Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering present-day El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the only one to remain intact. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, some Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was thus built as a tomb over a 10- to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. At 146.5 metres, the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years. The Great Pyramid was covered by limestone casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.
There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber was unfinished; the so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The main part of the Giza complex is a set of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honour of Khufu, three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles. Egyptologists believe the pyramid was built as a tomb for the Fourth Dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and was constructed over a 20-year period. Khufu's vizier, Hemiunu is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid, it is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was 280 Egyptian Royal cubits tall, but with erosion and absence of its pyramidion, its present height is 138.8 metres. Each base side was 440 cubits, 230.4 metres long. The mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is 2,500,000 cubic metres.
Based on these estimates, building the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing 800 tonnes of stone every day. Additionally, since it consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks, completing the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour and night. The first precision measurements of the pyramid were made by Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880–82 and published as The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. All reports are based on his measurements. Many of the casing-stones and inner chamber blocks of the Great Pyramid fit together with high precision. Based on measurements taken on the north-eastern casing stones, the mean opening of the joints is only 0.5 millimetres wide. The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 58 millimetres in length.
The base is flat to within ± 15 mm. The sides of the square base are aligned to the four cardinal compass points based on true north, not magnetic north, the finished base was squared to a mean corner error of only 12 seconds of arc; the completed design dimensions, as suggested by Petrie's survey and subsequent studies, are estimated to have been 280 Egyptian Royal cubits high by 440 cubits long at each of the four sides of its base. The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 Egyptian Royal cubits equates to 2π to an accuracy of better than 0.05 percent. Some Egyptologists consider this to have been the result of deliberate design proportion. Verner wrote, "We can conclude that although the ancient Egyptians could not define the value of π, in practice they used it". Petrie concluded: "but these relations of areas and of circular ratio are so systematic that we should grant that they were in the builder's design". Others have argued that the ancient Egyptians had no concept of pi and would not have thought to encode it in their monuments.
They believe that the observed pyramid slope may be based on a simple seked slope choice alone, with no regard to the overall size and proportions of the finished building. In 2013, rolls of papyrus called the Diary of Merer were discovered written by some of those who delivered limestone and other construction materials from Tora to Giza; the Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks which most believe to have been transported from nearby quarries. The Tura limestone used; the largest granite stones in the pyramid, found in the "King's" chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tonnes and were transported from Aswan, more than 800 km away. Traditionally, ancient Egyptians cut stone blocks by hammering into them wooden wedges, which were soaked with water; as the water was absorbed, the wedges expanded. Once they were cut, they were carried by boat either down the Nile River to the pyramid, it is estimated that 5.5 million tonnes of limestone, 8,000 tonnes of granite, 500,000 tonnes of mortar were used in the construction of the Great Py
William Kreutzmann Jr. is an American drummer. He played with the Grateful Dead for its entire thirty-year career alongside fellow drummer Mickey Hart, has continued to perform with former members of the Grateful Dead in various lineups, with his own bands BK3, 7 Walkers and Billy & the Kids. Kreutzmann was born in Palo Alto, the son of Janice Beryl and William Kreutzmann Sr, his father was of German descent. His maternal grandfather was innovator Clark Shaughnessy. Kreutzmann started playing drums at the age of 13. At first he practiced on a Slingerland drum kit lent to him; as a teenager, practicing drums alone in a large building at his high school, Aldous Huxley and another man walked in. Huxley told Bill he'd never heard anything like it, encouraged him in his drumming – despite the fact Bill had been told by his sixth grade music teacher that he could not keep a beat. Kreutzmann continued to practice a great deal, his earliest enthusiasm was for the music of other R&B musicians. He has explained that he learned some advanced technique or tricks from Mickey Hart.
Kreutzmann listened to jazz groups in clubs when he found an opportunity for an under-age guy to get in. After joining the Warlocks, bassist Phil Lesh introduced him the work of one of the top jazz drummers of the time, Elvin Jones. Kreutzmann became an enthusiast for the funk music of The Meters. At the end of 1964 Kreutzmann co-founded the band the Warlocks, along with Phil Lesh, Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, their first gig was May 1965, two days before Kreutzmann's nineteenth birthday. During the band's early days, Kreutzmann sometimes used a fake draft card with the name "Bill Sommers" to be admitted to bars where the band was playing, since he was underage. In November 1965, the Warlocks became the Grateful Dead. Meeting fellow percussionist Mickey Hart in the fall of 1967 had a big impact on Kreutzmann's career. Hart soon joined the Dead; the combination of their playing was an important part of the band's sound and earned them the nickname "the Rhythm Devils". Their lengthy drum duets were a feature of nearly every show from 1978 to 1995, are documented in a number of recordings by the band.
During the 80s Kreutzmann formed and performed with three side-bands: The Billy Kreutzmann All-stars, Go Ahead playing San Francisco Bay Area clubs, although Go Ahead toured somewhat in 1986-87. The All-Stars were Kreutzmann, David Nelson, Larry Murphy, Sr. on fiddle and Larry Murphy, Jr. on bass. Kokomo and Go Ahead featured Dead keyboardist Brent Mydland, David Margen played bass for Kokomo as well as Go Ahead. Kevin Russell was guitarist for Kokomo. Kreutzmann remained with the Grateful Dead until its dissolution after the death of Jerry Garcia in 1995, making him one of four members to play at every one of the band's 2,300 shows, along with Garcia and Lesh. In 1994, Kreutzmann and the other members of the Grateful Dead were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. In 2007, they won a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Kreutzmann's first post-Grateful Dead musical project was Backbone, a trio with guitarist Rick Barnett and bassist Edd Cook, they released one album, Backbone, in 1998. In 1998, former Grateful Dead members Bob Weir, Phil Lesh, Mickey Hart formed a band called the Other Ones, which played a number of shows as part of the Furthur Festival.
The band did not play live in 1999. In 2000, Kreutzmann joined The Other Ones; the band, with Kreutzmann, toured in 2000 and 2002. In 2003, they changed their name to The Dead; the Dead played a number of live concerts in 2003, 2004 and 2009. Kreutzmann collaborated with Journey guitarist Neal Schon, Sy Klopps, Ira Walker, Ralph Woodson to form the Trichromes in 2002, they released an EP, Dice with the Universe, an album, Trichromes. On December 17, 2005, he participated in the 17th Annual Warren Haynes Christmas Jam as the drummer for SerialPod, a group which included Phish members Trey Anastasio and Mike Gordon. During 2006, Kreutzmann teamed up with fellow Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart, Phish bassist Mike Gordon, former The Other Ones guitarist Steve Kimock to form the Rhythm Devils; the band features songs from their respective former bands as well as new songs written by Jerry Garcia's songwriting companion Robert Hunter. The Rhythm Devils played their first tour in 2006, which ended at the popular Vegoose festival in Las Vegas, Nevada over the Halloween weekend.
In 2008 they released. In 2008, Bill Kreutzmann toured the eastern United States with bassist Oteil Burbridge of the Allman Brothers Band and guitarist Scott Murawski of Max Creek as BK3. In 2009, Oteil Burbridge was replaced by former Neville Brothers and longtime Bonnie Raitt bassist James "Hutch" Hutchinson. Hutchinson had performed with Kreutzmann, Papa Mali and keyboardist Matt Hubbard earlier in the year at a New Year's Eve concert in Haiku on the island of Maui; some 2009 shows featured Donna the Buffalo singer/instrumentalist Tara Nevins. In February 2010 the trio played several concerts with Burbridge again assuming the bassist role. On August 2, 2009, Kreutzmann played with Phish during most of the 2nd set at Red Rocks Amphitheatre. In 2010, Kreutzmann formed a new band, called 7 Walkers, with guitarist Papa Mali, multi-instrumentalist Matt Hubbard, bassist Reed Mathis, they toured the southern U. S. in the spring of 2010, with George Porter, Jr. playing bass while Mathis toured with Tea Leaf Green.7 Walkers has recorded a studio album, released on Novembe
Norman Petty was an American musician and record producer, best known for his association with Buddy Holly and the Crickets, who recorded in his studio. Petty was born in the small town of New Mexico, near the Texas border, he began playing piano at an early young age. While in high school, he performed on a fifteen-minute show on a local radio station. After his graduation in 1945 he was drafted into the United States Air Force and married his high school sweetheart Violet Ann Brady on June 20, 1948; the couple lived in Dallas, where Petty worked as a part time engineer at a recording studio. Moving back to their hometown of Clovis, New Mexico. Petty and his wife, Vi, founded the Norman Petty Trio with guitarist Jack Vaughn. Due to the local success of their independent debut release of "Mood Indigo", they landed a recording contract with RCA and sold half a million copies of the recording, were voted Most Promising Instrumental Group of 1954 by Cashbox magazine. In 1957, their song "Almost Paradise" hit number 18, Petty won his first BMI writers award.
The song had various cover versions released with Roger Williams' version selling the best. Despite the success of his own records, Petty began construction of his Clovis, NM studio in late 1954; the new studio was state of the art, his estimated spending at about $100,000. With the success of "Almost Paradise" it was completed to its current state in mid 1957. In his original 7th Street studio, aside from songs for his own musical group he produced early singles for Texas musicians Roy Orbison, Buddy Knox, Waylon Jennings, Charlie "Sugartime" Phillips, Sonny West, Carolyn Hester and Terry Noland, he produced all of Buddy Holly's recordings that can be classified as rockabilly. The hits "Sugar Shack" and "Bottle of Wine" by Jimmy Gilmer and the Fireballs and "Wheels" by the String-A-Longs were recorded at Petty's studio in the early'60s. Due to the success with instrumental groups, Petty was a reputable producer for bands of that genre to record with and his Clovis Studio was one of the top "go-to" studios for the guitar instrumental sound in the early'60s.
Petty produced a number of Canadian recording artists, including Wes Dakus & the Rebels, Barry Allen, Gainsborough Gallery, the Happy Feeling, all which had chart success in their homeland. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, recordings produced by Petty, in various musical styles, were issued by every major record label in the United States and Canada, with numerous regional successes. Petty served as Buddy Holly's producer and as his first manager until late 1958. Many of Holly's best and most polished efforts were produced at the Clovis studio. After Holly's death, Petty was put in charge of overdubbing unfinished Holly recordings by request of the Holley family and demos which had charting success overseas. Petty purchased the Mesa Theater on Main Street in Clovis in 1960. In 1963, he launched the FM radio station KTQM starting as an easy-listening station switching to country-and-western music, in 1968 to Top 40 rock; the country genre had local appeal, so he applied for a new station license and started KWKA 680 AM in 1971, airing country-and-western music.
Petty ran both stations until 1979. The stations were sold by Curry County Broadcasting to Zia Broadcasting in 2010. Petty died in Lubbock, Texas, of leukemia. In 1984 he was posthumously named Clovis Citizen of the Year, his wife, Vi, died in March 1992. She helped start the "Norman and Vi Petty Music Festival" in Clovis in 1987, which ran until 1997, it featured many artists who had recorded at the Clovis studio and popular hitmakers. Robert Linville requested the name from the Chamber and started the festivals again from 1998 until his death in 2001. Norman and Vi were given awards for "Outstanding Graduate Accomplishment" by the Clovis Municipal Schools Foundation and Alumni Association in April 2011; the awards are presented to Clovis High School graduates for achievement in their sphere of business. The plaques were given to Vi's relative Nick Brady, who turned them over to Kenneth Broad of the Petty estate to display during studio tours; the original 7th Street Studio is available for tours by appointment only.
The King of Clovis, a book about Petty by Frank Blanas, was published in 2014. A documentary is in the works from the Super Oldies label. Petty's Nor-Va-Jak record label was revived in 2016 as "Nor-Va-Jak Music", with authorization from Norman Petty Studios, for the purpose of reissuing Petty productions that were not available on CD. Blanas, Frank; the King of Clovis: The Untold Story of Music Producer Norman Petty: The Man Behind Rock'n Roll's Greatest Legends. Stroud: Rollercoaster Books. ISBN 978-0957446212. "Nor-Va-Jak Music". Authorized CDs of Petty Productions, info "Almost Paradise: The Definitive History". DVD documentary "Norman Petty Studios/Nor-Va-Jak Music" on Facebook "Norman Petty". Rockabillyhall.com. 1997-03-21. Retrieved 2010-09-02. Pore-Lee-Dunn Productions. "Interview with the Fireballs". Classicbands.com. Retrieved 2010-09-02. "Interview with Norman Petty". Songwriter magazine, International Songwriters Association "Norman Petty Interview" on Pop Chronicles
John Perry Barlow
John Perry Barlow was an American poet and essayist, a cattle rancher, a cyberlibertarian political activist, associated with both the Democratic and Republican parties. He was a lyricist for the Grateful Dead and a founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Freedom of the Press Foundation, he was Fellow Emeritus at Harvard University's Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, where he had maintained an affiliation since 1998. Barlow was born near Cora, Wyoming, as the only child to Norman Walker Barlow, a Republican state legislator, his wife, Miriam "Mim" Adeline Barlow Bailey, who married in 1929. Barlow's paternal ancestors were Mormon pioneers, he grew up on Bar Cross Ranch near Pinedale, Wyoming, a 22,000-acre property founded by his great uncle in 1907, attended elementary school in a one-room schoolhouse. Raised as a "devout Mormon", he was prohibited from watching television until the sixth grade, when his parents allowed him to "absorb televangelists". Although Barlow's academic record was erratic throughout his secondary education, he "had his pick of top eastern universities... because he was from Wyoming, where few applications originated."
In 1969, he graduated with high honors in comparative religion from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Connecticut. He claimed to have served as the University's student body president until the administration "tossed him into a sanitarium" following a drug-induced attempted suicide attack in Boston, Massachusetts. Following two weeks of rehabilitation, he returned to his studies. Prior to receiving his degree, Barlow was admitted to Harvard Law School and contracted to write a novel by Farrar and Giroux at the behest of his mentor, the autodidactic Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and historian Paul Horgan. Supported by a $5,000 or $1,000 advance from the publisher, he decided to eschew these options in favor of spending the next two years traveling around the world, including a nine-month sojourn in India, a riotous winter in a summer cottage on Long Island Sound in Connecticut, a screenwriting foray in Los Angeles. Barlow finished the novel, but it remains unpublished. During this period, he "lived beside Needle Park on New York's Upper West Side and dealt cocaine in Spanish Harlem."
At age 15, Barlow became a student at the Fountain Valley School in Colorado. While there, he met Bob Weir, who would join the jam band the Grateful Dead. Weir and Barlow maintained their close friendship through the years; as a frequent visitor during college to Timothy Leary's facility in Millbrook, New York, Barlow was introduced to LSD. These transformative experiences led Barlow to distance himself from Mormonism, he went on to facilitate the first meeting between the Grateful Dead and the Leary organization in June 1967. While on his way to California to reunite with the Grateful Dead in 1971, he stopped at his family's ranch, though had not intended to stay, his father had suffered a debilitating stroke in 1966 before dying in 1972, resulting in a $700,000 business debt. Barlow ended up changing his plans, began practicing animal husbandry under the auspices of the Bar Cross Land and Livestock Company in Cora, for two decades. To support the ranch, he continued to sell spec scripts. In the meantime, Barlow was still able to play an active role in the Grateful Dead while recruiting many unconventional part-time ranch hands from the mainstream as well as the counterculture.
Prior to his death in 2017, John Byrne Cooke intended to produce a documentary film that documented this era. Barlow became interested in collaborating with Weir at a Grateful Dead show at the Capitol Theatre in Port Chester, New York, in February 1971; until Weir had worked with resident Dead lyricist Robert Hunter. Hunter preferred that those who sang his songs stick to his "canonical" lyrics rather than improvising additions or rearranging words. A feud erupted backstage over a couplet in "Sugar Magnolia" from the band's most recent release, culminating in a disgruntled Hunter summoning Barlow and telling him "take —he's yours". In late 1971, with a deal for a solo album in hand and only two songs completed and Barlow began to write together for the first time, they co-wrote such songs such as "Cassidy", "Mexicali Blues" and "Black-Throated Wind", all three of which would remain in the repertoires of the Grateful Dead and of Weir's varied solo projects. Barlow subsequently collaborated with Grateful Dead keyboardist Brent Mydland, a partnership that culminated in four songs on 1989's Built to Last.
He wrote one song with Vince Welnick. In 1986, Barlow joined The WELL, an online community known for a strong Deadhead presence, he served on the company's board of directors for several years. In 1990, Barlow founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation along with fellow digital-rights activists John Gilmore and Mitch Kapor; as a founder of EFF, Barlow helped publicize the Secret Service raid on Steve Jackson Games. His involvement is documented in The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier by Bruce Sterling. EFF sponsored the ground-breaking case Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service in support of Steve Jackson Games. Steve Jackson Games won the case in 1993. In 1996, Barlow was invited to speak about his
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Winterland Ballroom was an ice skating rink and music venue in San Francisco, California. Located at the corner of Post Street and Steiner Street, it was converted to exclusive use as a music venue in 1971 by concert promoter Bill Graham and became a common performance site for many famous rock artists. Graham formed a merchandising company called Winterland which sold concert shirts and official sports team merchandise. Winterland was built in 1928 for $1 million and operated through the Great Depression. Opened on June 29, 1928, it was known as the New Dreamland Auditorium. Sometime in the late 1930s, the name was changed to Winterland, it served as an ice skating rink, convertible into a seated entertainment venue. In 1936, Winterland began hosting the Johnson Ice Follies. In November 1944, the impresario Clifford C. Fischer staged an authorized production of the Folies Bergère, the Folies Bergère of 1944, at the Winterland Ballroom, it was host to opera and tennis matches. Starting on September 23, 1966, with a double bill of Jefferson Airplane and the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Bill Graham began to rent the venue for larger concerts that his nearby Fillmore Auditorium could not properly accommodate.
After closing the Fillmore West in 1971, he began to hold regular weekend shows at Winterland. Various popular rock acts played there, including such bands and musicians as Bruce Springsteen, The Rolling Stones, The J. Geils Band, The Who, Black Sabbath, James Gang, Mahogany Rush, Quicksilver Messenger Service, UFO, REO Speedwagon, Slade, Cream, Kiss, The Doors, Jimi Hendrix, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Van Morrison, The Allman Brothers Band, Grateful Dead, The Band, Big Brother and the Holding Company w/ Janis Joplin, Jethro Tull, Pink Floyd, Ten Years After, Electric Light Orchestra, Jefferson Airplane, Golden Earring, Grand Funk Railroad, Humble Pie, Bob Seger and the Silver Bullet Band, Robin Trower, Sex Pistols, Lake & Palmer, Sha Na Na, Loggins and Messina, Lee Michaels, Journey, Deep Purple, J. J. Cale, Chambers Brothers, Alice Cooper, Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention, Mountain, B. B. King, George Thorogood and the Delaware Destroyers and Elvis Costello. Led Zeppelin first performed their song Whole Lotta Love there.
Many of the best-known rock acts from the 1960s and 1970s played at Winterland or played two blocks away across Geary Boulevard at the original Fillmore Auditorium. Peter Frampton recorded parts of the fourth best-selling live album Frampton Comes Alive!, at Winterland. The Grateful Dead made Winterland their home base and The Band played their last show there on Thanksgiving Day 1976; that concert, featuring numerous guest performers including Neil Young, Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan, Joni Mitchell, many others, was filmed by Martin Scorsese and released in theaters and as a soundtrack under the name The Last Waltz. Winterland was host to the Sex Pistols' final show on January 14, 1978. During Winterland's final month of existence, shows were booked nearly every night. Acts included The Tubes, Smokey Robinson, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on December 15–16, 1978, Bruce Springsteen & the E Street Band. Springsteen's December 15 show was simulcast on local radio station KSAN-FM. Winterland closed on New Year's Eve 1978 / New Year's Day 1979 with a concert by the Grateful Dead, New Riders of the Purple Sage, The Blues Brothers.
The show lasted for over eight hours, with the Grateful Dead's performance—documented on DVD and CD as The Closing of Winterland—lasting nearly six hours. After the show, the crowd was treated to a buffet-style breakfast; the final show was simulcast on radio station KSAN-FM and broadcast live on the local PBS TV station KQED. Winterland was razed in 1985 and replaced by apartments; the following films and recordings were made in whole or in part at the Winterland Ballroom: The Band – The Last Waltz Grateful Dead – The Grateful Dead Movie, The Closing of Winterland Sha Na Na – Live at Winterland Kiss – Kissology Volume One: 1974–1977 Sex Pistols – The Filth and the Fury The Allman Brothers Band – Wipe the Windows, Check the Oil, Dollar Gas Big Brother and the Holding Company – Live at Winterland'68 Cream – Wheels of Fire, Live Cream, Live Cream Volume II, Those Were the Days Electric Light Orchestra – Live at Winterland'76 Peter Frampton – Frampton Comes Alive! Grateful Dead – Steal Your Face, Dick's Picks Volume 10, So Many Roads, The Closing of Winterland, The Grateful Dead Movie Soundtrack, Winterland: 1973: The Complete Recordings, Road Trips Volume 1 Number 4, Winterland June 1977: The Complete Recordings, Dave's Picks Volume 13 Jimi Hendrix – Live at Winterland, The Jimi Hendrix Concerts, Winterland The Doors – Boot Yer Butt: The Doors Bootlegs Jefferson Airplane – Thirty Seconds Over Winterland Loggins and Messina - On Stage Sammy Hagar – All Night Long Bruce Springsteen – Live/1975–85 The Band – The Last Waltz Humble Pie – Live at Winterland Paul Butterfield's Better Days – Live at Winterland Ballroom Sha Na Na – The Golden Age of Rock'n' Roll Sutherland Brothers & Quiver – Winterland Winterland shows Winterland Ballroom Posters at www.janisjoplin.net "Grateful Dead – The Closing of Winterland" "SF Chronicle on Winterlands closing" Winterland photos and fan website
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat