Roanoke is a city in Randolph County, in the Piedmont region of eastern Alabama, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city is 6,074, down from 6,563 in 2000; this was an area of historic occupation by the Creek before treaties to persuade the Native Americans to cede their land, followed by forced migration under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The area was part of a broad part of upland developed as cotton plantations worked by enslaved African Americans; the area is still quite rural. Called High Pine in the 1830s after a nearby creek, it was burned during an Indian uprising in 1836. Renamed Chulafinee in 1840, it was renamed again for the hometown of one of the early settlers, Virginia; the city was incorporated in December 1890. Roanoke is located at 33°8′56″N 85°22′11″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.1 square miles, of which 18.8 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The Mayor has been Mike Fisher since 2009. Roanoke has three schools served by Roanoke City Schools: Knight Enloe Elementary, Handley Middle School, Handley High School.
On December 1, 2011, the Handley Tigers won the AHSAA Football Class 3A State Championship. Roanoke is served by The Randolph Leader; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,563 people, 2,467 households, 1,660 families residing in the city. The population density was 348.9 people per square mile. There were 2,792 housing units at an average density of 148.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 58.94% White, 39.77% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.34% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 1.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,467 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 17.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families. 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,946, the median income for a family was $32,405. Males had a median income of $29,594 versus $22,135 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,088. About 11.9% of families and 18.6% of the population were below 7% of those younger than 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or older. As of the census of 2010, there were 6,074 people, 2,409 households, 1,538 families residing in the city; the population density was 323.1 people per square mile. There were 2,817 housing units at an average density of 149.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.6% White, 40.5% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races.
1.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,409 households out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 21.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,073, the median income for a family was $37,007. Males had a median income of $35,096 versus $31,406 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,286. About 25.8% of families and 31.0% of the population were below 47.7% of those younger than 18 and 13.5% of those age 65 or older.
Admiral Edward A. Burkhalter, Chief of Naval Intelligence. "Roanoke, AL", Library of Congress
11 South LaSalle Street Building or Eleven South LaSalle Street Building is a Chicago Landmark building, listed on the National Register of Historic Places and, located at 11 South LaSalle Street in the Loop community area of Chicago, United States. This address is located on the southeast corner of LaSalle and Madison Street in Cook County, Illinois across the Madison Street from the One North LaSalle Building; the building sits on a site of a former Roanoke building that once served as a National Weather Service Weather Forecast official climate site and replaced Major Block 1 after the Great Chicago Fire. The current building has incorporated the frontage of other buildings east of the original site of Major Block 1; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 6, 2007, named a Chicago Landmark on December 12, 2007. It incorporates the lands of former Farewell Hall; the building was renovated to become the world's largest Residence Inn in 2015. A four-story Major Block 1 building, designed by T. V. Widskier, sat on this location until the Great Chicago Fire.
After the fire, this was replaced with the Major Block 2, which became known as the Roanoke Building. Major Block 2 stood from 1872–1912 as a seven-story building on spread foundations, it was designed by Dixon & Hamilton and had a length of 136 feet along South LaSalle Street and a width of 66 feet along West Madison Street. A published illustration of this building shows it as a five-story building. From June 8, 1873 to January 1, 1887 the original Roanoke building served as the Chicago location for the National Weather Service Weather Forecast official climate site; the building is mentioned in Saul Bellow's More Die of Heartbreak but there it is referred to as a wealthy residence building and not as an office building. The current building was designed in three phases: in 1915 Holabird & Roche's design for the first 16 floors was built, five floors were added in 1922, it was built as the sixteen-story high Lumber Exchange Building and renamed as the 11 South LaSalle Street Building. The Holabird & Roche design had rock caissons.
The original 16-floor building was a late Chicago school commercial building that incorporated arches at both the fourth and the top floor, but when the top five floors were added in 1922 under the original cornice, the top rank of arches disappeared. The building uses dark terra cotta with italianate designs; the vaulted ceiling and marble wall lobby contribute to what is described as a classical entrance and lobby. The Palladian entrance uses contrasting white black marble. In 1925, the building was built to its current 35 story height by the addition of an adjacent tower to the east of the Madison street frontage; the entire building contains 330,000 square feet. The 36-story tower was added east of the original structure on the site of the former DeSoto Building at 125-129 West Madison; the tower was an early example of the use of setbacks and it uses ranks of paired windows. When the Tower was built, four bronze bells were cast by the Meneely Bell Company and installed as a clock-chime, they were set to chime an original composition called "Samheim", Norse for "Tomorrow", every quarter-hour.
The largest of these bells weighs 7,201 pounds and is inscribed with the name "Leander" in honor of Leander McCormick. The current Roanoke building is the city's only example of a building in the style of Portuguese Gothic architecture. According to the press release from the city announcing the landmark promotion, the building's terra cotta ornamentation is derived from Portuguese Gothic precedents; the building was modernized in the 1950s and went through a postmodern renovation in 1984 to evoke the original ornamentation. The building has the same frontage as the original Roanoke building plus that of the former Farewell Hall. From 1920 until 1969 the building hosted the offices of the law firm Austin. Today the building is leased by small service industry firms, such as second-floor tenant Thomas P. Gohagan & Co. which arranges travel trips and tours for non-profit organizations. The building is undergoing renovation to the lobby, the façade, the elevators and the exterior lighting; the recent National Register listing has made the renovation feasible by making the building eligible for federal tax credits and reduced property taxes.
The building qualified for the landmark Class L tax status, which makes it eligible for twelve years of reduced property taxes and other economic incentives for repair and rehab of historic buildings In order to perform the renovation the owners took out a $43.3 million loan against the property according to Form 8-K filings with the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, its National Registered Historic Places announcement listed it under the name "Lumber Exchange Building and Tower Addition" although its Chicago Landmark listing is under the name "Roanoke Building and Tower." In October 2006, Michael Reschke bought the Roanoke building and he refinanced it in 2007. In 2009, Reschke announced plans to convert the building into a high-end hotel. In April 2012, Michael Silberberg-led Berkley Properties LLC appeared to have bought the Roanoke Building from KBS Capital Advisors LLC with plans to convert the building into a hotel. However, financing difficulties caused the plans to be ca
The Roanoke Valley in southwest Virginia is an area adjacent to and including the Roanoke River between the Blue Ridge Mountains to the east and the Appalachian Plateau to the west. The valley includes much of Roanoke County, as well as the two independent cities of Roanoke and Salem; the Roanoke Valley is about twenty miles long, from the Roanoke River gorge near Virginia's Explore Park in the east to Shawsville in the west, as much as ten miles wide around Roanoke City though the width is closer to five miles in most areas. The Roanoke Valley is part of the valley and ridge province of Virginia, which includes the Shenandoah Valley to the northeast and the New River Valley to the southwest; the Roanoke Valley is bound to the west by a ridgeline known as Christiansburg Mountain, to the north by a ridgeline formed by Fort Lewis Mountain and Brushy Mountain, to the southwest by a ridgeline formed by Poor Mountain and adjacent peaks in the Blue Ridge, which forms the east and southeast boundaries of the valley.
However, this area features isolated peaks and wide gaps, with the notable exception of the aforementioned gorge, instead of continuous ridgelines. The Roanoke Valley was an important fork on the Great Wagon Road, with one branch leading to the Carolina Piedmont region and the other branch, the Wilderness Road, leading to Tennessee and Kentucky; the Roanoke Valley is sometimes synonymous with the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area, made up of the political subdivisions of Roanoke City, Roanoke County, Botetourt County, Franklin County, Craig County. Adjacent communities such as western Bedford County and eastern Montgomery County are often considered parts of the Roanoke Valley. More the Roanoke Valley refers to the core urban and suburban areas Roanoke City, Roanoke County within the geographic Roanoke Valley, southern Botetourt County. In a political context, the Roanoke Valley refers collectively to Roanoke City and Roanoke County; some governmental functions are consolidated. For example, there is a regional sewer authority, a regional library system, the Roanoke Regional Airport is governed by a regional commission.
Salem has traditionally been more reluctant to participate in these efforts, while Botetourt County's participation has grown, most joining the water and sewer authority and regional greenway commission. Whether more functions should be provided on a consolidated basis, or if the governments should be consolidated, is an discussed issue. Consolidation referendums in 1969 and 1990 failed because of the opposition of voters in Roanoke County; the issue has remained dormant since the 1990 referendum. The city of Roanoke hosts the main campus of Virginia Western Community College, part of the Virginia Community College System. There are three, four-year institutions of higher learning in the valley: Ferrum College - Ferrum Hollins University - Roanoke/Cloverdale Roanoke College - SalemIn addition, there are 12 public high schools in the Roanoke Valley, they are: Cave Spring High School, Roanoke Craig County High School, New Castle Franklin County High School, Rocky Mount Glenvar High School, Salem Hidden Valley High School, Roanoke James River High School, Springwood Lord Botetourt High School, Daleville Northside High School, Roanoke Patrick Henry High School, Roanoke Salem High School, Salem William Byrd High School, William Fleming High School, Roanoke As of 2018, three professional sports teams play in the Roanoke Valley: Roanoke Rail Yard Dawgs: Members of the Southern Professional Hockey League since 2016 Salem Red Sox: Members of the Carolina League under various names since 1968.
The Minor League Baseball A-Advance affiliate of the Boston Red Sox since 2009. The Roanoke Valley contains the lowest point above sea level in the mountains of southwest Virginia; as a result, the Norfolk and Western Railway chose the valley as its primary route between the ports of Hampton Roads in eastern Virginia and the coal fields of southwest Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. The Norfolk and Western was headquartered in Roanoke for nearly a century before merging with the Southern Railway; the railroad has remained a major employer in the valley, though major layoffs were announced. Roanoke Valley Convention and Visitors Bureau
American Horror Story: Roanoke
American Horror Story: Roanoke is the sixth season of the FX horror anthology television series American Horror Story, created by Ryan Murphy and Brad Falchuk. It premiered on September 14, 2016, marking the first time the series has debuted outside of October, concluded on November 16, 2016. Returning cast members from previous seasons include: Kathy Bates, Sarah Paulson, Lily Rabe, Denis O'Hare, Wes Bentley, Evan Peters, Cheyenne Jackson, Angela Bassett, Adina Porter, Lady Gaga, Leslie Jordan, Frances Conroy, Finn Wittrock, Robin Weigert and Taissa Farmiga, along with new cast members Cuba Gooding Jr. and André Holland. Paulson reprised her role as the Asylum character, Lana Winters, for the season finale. Prior to the premiere, series co-creator Murphy stated this season of the series would be "more rogue" and "dark" in contrast to its previous cycle, Hotel. Details about its plot and cast were kept secret until the first episode aired, an unusual approach to publicity for the series; as such, it became the first iteration of the series to not release a subtitle prior to the season premiere since its debut.
Several potential themes were theorized based on various promotional material produced by FX. After the release of pictures taken from the set in Santa Clarita, it was speculated that the season would incorporate the infamous 1580s Roanoke Colony disappearance; the premiere episode revealed the season to be depicted as a paranormal documentary entitled My Roanoke Nightmare which reenacts the experiences of a married couple who relocate to North Carolina. Roanoke has received positive reviews, with critics noting its subdued aesthetic and pacing in comparison to earlier seasons of the series. Kathy Bates as Thomasin White / The Butcher and Agnes Mary Winstead Sarah Paulson as Shelby Miller, Audrey Tindall and Lana Winters Cuba Gooding Jr. as Matt Miller and Dominic Banks Lily Rabe as Shelby Miller André Holland as Matt Miller Denis O'Hare as Dr. Elias Cunningham and William van Henderson Wes Bentley as Ambrose White and Dylan Evan Peters as Edward Philipe Mott and Rory Monahan Cheyenne Jackson as Sidney Aaron James Angela Bassett as Lee Harris and Monet Tumusiime Adina Porter as Lee Harris Leslie Jordan as Cricket Marlowe and Ashley Gilbert Simone Baker as Flora Harris Saniyya Sidney as Flora Harris Charles Malik Whitfield as Mason Harris Maya Rose Berko as Nurse Miranda Jane Kristen Rakes as Nurse Bridget Jane Chaz Bono as Lot Polk and Brian Wells Lady Gaga as Scáthach Estelle Hermansen as Priscilla Taissa Farmiga as Sophie Green Doris Kearns Goodwin as herself Henderson Wade as Guinness Shannon Lucio as Diana Cross Frances Conroy as Mama Polk Finn Wittrock as Jether Polk Robin Weigert as Mama Polk Jacob Artist as Todd Allan Connors Jon Bass as Milo Emma Bell as Tracy Logan James Morosini as Bob Kinnaman Frederick Koehler as Lot Polk Trixie Mattel as herself On November 10, 2015, the network renewed the series for a sixth cycle.
In August 2015, co-creator Ryan Murphy commented on the sixth year, stating, "The next thing we're crafting up is very different than, not smaller. But just not opulent. More rogue and more dark." In October 2015, when questioned about clues and hints alluding to the sixth season in Hotel, Murphy revealed he had yet to definitively decide on a theme, "This is an interesting year in that the idea that we’re dealing with I've mentioned in several seasons. It's been there before. We've talked about it a lot on the show. I might do that for season 7 but I'm leaning towards that for season 6." In January 2016, FX president John Landgraf revealed that the season will be "principally set in the present", with a dual timeline in "echoes of the past". He confirmed a fall 2016 premiere. At the 2016 PaleyFest, Murphy divulged that the two previous ideas had been considering had been merged into season six, saying it will involve children and operatic themes; the season will consist of the least in a given cycle, in the show's history.
On September 1, 2016, it was reported by Entertainment Weekly that the season was subtitled The Mist, as a Rotten Tomatoes page and TV Guide magazine had printed. There is a direct connection to Freak Show with an exploration of the Mott family origin. In a late September issue of Entertainment Weekly and Murphy revealed there would be a major twist coming to the series in "Chapter 6". Murphy said of the matter, "You'll see starting in episode 6, the show has a huge turn and the thing that you think you're watching is not what you're watching, It's a hat on a hat on a hat on a hat that we've had to protect." Falchuk added, "No matter, it's not that. Episode 6 comes and you're like,'Wait! What happened?' It's like 1–5, 6–9, 10 is its own thing." Murphy went on to confirm the turn in the season being a behind-the-camera look at the production of the faux documentary My Roanoke Nightmare. He stated that the final episode will feature characters, their mythologies, that will continue on in the overall series.
Colonial ware and design are incorporated into the season, theorized to be, at least set in 1590 Roanoke, North Carolina. A pioneer cottage is incorporated in California; the set is dressed in time-period appropriate dressings, including an etched tree. The production designers constructed an entire colonial house, that serves as the season's chief setting; the house was constructed over the course of four months. The abode is functional and finished inside and out; this is the first time in American Horror Story h
Roanoke is a city in Denton County, United States and part of the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex. The population was 9,300 at the 2017 census estimate. A small part of the city extends into Tarrant; the main east-west road through town, State Highway 114 Business, is named "Byron Nelson Boulevard" in honor of the golfer who resided in the community. Roanoke is home to many restaurants, as well as a hotel that bank robbers Bonnie and Clyde resided in during the 1930s; the Northwest Regional Airport is located 2 miles north of the city center. Roanoke is located at 33°0′18″N 97°13′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, of which 5.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.54%, is water. In November 2007, the town of Marshall Creek consolidated with Roanoke; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Roanoke has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
The City of Roanoke was incorporated in 1933, operates under a Council-Manager form of government and provides the following services: general government and fire protection, emergency ambulance service and traffic signal maintenance and wastewater operations and recreational facilities, library services, building inspection, development services. According to the city’s 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $37.2 million in revenues, $24.2 million in expenditures, $91.9 million in total assets, $38.4 million in total liabilities, $12.1 million in cash and investments. The structure of the management and coordination of city services is: Mayor, Carl E. "Scooter" Gierisch, Jr. Mayor Pro Tem Holly McPherson Ward 1Council members: Brian Darby Ward 2 Steve Heath Ward 3 David Thompson Ward 3 Angie Grimm Ward 1 Kirby Smith Ward 2 The Tom Thumb Food & Pharmacy distribution center is in Roanoke; the United Supermarkets Distribution Center is located in Roanoke.
Walmart, The Home Depot are in the community. The Martin-Brower Distribution Center is located in Roanoke. There are some major food chains in Roanoke such as Subway, Wendy's, Taco Bell, Taco Bueno, Taco Casa, Chick-fil-A, Chili's, McDonald's, Dairy Queen, Panda Express, Krispy Kreme, On the Border and Dickey's Barbecue. Oak Street in Roanoke is the newly redeveloped Old Town District, the home for a number of restaurants, such as the first original Babe's Chicken Dinner House, Twisted Root Burger Company, Tacos n' Avocados, Hard 8 BBQ, Bayou Jack's Cajun Grill, Jack & Grill on Oak St. Oak Street Pie & Candy Co. Susie's Sweet Boutique, Hey Sugar Candy Store, INZO Pizza and Wine, La Familia Mexican, Craft & Vine, Wise Guys Pizzaria, The Brew Junkie Coffee House, Mugs Cafe & Bakery, the Classic Cafe; the large number of independent restaurateurs on Roanoke's Oak Street led to the moniker "Unique Dining Capital of the Texas". Businesses on Oak Street include First State Bank, The Plaid Peacock, Lucky Luke's All In, Kiki LaRue Boutique, Addicted Couture, Rehab Construction Management, Across the Times Home Furnishings, Haynes & Associates PC, Lori Spearman Law Office, Shepards Guide, Harold A O'neil Inc, Syncro Marketing, Affinity Title LLC, RGA Architects founded by architect Rick Gilliland.
Roanoke provides several automotive repair shops such Gierisch Brothers Motor Co, Scotty's Automotive Repair, Roanoke Tire & Auto, A Bikers Garage. Hawaiian Falls Roanoke, Cinemark Movie Theater, Roanoke Skatepark, Evenings on Oak Street. According to Roanoke’s 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: As of the census of 2000, there were 2,810 people, 1,106 households, 759 families residing in the city; the population density was 466.2 people per square mile. There were 1,462 housing units at an average density of 242.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.43% White, 10.82% Hispanic, 1.35% African American, 1.14% Native American, 1.07% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 3.24% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. There were 1,106 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a single, female householder, 31.3% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.3% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 5.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $48,107, the median income for a family was $58,833. Males had a median income of $37,845 versus $30,920 for females; the per capita income for the city was $22,051. About 2.5% of families and 4.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.1% of those under age 18 and 2.1% of those age 65 or over. Roanoke is served by the noted Northwest Independent School District. Elementary school students attend Roanoke Elementary School, middle school students attend Medlin Middle School or John Tidwell Middle School, high school students go to Byron Nelson High School in Trophy Club.
Roanoke is home to James Steele Accelerated High School, an NISD high school for students who want to graduate from high school in 2 1/2 to 3 years. There is another
Roanoke is a village in Roanoke Township, Woodford County, United States. The population was 2,065 at the 2010 census, up from 1,994 at the 2000 census, it is part of Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area. Until about 1850, much of northern Illinois was still frontier land and sparsely populated, which the exception of Chicago and towns along the rivers; this changed in 1850, when President Millard Fillmore signed a land grant for the construction of the Illinois Central Railroad. With the railroad expanding into Central Illinois, new opportunities for settlement by German, Irish, Italian and other European immigrants opened up in Woodford County. Roanoke was one of these settlements. On December 17, 1872, Roanoke was mapped out and lots were offered for sale; the plat of Roanoke was composed of 15 blocks and was bounded by Main, Front and Pleasant Streets. Two years in 1874, Roanoke became a "Village" in the State of Illinois. Building began in Roanoke and by the time the railroad was complete the population had increased to three hundred.
Henry Frantz put up the first building after the village was laid out, John Frantz and Jacob Engle opened pancake stores. The first doctor in the town was Dr. John, who served several terms as coroner. Fauber and Hall first bought grain in Roanoke, they dealt in coal. The lumberyard was conducted by Doc Miller but soon after passed into the hands of Phillip Moore, one of the pioneers in business life in the vicinity. On August 15, 1874, the first election was held for the purpose of electing six trustees for the Village of Roanoke. To this day, the Village has continually filled those six positions; the Roanoke area, like most of Illinois, is underlain by rich veins of coal. The second coal shaft in Woodford County was sunk in Roanoke in 1881. Miners went down 480 feet to discover a vein of high quality coal thirty inches thick; the longest tunnel ran about two miles east and a little north of town on a downward slope. Another shaft started in a westerly direction, but this coal was "flinty", or mixed with rock, digging was discontinued.
A room was dug out at the bottom of this shaft to stable the ponies and mules used before electric equipment was installed in 1905. The drivers treated these ponies and mules with apples and candy, who were used for farm labor during the summer months. Blacksmith Fred Wolfe shoed the mules in the mine. Work in the mine started at 7:00am with a blast from the mine whistle, which sounded again when the men were brought back up from mining at 3:30pm; the mine whistle was used to convey work delays due to weather or other events. The mine at its peak hoisted 500 tons of coal a day; as was the case in most small mining towns, life in the mines could be dangerous. In the June 29th, 1906, four men fell 400 feet down the main shaft to their deaths while performing maintenance and improvements to the main shaft; the Roanoke Call newspaper headline the following day read "ROANOKE IN MOURNING". After the accident, the coal mine continued to operate until 1940, when it was permanently closed due to safety concerns and maintenance issues.
In 1941, due to its state of disrepair, the tipple at the mine head collapsed into the shaft, leaving a crater 60 feet across and just as deep. The crater was filled in, the remaining equipment sold as scrap. Slate and other non-coal slag from the old mine was collected into a large mound colloquially called the "Jumbo," on the southern side of the village near where the mine was once located. Since before the mine closed, it is estimated that 800,000 tons of slag from the Jumbo has been used in various road and town improvement construction projects. Although smaller than its original size, the Jumbo still stands at present, topped with an electric star, illuminated during the Christmas season. After the Roanoke mine stopped operation in 1940, with the growing popularity of using Semi-trailer trucks to move crops from farm to market, the rail line running through Roanoke was retired in the mid 1980s, was promptly dismantled for scrap; the original Roanoke rail station, from which many immigrants started their lives in the village, still stands as a historical building near the corner of Main Street and Mill Street.
Since the earliest days of the village to present, Roanoke has been an agricultural community. Presently, its farmers are members of the cooperative Roanoke Farmers Association; the two main crops of Roanoke, like many Illinois farm towns, are soy beans. On July 13, 2004, an F4 tornado demolished several rural houses and properties, the Parsons Manufacturing Plant 4 miles west of downtown Roanoke. While over 200 people were still inside the Parsons plant at the time, the event was notable because there were no serious injuries or fatalities. Roanoke is located at 40°47′51″N 89°11′59″W. According to the 2010 census, Roanoke has a total area of 0.957 square miles, of which 0.92 square miles is land and 0.037 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,994 people, 765 households, 559 families residing in the village; the population density was 2,192.0 people per square mile. There were 809 housing units at an average density of 889.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.15% White, 0.10% African American, 0
The Roanoke Colony known as the Lost Colony, was the first attempt at founding a permanent English settlement in North America. It was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's North Carolina; the colony was sponsored by Sir Walter Raleigh. The initial settlement was established in the summer of 1585, but a lack of supplies and bad relations with the local Native Americans caused many of its members to return to England with Sir Francis Drake a year leaving behind a small detachment; these men had all disappeared by the time a second expedition led by John White, who served as the colony's governor, arrived in July 1587. White, whose granddaughter Virginia Dare was born there shortly thereafter, left for England in late 1587 to request assistance from the government, but was prevented from returning to Roanoke until August 1590 due to the Anglo-Spanish War. Upon his arrival, the entire colony was missing with only a single clue to indicate what happened to them: the word "CROATOAN" carved into a tree.
For many years, it was accepted that the colonists were massacred by local tribes, but no bodies were discovered, nor any other archaeological evidence. The most prevalent hypothesis now is that environmental circumstances forced the colonists to take shelter with local tribes, but, based on oral histories and lacks conclusive evidence; some artifacts were discovered in 1998 on Hatteras Island where the Croatan tribe was based, but researchers could not definitively say these were from the Roanoke colonists. The enterprise was financed and organized by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, who drowned in 1583 returning from a voyage to the fishing settlement at St. John's, Newfoundland, his half-brother, Sir Walter Raleigh gained Gilbert's charter from the Queen and subsequently executed its details through his delegates Ralph Lane and Richard Grenville, Raleigh's distant cousin. On March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth I granted Raleigh a charter for the colonization of the area of North America; this charter specified that Raleigh needed to establish a colony in North America, or lose his right to colonization.
The Queen and Raleigh intended. The queen's charter said that Raleigh was supposed to "discover, find out, view such remote heathen and barbarous Lands and territories... to have, hold and enjoy". The queen's charter said that Raleigh was supposed to establish a base from which to send privateers on raids against the treasure fleets of Spain; the purpose of these raids was to tell Spain. The original charter told Raleigh to establish a military base to counteract the activities of the Spaniards. Raleigh himself never visited North America, although he led expeditions in 1595 and 1617 to South America's Orinoco River basin in search of the legendary golden city of El Dorado. On April 27, 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the eastern coast of North America, they arrived on Roanoke Island on July 4 and soon established relations with the local natives, the Secotans and Croatans. Barlowe returned to England with two Croatans named Manteo and Wanchese, who were able to describe the politics and geography of the area to Raleigh.
Based on the information given, Raleigh organized a second expedition, to be led by Sir Richard Grenville. Grenville's fleet departed Plymouth on April 9, 1585, with five main ships: Tiger, Red Lion and Dorothy. A severe storm off the coast of Portugal separated Tiger from the rest of the fleet; the captains had a contingency plan if they were separated, to meet up again in Puerto Rico, Tiger arrived in the "Baye of Muskito" on May 11. While waiting for the other ships, Grenville established relations with the resident Spanish while engaging in some privateering against them, he built a fort. Elizabeth arrived soon after the fort's construction. Grenville tired of waiting for the remaining ships and departed on June 7; the fort was abandoned, its location remains unknown. Tiger sailed through Ocracoke Inlet on June 26, but it struck a shoal, ruining most of the food supplies; the expedition succeeded in repairing the ship and, in early July, reunited with Roebuck and Dorothy, which had arrived in the Outer Banks with Red Lion some weeks previous.
Red Lion had left for Newfoundland for privateering. During the initial exploration of the mainland coast and the native settlements, the Europeans blamed the natives of the village of Aquascogoc for stealing a silver cup; as retaliation, the settlers burned the village. English writer and courtier Richard Hakluyt's contemporaneous reports describe this incident. Despite this incident and a lack of food, Grenville decided to leave Ralph Lane and 107 men to establish a colony at the north end of Roanoke Island, promising to return in April 1586 with more men and fresh supplies; the group disembarked on August 17, 1585, built a small fort on the island. There are no surviving renderings of the Roanoke fort, but it was similar in structure to the one in Guayanilla Bay. Grenville in the Tiger on only his seventh day of sail captured a rich Spanish galleon, Santa Maria de San Vicente off Bermuda which he took with him as a prize back to England; as April 1586 passed, there was no sign of Grenvill