Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in all of Canada, the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC has recovered about 70% of its operating costs from the fare box in recent years.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession; when the Harris Progressive Conservatives ended the provincial subsidies, the TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC.
As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives 10% of its operating budget from the provincial government, Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province; the fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service.
After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolley buses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the low-floor Orion V
1997 Toronto municipal election
The 1997 Toronto municipal election was the first election held for offices in the amalgamated "megacity" of Toronto, Canada. The elections were administered by the old City of Toronto and its five suburbs within Metropolitan Toronto; the vote was held November 10, 1997, electing the mayor and 56 councillors in 28 wards who took office on January 1, 1998, the day of the amalgamation. The election resulted in a showdown between Barbara Hall, the one-term mayor of the old city of Toronto, Mel Lastman, mayor of the former Toronto suburb of North York for 25 years; the mayoral race saw incumbents from the two largest former cities run to be mayor, the left-leaning Barbara Hall and the right-leaning Mel Lastman. Lastman won the election by narrow margin; the election followed a plurality-at-large voting system where electors could vote for two candidates. Each of the 28 wards elected two councillors. Ward 1 – East York Michael Prue – 22440 Case Ootes – 8608 Jane Pitfield – 6926 Michael Tziretas – 6349 Elizabeth Rowley – 5707 Bob Dale – 4709 George Vasilopoulos – 4275 Paul Fernandes – 3156 Paul Robinson – 2885 Hortencia Fotopoulos – 663 Edward Wigglesworth – 368Ward 2 – Lakeshore Queensway Irene Jones – 9387 Blake Kinahan – 7788 Peter Milczyn – 7127 Jeff Knoll – 6877 Connie Micallef – 5179 Diethar Lein – 4396 David Smith – 2286 Joe Connell – 713 George Kash – 409Ward 3 – Kingsway Humber Gloria Lindsay Luby – 13123 Mario Giansante – 12767 Dennis Flynn – 10092 Rob Ford – 9366 Adam Slobodian – 797 Ben Cachola – 753Ward 4 – Markland Centennial Doug Holyday – 15430 Dick O'Brien – 10410 Agnes Ugolini Potts – 9650 Brian Flynn – 6809 Steve Deighton – 3974 Helen Bodanis – 799 Mark Stanisz – 507 Daphne Gabriel – 413 Alexander P. Masur – 279Ward 5 – Rexdale Thistletown Elizabeth Brown – 6546 Bruce Sinclair – 6482 Vincent Crisanti – 3540 John Kiru – 3203 Marco Luciani – 2847 Carmela Sasso – 2244 Brian Ineson – 2135 Nicolo Fortunato – 1925 Peter Kell – 1240 Anthony Caputo – 1133 Patrick McCool – 1045 Rosemarie Mulhall – 413Ward 6 – North York Humber Judy Sgro – 14334 George Mammoliti – 10226 Gina Serverino – 6875 Tony Marzilli – 5205 Bob Churchhill – 5012 Michael Marson – 722Ward 7 – Black CreekAnna Stella is a longtime community activist in the Black Creek area of Toronto.
She applied to replace Anthony Perruzza as North York's fifth ward councillor in 1990, after Perruzza was elected to the provincial legislature and council decided to nominate an interim replacement rather than hold a by-election. She was turned down in favour of Claudio Polsinelli. Stella was elected to the Metro Toronto Separate School Board in the 1994 municipal election defeating four other candidates in Ward Twelve, she supported greater parental involvement in school affairs and a zero-tolerance policy toward violence, although she opposed Scarborough's policy of expulsion. In the 1997 election, she was endorsed by Annamarie Castrilli. Jeanelle Julien was a first-time candidate. Ward 8 – North York SpadinaHenry Braverman was a first-time candidate. Nickeisha Hudson was a student trustee in 1997, was awarded a Harry Jerome Award for leadership, she was a first-time candidate. In 1999, she was a youth events coordinator in Hamilton. Dzeko is a businessman in Toronto, he was a first-time candidate.
Ward 9 – North York Centre South Joanne Flint – 16447 Milton Berger – 12370 Dick Chapman – 8484 Stuart Ian Weinstein – 3740Ward 10 – North York Centre John Filion – 17533 Norman Gardner – 15135 Ron Summers – 11212Ward 11 – Don Parkway Gordon Chong – 11961 Denzil Minnan-Wong – 11001 Don Yuill – 10450 Kim Scott – 4742 Allen Scott – 4369 Janaki Bala-Krishan – 2901 Neil Milson – 684 Christopher M. Beale – 653 Dixon Rhamadeen – 380Ward 12 – Seneca Heights Joan King – 18471 David Shiner – 18319 Raffi Assadourian – 5151 Joel Ginsberg – 3345 Bernadette Michael – 2938Ward 13 – Scarborough Bluffs Brian Ashton – 15528 Gerry Altobello – 12605 Fred Johnston – 11265 Gaye Dale – 6491 Karin Eaton – 4670 Ed Green – 931Ward 14 – Scarborough Wexford Norm Kelly – 13740 Mike Tzekas – 12318 Aris Babikian – 3644 Gerry Leonard – 2366 George Pornaras – 2024Ward 15 – Scarborough City Centre Brad Duguid – 15686 Lorenzo Berardinetti – 14179 Paul Mushinski – 9141 Betty Hackett – 4579 Russell Worrick – 3882 Ron Hartung – 743Ward 16 – Scarborough Highland Creek Frank Faubert – 15062 Ron Moeser – 13955 David Soknacki – 12183 Chris Braney – 7142Ward 17 – Scarborough Agincourt Sherene Shaw – 10634 Doug Mahood – 9861 Wayne Cook – 5631 Jeff Mark – 4909 Doug Hum – 4645Ward 18 – Scarborough Malvern Raymond Cho – 11190 Bas Balkissoon – 10745 Edith Montgomery – 10659 Jim Mackey – 2621 Terry Singh – 1812 Sinna Chelliah – 1165 Jasmine Singh – 871 Arlanna Lewis – 666 George B.
Singh – 339Ward 19 – High ParkConnie Dejak is a longtime administrator at Runnymede Chronic Care Hospital. As of 2006, she is the hospital's chief executive officer; when a reviewing committee appointed by the Mike Harris provincial government decided to close Runnymede in 1997, she organized the hospital's successful challenge against the decision. Dejak is a community activist, has served on a police liaison committee for her neighbourhood, she and David Miller were endorsed by the Toronto Star newspaper in the 1997 campaign. She sought an appointment to the Toronto Police Serves Board in 1999, but was passed over in favour of Alan Heisey. In the 2003 mayoral contest, she supported John Nunziata. Dejak is a member of the Liberal Party, there are reports that she considered running for the party in a 2006 provincial by-election in Parkdale—High Park. Ed Hooven has a PhD in Sociology, is an assistant professor at York University, his formal biographical sketch indicates that his past works have focused on European integration, the post-war Japanese economy and North American free trade agreements
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of full or partial Sub-Saharan African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. The majority of Black Canadians are of Caribbean origin, though the population consists of African-American immigrants and their descendants, as well as many native African immigrants. Black Canadians draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots; the term African Canadian is used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland. Promised freedom by the British during the American Revolutionary War, thousands of Black Loyalists were resettled by the Crown in Canada afterward, such as Thomas Peters. In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad. Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, instead identify as Caribbean Canadian.
Unlike in the United States, where African American has become a used term, in Canada controversies associated with distinguishing African or Caribbean heritage have resulted in the term Black Canadian being accepted there. Black Canadians have contributed to many areas of Canadian culture. Many of the first visible minorities to hold high public offices have been Black, including Michaëlle Jean, Donald Oliver, Stanley G. Grizzle, Rosemary Brown and Lincoln Alexander, in turn opening the door for other minorities. Black Canadians form the third-largest visible minority group in Canada, after South Asian and Chinese Canadians. According to the 2006 Census by Statistics Canada, 783,795 Canadians identified as black, constituting 2.5 per cent of the entire Canadian population. Of the black population, 11 per cent identified as mixed-race of "white and black"; the five most black-populated provinces in 2006 were Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia. The ten most black-populated census metropolitan areas were Toronto, Ottawa, Vancouver, Hamilton, Winnipeg and Oshawa.
Preston, in the Halifax area, is the community with the highest percentage of black people, with 69.4 per cent. According to the 2011 Census, a total of 945,665 Black Canadians were counted, making up 2.9 per cent of Canada's population. In the 2016 Census, the black population totalled 1,198,540, encompassing 3.5 per cent of the country's population. At times, it has been claimed that Black Canadians have been undercounted in census data. Writer George Elliott Clarke has cited a McGill University study which found that 43 per cent of all Black Canadians were not counted as black in the 1991 Canadian census, because they had identified on census forms as British, French or other cultural identities which were not included in the census group of Black cultures. Although subsequent censuses have reported the population of Black Canadians to be much more consistent with the McGill study's revised 1991 estimate than with the official 1991 census data, no recent study has been conducted to determine whether some Black Canadians are still missed by the self-identification method.
One of the ongoing controversies in the Black Canadian community revolves around appropriate terminologies. Many Canadians of Afro-Caribbean origin object to the term African Canadian, as it obscures their own culture and history, this accounts for the term's less prevalent use in Canada, compared to the consensus African American south of the border. Black Nova Scotians, a more distinct cultural group, of whom some can trace their Canadian ancestry back to the 1700s, use both terms, African Canadian and Black Canadian. For example, there is an Office of African Nova Scotian Affairs and a Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Caribbean Canadian is used to refer to Black Canadians of Caribbean heritage, although this usage can be controversial because the Caribbean is not populated only by people of African origin, but includes large groups of Indo-Caribbeans, Chinese Caribbeans, European Caribbeans, Syrian or Lebanese Caribbeans and Amerindians; the term West Indian is used by those of Caribbean ancestry, although the term is more of a cultural description than a racial one, can be applied to groups of many different racial and ethnic backgrounds.
The term Afro-Caribbean-Canadian is used in response to this controversy, although as of 2019, this term is still not seen in common usage. More specific national terms such as Jamaican Canadian, Haitian Canadian, or Ghanaian Canadian are used; as of 2019, there is no used alternative to Black Canadian, accepted by the Afro-Caribbean population, those of more recent African extraction, descendants of immigrants from the United States as an umbrella term for the whole group. One common practice, seen in academic usage and in the names and mission statements of some Black Canadian cultural and social organizations but not yet in universal nationwide usage, is to always make reference to both the African and Caribbean communities. For example, one key health organization dedicated to HIV/AIDS education and prevention in the Black Canadian community is now named the African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario, the Toronto publication Pride bills itself as an "African-Canadian and Caribbean-Canadian news magazine", G98.7, a Black-ori
Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
Hopes were high tha
Toronto City Council
The Toronto City Council is the governing body of the City of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. Members represent wards throughout the city, are known as councillors; the passage of provincial legislation in the summer of 2018 established that the number of wards be reduced from 44 to 25 and that they be based upon the city's federal electoral districts as of the year 2000. While the federal districts have been redistributed since the ward boundaries remain the same; the city council had at its peak 45 members: 44 ward councillors plus the mayor. On September 19, 2018 an Ontario Court of appeals granted a stay order of a previous court decision that would have prevented this reduction, thus re-establishing the move to 25 wards; the actual court appeal of Bill 5 has yet to be scheduled, but was heard subsequent to the municipal election on October 22, 2018. The current decision-making framework and committee structure at the City of Toronto was established by the City of Toronto Act and came into force January 1, 2007.
The decision-making process at the City of Toronto involves committees. Committees propose and debate policies and recommendations before their arrival at City Council for debate. Citizens and residents can only make deputations on policy at committees, citizens cannot make public presentations to City Council; each City Councillor sits on one committee. The Mayor is entitled to one vote. There are three types of committees at the City of Toronto: the Executive Committee, Standing Committees and other Committees of Council; the City posts agendas for council and committee meetings on its website. The Executive Committee is an advisory body; the Executive Committee is composed of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, the chairs of the seven standing committees who are appointed by the Mayor and four "at-large" members appointed by City Council. The role of the Executive Committee is to set the City of Toronto's priorities, manage financial planning and budgeting, labour relations, human resources, the operation of City Council.
The Executive Committee makes recommendations to city council on: strategic policy and priorities governance policy and structure financial planning and budgeting fiscal policy intergovernmental and international relations Council operations Human resources and labour relationsSeveral committees report to the Executive Committee: Budget Committee, Affordable Housing Committee, Employee and Labour Relations Committee. Source: City of Toronto Following the sudden decision by the Provincial government to reduce the size of City Council in summer 2018, the committee structure is under review. There were eleven other committees; the seven standing policy committees were: There are four other committees that report to Council: Source: City of Toronto All members of Toronto city council serve on a community council. Community Councils report to City Council but they have final decision-making power on certain items, such as front yard parking and appointments to local boards and Business Improvement Areas.
The city is divided into four community councils. Their meeting locations are as follows: Etobicoke York – Etobicoke Civic Centre North York – North York Civic Centre Scarborough – Scarborough Civic Centre Toronto and East York – Toronto City Hall The current council term began on December 1, 2018. In 2014, the Mayor's salary was $177,499 and Councillors was $105,397. Starting January 1, 2017, the Mayor's salary was increased to $188,544 and Councillors to $111,955, a 2.1 per cent change. The Office of the Mayor is located on the second floor at Toronto City Hall; the general public and media can access it via stairs. The current staff of the office consists of: Chief of Staff - Luke Robertson Deputy Chief of Staff - Courtney Glen Principal Secretary - Vince Gasparro Executive Assistant to the Mayor - Dee Dee Heywood Executive Assistant to the Chief - Karen Cooper Executive Director of Communications & Strategic Issues Management - Don Peat Executive Director of Budget & Finance - Sophia Arvanitis Director, Legislative Affairs - Edward Birnbaum Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Daniela Magisano Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Matt Buckman Senior Advisor, Tour - Emily Hillstrom Advisor, Constituency Affairs - Farnaz Patel Advisor, Communications - Avi Yufest Advisor, Communications & Tour - Louise Brunet Special Assistant, Outreach - Kema Joseph Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Tour - Abinaya Chandrabalan Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Outreach - Cindy Lee Special Assistant, Communications & Tour - Gabe Ciufo Assistant, Constituent Affairs - Steevan Sritharan Current members of the Committee: Paul Ainslie Ana Bailão Gary Crawford Denzil Minnan-Wong Frances Nunziata James Pasternak Michael Thompson John Tory The committee existed in the old City of Toronto beginning in 1969.
Before that Toronto had a Board of Control, as did former cities North Etobicoke. Vacancies in a council seat may be filled in one of two ways, either by the holding of a by-election or through direct appointment of an interim councillor chosen by the council in an internal vote; the council is allowed to decide which process to follow in each individual case. The process results in public debate, however; the by-election process is seen as more democratic, while the appointment process is seen as less expensive for the city t
David Miller (Canadian politician)
David Raymond Miller is the North American director for the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, a former Mayor of Toronto and former president and CEO of WWF-Canada, the Canadian division of the international World Wildlife Fund. A former politician, Miller was the 63rd Mayor of Toronto from 2003 to 2010, he entered politics as a member of the New Democratic Party, although his mayoral campaign and terms in office were without any formal party affiliation. He allowed his party membership to lapse in 2007. After declining poll numbers, Miller announced on September 25, 2009, that he would not seek a third term as mayor in the 2010 election, citing family reasons, he subsequently served as an advisor on urban issues at the World Bank from 2011 to 2013. Miller was born in California, his American father, Joe Miller, died of cancer in 1960, his English mother Joan returned with her son to Thriplow, south of Cambridge. Miller spent his earliest years in England before moving to Canada with his mother in 1967.
He attended Lakefield College School on a scholarship at the time. Miller completed a four-year undergraduate degree at Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude in Economics in 1981, he earned a Bachelor of Laws degree from the University of Toronto Faculty of Law in 1984 and became a partner at the prominent Toronto law firm of Aird & Berlis LLP, specializing in employment, immigration law and shareholder rights. He represented Toronto Islands residents in a 1985 arbitration case while an articling student, described this experience as his introduction to municipal politics, he married fellow lawyer Jill Arthur in 1994, the pair have two children. Miller joined the New Democratic Party in 1985, he first ran for Metropolitan Toronto council in 1991, campaigning on a platform of public transit improvements to establish Toronto as a world-class city. He lost to incumbent councillor Derwyn Shea. Miller was subsequently the NDP's candidate for Parkdale—High Park in the 1993 Canadian federal election, finished fourth against Liberal incumbent Jesse Flis.
He did not renew his membership in the NDP when it expired in 2007, stating that he did not want to be seen as partisan when dealing with the provincial and federal governments. In 2011, he joined NYU Poly as a faculty member. Miller campaigned for the Metro Toronto Council a second time in 1994, was elected for the High Park ward over former Member of Parliament Andrew Witer and future cabinet minister Tony Clement. Following the election, he was appointed to the Metro Planning and Transportation Committee, the Metro Anti-racism Committee, the Board of Governors for Exhibition Place, he spoke against Metro's decision to cut $3 million from its staffing budget in early 1995, arguing that the resulting hardship for laid-off workers during a national recession would be "unconscionable". The provincial government of Mike Harris amalgamated several surrounding municipalities into the City of Toronto in 1997, with the stated intention of eliminating duplication of services and increasing efficiency.
Miller argued that the decision to eliminate six local councils and establish a "megacity" was carried out without public approval. He proposed an alternate plan to fold the six local councils into the existing Metro council, but this received little support, he campaigned for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1996, running as the NDP candidate in York South to succeed outgoing party leader Bob Rae. He was narrowly defeated by Liberal Party candidate Gerard Kennedy. Miller was elected to the new City of Toronto council in the 1997, winning one of the two seats in Ward 19, High Park, he was appointed to the Toronto Transit Commission after the election, became a prominent ally of TTC chair Howard Moscoe. He was appointed to lead a twelve-member committee that studied the transition to amalgamated municipal services, advocated that Toronto City Hall rather than Metro Hall to be the permanent seat of the new government. Miller served on a three-member committee that recommended changes to the municipal ward boundaries.
Miller issued a formal apology on behalf of the TTC in June 1999, following complaints about a subway advertisement by the Toronto police union that some believed depicted Hispanics as criminals. The following year, he argued that the union's controversial "Operation True Blue" telemarketing campaign was creating a climate of intimidation for Toronto residents. Both Miller and his wife claimed that they had received threatening telephone calls during the 2000 municipal election, after the police union listed his home telephone number in a campaign advertisement. Miller became known as an advocate for waterfront parklands during his time on council, he supported several aspects of a 2000 report from Robert Fung of the Toronto Waterfront Task Force, while criticizing the proposal to sell parkland near Exhibition Place for private development. He opposed plans to construct a condominium near Toronto's High Park within his ward, instead supporting the construction of affordable housing for low-income residents.
Toronto's existing Keele Valley Landfill would reach capacity by 2002. Miller opposed a plan by Toronto Mayor Mel Lastman to ship the city's garbage to the Adams Mine in Northern Ontario, while was voted down by council; the city instead sent its trash to Carleton Farms Landfill. Following electoral redistribution, Miller was re-elected in 2000 over fellow councillor Bill Saundercook in Ward 13, Parkdale-High Park, he was re-appointed to the TTC and sought election as its chair, but was passed over in favour of Brian Ashton. In 2001, he expressed concern that the WheelTrans bus service for the disabled might be contracted out to the private sector
Julian Fantino, is a Canadian retired police official and former politician. He was the Conservative Party of Canada Member of the Parliament of Canada for the riding of Vaughan following a November 29, 2010 by-election, until his defeat in 2015. On January 4, 2011, Fantino was named Minister of State for Seniors. Fantino served as the Minister of Veterans Affairs from 2013 until 2015, when he was demoted to his earlier post of Associate Minister of National Defence following sustained criticism of his performance at Veterans Affairs, he was defeated by Liberal candidate Francesco Sorbara in the 2015 election. Prior to entering politics, Fantino was the Commissioner of the Ontario Provincial Police from 2006 to 2010, Toronto's Chief of Police from 2000 to 2005, Ontario's Commissioner of Emergency Management from 2005 until 2006, served as chief of police of London, Ontario from 1991 to 1998, of York Region from 1998 until 2000. Prior to his London appointment, he had been a Toronto police officer since 1969.
Fantino emigrated to Canada with his family when he was 11 years old. Before joining the Metro Toronto Police, Fantino was a security guard at Yorkdale Shopping Centre in suburban Toronto, he volunteered as an Auxiliary Police Officer for the Metro Toronto Police from 1964 to 1969 and joined the force as a Police Constable. He was promoted to Detective Constable, he subsequently served with Criminal Intelligence and the Homicide Squad before being promoted to Divisional Commander and Acting Staff Superintendent of Detectives. According to an internal police report leaked in 2007, Fantino, as superintendent of detectives in 1991, had ordered a wiretap of lawyer Peter Maloney a police critic and friend of Susan Eng, chair of the Toronto Police Services Board, the body overseeing the Toronto Police service. Conversations between Maloney and Eng were illegally recorded despite a court order that only the first minute of Maloney's conversations were to be monitored so as to determine whether the individual who he was talking to was on the list of those being investigated.
After 23 years of service with the Metro Toronto Police, Fantino left to accept an appointment as Police Chief of London, Ontario in 1991. In London, he presided over the publicized and controversial "Project Guardian", in which over two dozen gay men were arrested for involvement in a purported child pornography ring. While several men were convicted of crimes not related to the stated purpose of the investigation, such as drug possession and prostitution, no child pornography ring was found. Journalist Gerald Hannon published a piece in The Globe and Mail accusing Fantino of mounting an anti-gay witch hunt. In response, Fantino filed a complaint with the Ontario Press Council, which ruled that the Globe should have more labelled Hannon's article as an opinion piece. Fantino says that he is "not anti-gay or homophobic" and was arresting lawbreakers engaging in "a sick, perverted crime". Fantino returned to the Greater Toronto Area as Chief of York Regional Police in 1998, his tenure was brief and he returned to the Toronto Police Service two years later.
He was succeeded as chief by Robert Middaugh. An incident in September 2000 involving five male police officers entering a woman's bath house sparked public outrage and drew attention to TPS's poor standing in the gay community. In 2004, Fantino made an attempt to repair relations by appearing on the cover of fab in a photo which featured him posing in his police uniform with five other models dressed as the Village People standing behind him. Fantino appeared to have little patience for protesters: he wanted them to ask police for permission before holding demonstrations. In one report, he commented "a problem is now arising where portions of the public believe that Dundas Square is a public space." In his new position with the OPP, Fantino took an aggressive posture with a native protest blocking a major highway: he stated he "would not/could not tolerate the 401 being closed all day." However, the commander on site decided against a raid as " not about to put people at risk for a piece of pavement."In 2003, Fantino criticized the effectiveness of the Canadian gun registry.
In 2003, Fantino publicly named and identified several people as being under investigation for child pornography. Despite the lack of evidence, the crown subsequently dropping the charges, at least one of the men publicly identified committed suicide, naming Fantino's intentional destruction of his reputation as the reason for his suicide in the suicide note. Fantino came under increasing scrutiny due to three corruption scandals which broke out during his tenure and his handling of those incidents. Fantino was accused of having tried to deal with these cases out of public view and attempting to shield them from investigation by outside police services. In one case, drug squad officers are alleged to have robbed suspected drug dealers. In another, plainclothes officers were charged with accepting bribes to help bars dodge liquor inspections. In the third, a group of officers who advocated on behalf of a drug-addicted car thief faced internal charges. Two of these cases involve the sons of former police chief William McCormack, came to light not as a result of investigations by Toronto police, but due to a Royal Canadian Mounted Police investigation into gangster activity which inadvertently uncovered evidence of wrongdoing by Toronto police officers.
Mike McCormack was cleared of all wrongdoing due to a lack of ev