2006, trying Saddam and six co-defendants for genocide during the Anfal military campaign against the Kurds of northern Iraq.
On 5 November 2006, Saddam was sentenced to death by hanging. On 26 December, Saddam's appeal was rejected and the death sentence upheld. No further appeals were taken and Saddam was ordered executed within 30 days of that date; the date and place of the execution were secret. Saddam Hussein was executed by hanging on 30 December 2006. With his death, all other charges were dropped; the 67-year-old President, Saddam Hussein, appeared confident and defiant throughout the 46-minute hearing. Alternating between listening to and gesturing at the judge Rizgar Mohammed Amin, he questioned the legitimacy of the tribunal set up to try him, he called the court a "play" aimed at Bush's chances of winning the US presidential elections. He emphatically rejected charges against him. "This is all theater. The real criminal is Bush", he stated; when asked by the judge to identify himself in his first appearance before an Iraqi judge, he answered, "You are an Iraqi, you know who I am."Also during the arraignment, Saddam defended Iraq's August 1990 invasion of Kuwait and referred to Kuwaitis as "dogs" who were trying to turn the women of Iraq into "two penny whores", which led to an admonition from the judge for using coarse language in court.
On 1 July, Kuwait's information minister Abul-Hassan said crude language was "expected" of Saddam. "This is how he was raised", said the minister. Although no attorneys for Saddam were present at the 1st of July hearing, his first wife, Sajida Talfah, hired a multinational legal team of attorneys, headed by Jordanian Mohammad Rashdan and including Ayesha Gaddafi, Curtis Doebbler, Emmanuel Ludot and Marc Henzelin. Towards the end of the first hearing, the deposed president refused to sign the legal document confirming his understanding of the charges. In a leaked transcript of a February 2003 meeting between Bush and Spanish Prime Minister Jose Aznar, Bush expressed a willingness to have Saddam tried at the International Tribunal of Justice in The Hague. In December 2004, Clive Stafford Smith prepared a 50-page brief for the defense team arguing that Saddam Hussein should be tried in the US under US criminal law; the London-based Arab-language daily newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi reported in early May 2005 that during a meeting with Donald Rumsfeld, "known only to a few Iraqi officials in Jordan", Saddam refused an offer of release if he made a televised request to armed groups for a ceasefire with allied forces.
The British Daily Telegraph newspaper, quoting an unnamed senior UK government source, had reported two weeks before that Iraqi insurgents were being offered a "deal" whereby the President of Iraq would receive a more lenient sentence if they gave up their attacks. On 17 June 2005, former Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, former US Attorney General Ramsey Clark, former minister of Foreign Affairs of France Roland Dumas and former President of Algeria Ahmed Ben Bella announced the formation, under their joint chairmanship, of an international Emergency Committee for Iraq, with a main objective of ensuring fair trials for Saddam and the other former Ba'ath Party officials being tried with him. On 18 July 2005, Saddam was charged by the Special Tribunal with the first of an expected series of charges, relating to the mass killings of the inhabitants of the village of Dujail in 1982 after a failed assassination attempt against him. On 8 August 2005, Saddam's family announced that they had dissolved the J
Jalal Talabani was an Iraqi Kurdish politician who served as President of Iraq from 2006 to 2014, as well as the President of the Governing Council of Iraq. He was the first non-Arab president of Iraq, he is known as Mam Jalal in the Middle East. The surname Talabani means'scholar' in native Kurdish. Talabani was the founder and secretary general of one of the main Kurdish political parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, he was a prominent member of the Interim Iraq Governing Council, established following the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Talabani was an advocate for Kurdish rights and democracy in Iraq for more than 50 years. Apart from his native Kurdish, Talabani was fluent in Arabic and English, he was able to speak French to a good proficiency. Talabani was born in Kelkan village. Of the Koysinjaq branch of the Talabani family; the Talabani lineage has produced many leading social figures including the poet Riza Talabani, his grandfather, Abd al-Karim Qasim prime minister and former National Democratic Party's member Hasan Talabani and Mukarram Talabani, a prominent member of the Communist party.
Talabani received his elementary and intermediate school education in Koya and his high school education in Erbil and Kirkuk. When he was in his teens, Talabani's peers began referring to him as "Mam" Jalal, as'mam' meaning "paternal uncle" in Kurdish, the Kurds have called him by this affectionate name since. In 1957, during the final year of his studies for a degree in law at Baghdad University, he was expelled because of his political activities; when in September 1961, the Kurdish uprising for the rights of the Kurds in northern Iraq was declared against the Baghdad government of Abdul Karim Qassem, Talabani took charge of the Kirkuk and Silemani battle fronts and organized and led separatist movements in Mawat and the Karadagh regions. In March 1962, he led a coordinated offensive that brought about the liberation of the district of Sharbazher from Iraqi government forces; when not engaged in fighting in the early and mid-1960s, Talabani undertook numerous diplomatic missions, representing the Kurdish leadership at meetings in Europe and the Middle East.
The Kurdish separatist movement collapsed in March 1975, after Iran ended their support in exchange for a border agreement with Iraq. This agreement was the 1975 Algiers Agreement, where Iraq gave up claims to the Shatt al-Arab waterway and Khuzestan, which became the basis for the Iran–Iraq War. Believing it was time to give a new direction to the Kurdish separatists and to the Kurdish society, with a group of Kurdish intellectuals and activists, founded the Kurdish Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. In 1976, he began organizing an armed campaign for Kurdish independence inside Iraqi Kurdistan. During the 1980s, Talabani sided with Iran and led a Kurdish struggle from bases inside Iraq until the crackdown against Kurdish separatists from 1987 to 1988. In 1991, he helped inspire a renewed effort for Kurdish independence, he negotiated a ceasefire with the Iraqi Ba'athist government that saved the lives of many Kurds and worked with the United States, United Kingdom and other countries to set up the safe haven in Iraqi Kurdistan.
In 1992 the Kurdistan Regional Government was founded. Talabani pursued a negotiated settlement to the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War, as well as the larger issue of Kurdish rights in the current regional context, he worked with other Kurdish politicians as well as the rest of the Iraqi opposition factions. In close coordination with Masoud Barzani and the Kurds played a key role as a partner of the U. S. led Coalition in the invasion of Iraq. Talabani was a member of the Iraqi Governing Council which negotiated the Transitional Administrative Law, Iraq's interim constitution; the TAL governed all politics in Iraq and the process of writing and adopting the final constitution. Talabani was elected President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, by the Iraqi National Assembly and sworn into office the following day. On 22 April 2006, Talabani began his second term as President of Iraq, becoming the first President elected under the country's new constitution, his office was part of the Presidency Council of Iraq. Nawshirwan Mustafa was Talabani's deputy until Mustafa resigned in 2006 and formed an opposition party called Gorran.
He supported Barzani’s extended presidency of the Kurdistan Region post-2013. Talabani was married to Hero Ibrahim Ahmed, daughter of Ibrahim Ahmed, a lieutenant of Mullah Mustafa, he has two sons and Qubad. Qubad controversially is the deputy Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government in Erbil. On 18 December 2012, Talabani suffered a stroke and was in intensive care in Baghdad, where his condition stabilized after reports that he was in a coma. A statement on the President's official website said. On 20 December, Talabani's condition had improved enough to allow travel to Germany for treatment; the head of Talabani's medical team in Iraq has been Governor Najmiddin Karim. On 19 July 2014, Jalal Talabani returned to Iraq after more than 18 months of medical treatment. Due to his absence from politics, as a result of his illness, the PUK became consumed by a succession crisis. Jalal Talabani died on 3 October 2017, at the age of 83, in Berlin, Germany, of a cerebral hemorrhage as complications of the stroke he suffered in 2012.
Masoud Barzani, President of Kurdistan Regional Government and for years his Kurdish rival, announced seven days of mourning in Iraqi Kurdistan in memory of Talabani. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi announced three days of mourning in
Peshmerga are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan. Because the Iraqi Army is forbidden by Iraqi law to enter Iraqi Kurdistan, the Peshmerga, along with their security subsidiaries, are responsible for the security of the regions in Iraqi Kurdistan; these subsidiaries include Parastin u Zanyarî and the Zeravani. It has been argued that peshmerge itself predates Iraq, starting out as a tribal pseudo-military border guard under the Ottomans and Safavids to a well-trained, disciplined guerrilla force in the 19th century. Formally the peshmerga are under the command of the Kurdistan Regional Government's Ministry of Peshmerga Affairs. In reality the peshmerga force itself is divided and controlled separately by the two regional political parties: Democratic Party of Kurdistan and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. Unifying and integrating the peshmerga has been on the public agenda since 1992 but the forces remain divided due to factionalism which has proved to be a major stumbling block.
In 2003, during the Iraq War, peshmerga were said to have played a key role in the mission to capture Saddam Hussein. In 2004, they captured key al Qaeda figure Hassan Ghul, who revealed the identity of Osama Bin Laden's messenger, which led to Operation Neptune Spear and the death of Osama Bin Laden; the term "peshmerga" was only coined in the mid-20th century. Some suggest. Others however, such as Valentine states it was first used by Qazi Muhammad in the short lived Mahabad republic 1946–47; as stated above it is a combination of two Kurdish words. The literal word is defined as "one who faces death"; the term is used by Sorani speaking Kurds to refer to Kurdish forces in Iraq while Kurmanji speaking Kurds use the term "gerîla" for armed Kurdish forces in Turkey and Syria. The word is mutually intelligible to speakers of Persian; the Kurdish warrior tradition of rebellion has existed for thousands of years along with aspirations for independence, early Kurdish warriors fought against the various Persian empires, the Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.
The peshmerga existed only as guerilla organizations, but under the self-declared Republic of Mahabad, the peshmerga led by Mustafa Barzani became the official army of the republic. After the fall of the republic and the execution of head of state Qazi Muhammad, peshmerga forces reemerged as guerilla organizations that would go on to fight the Iranian and Iraqi governments for the remainder of the century. In Iraq, most of these peshmerga were led by Mustafa Barzani of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. In 1975 the peshmerga were defeated in the Second Iraqi–Kurdish War. Jalal Talabani, a leading member of the KDP, left the same year to revitalize the resistance and founded the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan; this event created the baseline for the political discontent between the KDP and PUK that to this day divides peshmerga forces and much of Kurdish society in Iraqi Kurdistan. After Mustafa Barzani's death in 1979, his son Masoud Barzani took his position; as tension increased between KDP and PUK, most peshmerga fought to keep a region under their own party's control, while fighting off Iraqi Army incursions.
Following the First Persian Gulf War, Iraqi Kurdistan saw the Kurdish Civil War between the two major parties, the KDP and the PUK, peshmerga forces were used to fight each other. The civil war ended in September 1998, when Barzani and Talabani signed the Washington Agreement establishing a formal peace treaty. In the agreement, the parties agreed to share revenue and power, deny the use of northern Iraq to the Kurdistan Workers' Party, not allow Iraqi troops into the Kurdish regions. By around 5,000 had been killed on both sides, many more had been evicted for being on the wrong side. In the years after, tension remained high, but both parties moved towards each other and in 2003 they both took part in the overthrowing of the Baathist regime as part of the Iraq War, they remained on good terms. Unlike other militia forces, the peshmerga were never prohibited by Iraqi law; the peshmerga are divided among forces loyal to the Kurdistan Democratic Party and those loyal to the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, while other, minor Kurdish parties such as the Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party have their own small peshmarga units.
The KDP and PUK do not disclose information about the composition of their forces with government or media. Thus there is no reliable number of. Media outlets have speculated that there are between 150,000 and 200,000 peshmerga, but this number is disputed. Peshmerga have divided Iraqi Kurdistan into a KDP-governed "yellow" zone covering Dohuk Governorate and Erbil Governorate and a PUK-governed "green" zone covering Sulaymaniyah Governorate and Halabja Governorate; each zone has its own branch of peshmerge with their own governing institutions and parallel peshmerga units that do not coordinate with the other branch. As a result of the split nature of the peshmerga force, there is no central command center in charge of the entire force, peshmerga units instead follow separate military hierarchies depending on political allegiance. Multiple unification and depoliticizing efforts of the peshmerge have been made since 1992, but so far all deadlines have been missed, reforms have been watered down and most of the peshmerga is still under the influence of the KDP and the PUK, who ma
Kurds or the Kurdish people are an Iranian ethnic group of Western Asia inhabiting a contiguous area known as Kurdistan. Geographically, those four adjacent and often-mountainous areas include southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northern Syria. There are exclaves of Kurds in central Anatolia and Khorasan. Additionally, there are significant Kurdish diaspora communities in the cities of western Turkey, in particular Istanbul, while a Kurdish diaspora has developed in Western Europe in Germany. Numerically, the Kurds are estimated to number anywhere from a low of 30 million, to as high as 45 million. Kurds speak the Kurdish languages, such as Kurmanji and Southern Kurdish. Religiously, although the majority of Kurds belong to the Shafi‘i school of Sunni Islam, there are prominent numbers of Kurds who practice Shia Islam and Alevism. Minority of the Kurdish people are adherents to Yarsanism, Yazidism and Christianity. After World War One and the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the victorious Western allies made provision for a Kurdish state in the 1920 Treaty of Sevres.
However, that promise was nullified three years when the Treaty of Lausanne set the boundaries of modern Turkey and made no provision for a Kurdish state, leaving Kurds with minority status in their respective countries. This fact has led to numerous genocides and rebellions, along with the current ongoing armed guerrilla conflicts in Turkey and Syria / Rojava. Although Kurds are the majority population in the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan, because of their statelessness, Kurdish nationalist movements continue to pursue greater cultural rights and independence throughout Greater Kurdistan. Kurdish is a collection of related dialects spoken by the Kurds, it is spoken in those parts of Iran, Iraq and Turkey which comprise Kurdistan. Kurdish holds official status in Iraq as a national language alongside Arabic, is recognized in Iran as a regional language, in Armenia as a minority language; the Kurdish languages belong to the northwestern sub‑group of the Iranian languages, which in turn belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family.
Most Kurds are either bilingual or multilingual, speaking the language of their respective nation of origin, such as Arabic and Turkish as a second language alongside their native Kurdish, while those in diaspora communities speak three or more languages. According to Mackenzie, there are few linguistic features that all Kurdish dialects have in common and that are not at the same time found in other Iranian languages; the Kurdish dialects according to Mackenzie are classified as: Northern group Central group Southern group including Kermanshahi and LakiThe Zaza and Gorani are ethnic Kurds, but the Zaza–Gorani languages are not classified as Kurdish. Commenting on the differences between the dialects of Kurdish, Kreyenbroek clarifies that in some ways and Sorani are as different from each other as is English from German, giving the example that Kurmanji has grammatical gender and case endings, but Sorani does not, observing that referring to Sorani and Kurmanji as "dialects" of one language is supported only by "their common origin... and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity of the Kurds."
The number of Kurds living in Southwest Asia is estimated at close to 30 million, with another one or two million living in diaspora. Kurds comprise anywhere from 18% to 20% of the population in Turkey as high as 25%. Kurds form regional majorities in all four of these countries, viz. in Turkish Kurdistan, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iranian Kurdistan and Syrian Kurdistan. The Kurds are the fourth largest ethnic group in West Asia after the Arabs and Turks; the total number of Kurds in 1991 was placed at 22.5 million, with 48% of this number living in Turkey, 18% in Iraq, 24% in Iran, 4% in Syria. Recent emigration accounts for a population of close to 1.5 million in Western countries, about half of them in Germany. A special case are the Kurdish populations in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, displaced there in the time of the Russian Empire, who underwent independent developments for more than a century and have developed an ethnic identity in their own right; this groups' population was estimated at close to 0.4 million in 1990.
"The land of Karda" is mentioned on a Sumerian clay-tablet dated to the 3rd millennium B. C; this land was inhabited by "the people of Su". Other Sumerian clay-tablets referred to the people, who lived in the land of Karda, as the Qarduchi and the Qurti. Karda/Qardu is etymologically related to the Hebrew term Ararat. Qarti or Qartas, who were settled on the mountains north of Mesopotamia, are considered as a probable ancestor of the Kurds. Akkadians were attacked by nomads coming through Qartas territory at the end of 3rd millennium B. C. Akkadians distinguished them as Guti, they conquered Mesopotamia in 2150 B. C. and ruled with 21 kings. Many Kurds consider themselves descended from the Medes, an ancient Iranian people, use a calendar dating from 612 B. C. when the Assyrian capital of Nineveh was conquered by the Medes. The claimed Median descent is refl