A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930. Such enthusiasts have categorization schemes for ages of cars that enforce distinctions between antique cars, vintage cars, classic cars, so on; the classification criteria vary, but consensus within any country is maintained by major car clubs, for example the Vintage Sports-Car Club in the UK. The vintage era in the automotive world was a time of transition; the car started off in 1919 as still something of a rarity, ended up, in 1930, well on the way towards ubiquity. In fact, automobile production at the end of this period was not matched again until the 1950s. In the intervening years, most industrialized countries built nationwide road systems with the result that, towards the end of the period, the ability to negotiate unpaved roads was no longer a prime consideration of automotive design. Cars became much more practical and comfortable during this period.
Car heating was introduced. Four-wheel braking from a common foot pedal was introduced, as was the use of hydraulically actuated brakes. Towards the end of the vintage era, the system of octane rating of fuel was introduced, allowing comparison between fuels. In 1923 the gasoline additive Ethyl made its debut at the Indy 500 that resulted in a boost in octane from the 1950s to the 1980s In the United States drive-in restaurants were introduced as well as suburban shopping centers and motels. Alfred P. Sloan and Harley Earl of General Motors, Walter P. Chrysler capitalized on advertising the automobile's role in the life of the consumer for more than just the utilitarian value compared with the horse; the stock market crash of 1929 started the layoff of automotive workers and many new companies went bankrupt but over two million cars were still produced in 1929 and 1930. The Federal Aid Road Act of 1916 was the first federal highway act. War and lack of funding hampered any positive results of this act.
The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 started a 50/50 matching fund to states for road building and resulted in the creation of new and improved roads. During this period as well as the car adapting to society, there were better roads, society began to adapt to the car. Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the publicized Transcontinental Motor Convoy in 1919 and after becoming President the experience influenced the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956 that included 41,000 miles of highways; the end of World War I brought about the "Depression of 1920-21" with an inflation rate of over 20 percent, a 7 percent Federal Bank discount loan rate, an 11.7 percent unemployment rate, that resulted in many companies going bankrupt and the automotive industry was decimated. From 1919 to 1929, many dramatic changes took place. General Motors went into a financial crisis that lasted until after Alfred Sloan became president in 1923. Hudson produced the Essex in 1919 that, by 1925, had propelled the company to third in total sales behind Ford and Chevrolet.
Ford was in the process of building a new plant, buying back stock, began an 18-month process of tooling-up to replace the Model T with the Model A in 1927. In 1921 Maxwell failed and Walter P. Chrysler of General Motors, was brought in to reorganize it and, in 1925, the Chrysler Corporation was formed. With Ford out for a period, Chrysler was able to produce and market the low-priced Plymouth in 1928, bought out the Dodge Brothers in 1928, resulting in "The Big Three" more known as the "Detroit Three". There were other automakers that made it past the 1920-1921 depression only to fail during the Great Depression. During the Great Depression, in Britain many small companies started in the post World War I boom failed or merged leaving six major manufacturers: Morris, Standard, Ford of Britain, General Motors Vauxhall. A similar boom-and-bust cycle was seen in mainland Europe. Antique automobiles and early to middle era classic cars do not have the safety features that are standard on modern cars.
The most rudimentary of safety features, front wheel brakes and hydraulic brakes, began appearing on cars in the 1920s and 1930s respectively. For the average person car collecting is a hobby. A person can have a fascination with a certain vehicle, make or a history with one so seeks a particular make or model. Finding such a car at an affordable price is not always hard but the price will depend on the condition or the desired end result; the less work required on a vehicle equates to a higher price, the more work required means a cheaper initial cost, but more in the long run, a person's level of restoration experience plays an important part. Comedian and avid car collector Jay Leno stated, "Any car can be a collector car, if you collect it." Car collecting as an investment can be rewarding but most serious investment collectors seek rare or exotic cars and original unmodified cars hold a more stable price. Collecting as an investment requires expertise beyond enthusiast collecting and the standard of quality is far higher as well as a need for investment protection such as storage and maintenance.
A short-term investment collector must be able to find a vehicle that has market value, expected to rise in the foreseeable near future. A long-term investment collector would be less interested in any short-term value seeking to capitalize on an expected value rise over a period of years and a vehicle must have certain intrinsic values that are common to other investors or collectors of both short and long term. Cars that were made in small numbers or have a higher value
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
A coupé utility is a vehicle with a passenger compartment at the front and an integrated cargo tray at the rear, with the front of the cargo bed doubling as the rear of the passenger compartment. The term originated in the 1930s, where it was used to distinguish passenger-car based two-door vehicles with an integrated cargo tray from traditional pickup trucks; that have a separate cargo bed from the passenger compartment. Since the 2000s, these vehicles have been referred to as "pick-ups", "car-based pick-up" and "car-based truck". In Australia, where the traditional style of coupé utility remained popular until it ceased production in 2017, it is called a "ute", although the term is used there to describe traditional style pickups; the body style originated in Australia. It was the result of a 1932 letter from the wife of a farmer in Victoria, Australia, to Ford Australia asking for "a vehicle to go to church in on a Sunday and which can carry our pigs to market on Mondays". In response, Ford designer Lew Bandt developed a vehicle to meet the client's request.
Commencing in October 1933 with assistance from draftsman A. Scott, Bandt used the passenger compartment and roof from the Ford V8 5 window coupe and extended the rear section using a single fixed side panel on each side, with a hinged tailgate at the rear to create the load carrying compartment; the model was released in July 1934 as the coupe utility. In his book "Early Australian Automotive Design: The First Fifty Years", Australian motoring historian Norm Darwin suggests the idea was not a big leap in design from the existing roadster utility, produced by various manufacturers as early as 1924. Darwin suggests that the idea was being developed by other manufacturers as General Motors-Holden's Ltd released Bedford and Chevrolet coupe utilities in September 1934 only two months after Ford, with the main difference being the use of the three window coupe roof on the GM-H products. Other manufacturers were quick to follow with coupe utilities based on various passenger and light truck chassis.
In North America, this idea was trialed by some manufacturers. Studebaker created the Studebaker Coupe Express and sold it between 1937-1939. In 1951, Holden released a model based on its 48-215 sedan, reinforcing the Australian tradition of home-grown two-door passenger-car sedan chassis based "utility" vehicles with a tray at the back, known colloquially as a ute, although the term is applied to larger vehicles such as pickup trucks. America followed suit with the release of the Ford Ranchero in 1957 and Chevrolet El Camino in 1959. Chevrolet El Camino The Chevrolet El Camino is a coupé utility/pickup vehicle, produced by Chevrolet from 1959 to 1960 and from 1964 to 1987. Introduced in 1958 in response to the success of the Ford Ranchero pickup, its first run lasted only two years. Production resumed in 1963 based on the Chevelle platform. In 1977 it was shifted to the GM G-body platform. Production finished in 1987. Although based on corresponding Chevrolet car lines, the vehicle is classified and titled in North America as a truck.
GMC's badge engineered El Camino variant, the Sprint, was introduced in 1970. It was renamed Caballero in 1977, produced until 1987. In Spanish, el camino means "the road" or "path". Other North American coupé utilities 1957–1959 Ford Ranchero 1960–1965 Ford Falcon Ranchero 1966–1979 Ford Ranchero 1971–1987 GMC Sprint / Caballero 1981–1982 Ford Durango 1982–1984 Dodge Rampage 1983 Plymouth Scamp Since the 1970s, utes have been built in Brazil under European car-maker badges based in hatchbacks, such as the Ford Courier, based on the Ford Fiesta MkIV. Current examples include the Chevrolet Montana, the Peugeot Hoggar, the Volkswagen Saveiro and the Fiat Strada. Other South American coupé utility models: 1953-1979 Citroën 2CV "Citroneta" 1971-1990 Dodge 1500 1973–1991 Ford Falcon Ranchero 1980–present Volkswagen Saveiro/Pointer coupé utility 1982–1997 Ford Pampa 1983–1994 Chevrolet Chevy 500 1988-1994 Fiat Fiarino 1996–present Fiat Strada 1998–2013 Ford Courier 2010-2014 Peugeot Hoggar 2015–present Ram 700 1960–1969 Toyota Corona coupé utility 1962–1971 Toyopet/Toyota Crown Masterline coupé utility 1964-1988 Toyota Publica coupé utility/Toyota coupé utility 1965–1971 Mitsubishi Colt 800 1968-1974 Toyota Mark II coupé utility 1971–2008 Nissan Sunny Truck/"Bakkie" 1975–1990 Hyundai Pony 1978–1993 Subaru BRAT/Brumby/Shifter/MV/Targa 1983–1988 Suzuki Mighty Boy 1990-1998 Nissan NV 1991–1995 Daihatsu Mira P1/Miracab 2000–2001 Toyota bB Open Deck 2002–2010 Proton Arena/Jumbuck 2002–2006 Subaru Baja 2004–2007 Geely Rural Nanny Australian Holden Kingswood, Ford Falcon and Chrysler Valiant utes were sold in South Africa as the Chevrolet El Camino, Ford Ranchero, Valiant Rustler respectively.
Some re-badged versions of South American utes are sold in South Africa under different names, such as the Chevrolet Montana and the Ford Courier, sold there as Chevrolet Utility and Ford Bantam respectively. Other South American coupé utility models: 1975–1979 Dodge Husky 1989–2002 Mazda Rustler 2008-present Nissan NP200 (rebadged Dacia Logan Pick-Up, built and sold in South Af
A decrepit car is one, old and damaged and is in a functional state. Numerous slang terms are used to describe such cars, which vary by country and region, including beater and banger. Age and damage tend to increase the expense of maintaining a vehicle; the vehicle may reach a point where this expense would be considered to outweigh the value of keeping it. Such vehicles are stripped for parts or abandoned; these old and barely functional cars have been used not only for transport but as racing vehicles. Their use has earned them a place in popular culture. During the 1930s in the wake of the Great Depression, the market for used cars first started to grow and decrepit cars were a poor man's form of transport. Cheap dealers could obtain the cars for little, make aesthetic adjustments, sell the car for much more. Early hot rodders purchased decrepit cars as the basis for racers, early stock car racing was called banger racing in the United Kingdom and jalopy racing in the United States. A jalopy was an old-style class of stock car racing in America raced on dirt ovals.
It was a beginner class behind midgets, but vehicles became more expensive with time. Jalopy races ended in the 1960s; the race car needed to be from before around 1941. Notable racers include Parnelli Jones. Numerous slang terms are used to describe such cars, which vary by country and region, including hooptie, shed, lemon, bomb, rust bucket, wreck, death trap, disaster on wheels, "rattletrap" or "shitbox" In Australian slang the terms rust bucket, old bomb, paddock basher or bomb are used to refer to old, rusty and/or rundown cars; the term'paddock bomb' or'paddock basher' refers to a car no longer fit to drive on public roads, but used to get about the paddocks. Many rural children learn to drive in an unregulated way in a paddock bomb. In British slang the terms old rust bucket or bucket are used to refer to decrepit cars but the favoured term is old banger shortened to banger; the origin of the word is unknown, but could refer to the older poorly maintained vehicles' tendency to back-fire.
The terms shed and cut and shut are used, although a cut and shut refers to a car made by welding the front of one car to the rear of another after both original cars were damaged. In North American slang jalopy, heap, rust bucket and bucket are used. So too are beater—a term favored in Canada—and the American urban hooptie, which gained some popularity from the humorous song "My Hooptie" by Sir Mix-a-Lot; the word jalopy is now somewhat archaic. Jalopy seems to have replaced flivver, which in the early decades of the 20th century simply meant "a failure". Other early terms for a wreck of a car included heap, tin lizzy and crate, which derived from the WWI pilots' slang for an old and unreliable aeroplane. In the latter half of the 20th century more coarse terms became popular, such as "shitbox". Of unknown origin, jalopy was noted in 1924, it is possible that the non Spanish-speaking New Orleans-based longshoremen, referring to scrapped autos destined for scrapyards in Jalapa, pronounced the destination on the pallets "jalopies" rather than multiples or possessive of Jalapa.
Another possible origin is the French "chaloupe" which refers to a "motor-boat" and could reference the sound an old car would make. A 1929 definition of jalopy reads; the definition has stayed the same. Among the variants have been jallopy, jollopy, jalupie, julappi and jaloppie. John Steinbeck spelled it gillopy in In Dubious Battle; the term was used extensively in the book On the Road by Jack Kerouac, first published in 1957, although written from 1947. Georgia Tech, an engineering school in Atlanta, takes pride in the practice of engineering students maintaining antique cars, the school maintains the Ramblin' Wreck, a popular mascot of the school, their college radio station, WREK, is named after the iconic car. The term was used throughout the history of Archie Comics referring to Archie Andrews' red, open-top antique car. In 2009 the term "clunker" was used in reference to the Car Allowance Rebate System in the United States, known as the "Cash for Clunkers Program". Decrepit cars used on Indian reservations in the United States and Indian reserves in Canada are referred to by their owners as reservation cars or rez runners for short.
The culture of the rez car was explored in the documentary film Reel Injun, figured in the feature film Smoke Signals. Keith Secola recorded the song "NDN KARS" describing such a vehicle in 1987. Appearing as a cassette release, it was used in the Native critically acclaimed film Dance Me Outside, it is on his album Circle. Activist Russell Means's humorous poem "Indian Cars Go Far" describes the "Indian car" as a decrepit vehicle. 24 Hours of LeMons Art Car Banger racing Cash for Clunkers Demolition derby Depreciation Lemon Milo tin, a Malaysian pejorative term referring to poorly-repaired cars or those of shoddy workmanship. Pimp My Ride Vehicle scrappage scheme Wrecking yard How to Get Rid of an Old Car - WikiHow article on getting rid of a decrepit car Guide How To Dispose Of Old UK Car
Dodge is an American brand of automobile manufactured by FCA US LLC, based in Auburn Hills, Michigan. Dodge vehicles include performance cars, though for much of its existence Dodge was Chrysler's mid-priced brand above Plymouth. Founded as the Dodge Brothers Company machine shop by brothers Horace Elgin Dodge and John Francis Dodge in the early 1900s, Dodge was a supplier of parts and assemblies for Detroit-based automakers and began building complete automobiles under the "Dodge Brothers" brand in 1914, predating the founding of Chrysler Corporation; the factory was located in Hamtramck and was called the Dodge Main factory from 1910 until its closing in January 1980. The Dodge brothers both died in 1920, the company was sold by their families to Dillon, Read & Co. in 1925 before being sold to Chrysler in 1928. Dodge vehicles consisted of trucks and full-sized passenger cars through the 1970s, though it made memorable compact cars and midsize cars; the 1973 oil crisis and its subsequent impact on the American automobile industry led Chrysler to develop the K platform of compact to midsize cars for the 1981 model year.
The K platform and its derivatives are credited with reviving Chrysler's business in the 1980s. The Dodge brand has withstood the multiple ownership changes at Chrysler from 1998 to 2009, including its short-lived merger with Daimler-Benz AG from 1998 to 2007, its subsequent sale to Cerberus Capital Management, its 2009 bailout by the United States government, its subsequent Chapter 11 bankruptcy and acquisition by Fiat. In 2011, Dodge and Dodge's Viper were separated. Dodge said that the Dodge Viper would be an SRT product and Ram will be a manufacturer. In 2014, SRT was merged back into Dodge; that year, Chrysler Group was renamed FCA US LLC, corresponding with the merger of Fiat S.p. A. and Chrysler Group into the single corporate structure of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Horace and John Dodge founded the Dodge Brothers Company in Detroit in 1900, found work manufacturing precision engine and chassis components for the city's growing number of automobile firms. Chief among these customers were the established Olds Motor Vehicle Company and the new Ford Motor Company.
Henry Ford selected the Dodge brothers to supply a wide range of components for his original Model A that included the complete chassis. The first machine shop where the brothers worked as parts suppliers for Olds and Ford was located at the Boydell Building on Beaubien Street at Lafayette; this location was replaced by a larger facility at Hastings Street and Monroe Avenue, now a parking garage for the Greektown Casino Hotel. By 1910 the Dodge Main factory was built in Hamtramck, where it remained until 1979; the Dodge Brothers Motor Company was established in 1913 and by 1914, John and Horace designed and debuted the first car of their own – the four-cylinder Dodge Model 30/35 touring car. Marketed as a more upscale competitor to the ubiquitous Ford Model T, it pioneered or made standard many features taken for granted like all-steel body construction as the vast majority of cars worldwide still used wood-framing under steel panels). Once the Dodge brothers produced their own car, John Dodge was once quoted as saying, "Someday, people who own a Ford are going to want an automobile".
As a result of this, the brothers' well-earned reputation for the highest quality truck and motor parts they made for other successful vehicles, Dodge Brothers cars were ranked at second place for U. S. sales as early as 1916. That same year, Henry Ford decided to stop paying stock dividends to finance the construction of his new River Rouge complex, the Dodges filed a suit to protect their annual stock earnings of one million dollars, leading Ford to buy out his shareholders. In 1916, the Dodge Brothers vehicles won acclaim for their durability in military service. First with the U. S. Army's Pancho Villa Expedition, during the 1910s U. S. Mexico Border War — the U. S. military's first operation to use truck convoys. General "Blackjack" Pershing procured a fleet of 150 to 250 Dodge Brothers vehicles for the Mexico campaign. Touring cars were used as reconnaissance vehicles. One notable instance was in May when the 6th Infantry received a reported sighting of Julio Cárdenas, one of Villa's most trusted subordinates.
Lt. George S. Patton led ten soldiers and two civilian guides in three Dodge Model 30 touring cars to conduct America's first motorised military raid at a ranch house in San Miguelito, Sonora. During the ensuing firefight the party killed three men. Patton's men tied the bodies to the hoods of the Dodges, returning to headquarters in Dublán and an excited reception from US newspapermen. Subsequently, some 12,800 Dodge cars and light trucks were used in World War I — over 8,000 touring cars, as well as 2,600 commercial vehicles, such as screen-side trucks and panel vans — serving as ambulances and repair trucks. Dodge remained the United States military's primary supplier of light wheeled vehicles, until the