Provo is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest county seat of Utah County. Provo lies between the cities of Orem to Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 115,264, Provo is the principal city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which had a population of 526,810 at the 2010 census, it is Utah's second-largest metropolitan area after Salt Lake City. Provo is the home of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center; the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion-dollar startups. The city's Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002. Sundance Resort is 13 miles northeast, at Provo Canyon. In 2015, Forbes cited Provo among the "Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs," and the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that Utah County had the year's highest job growth.
In 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No. 2 city on its list of Best Places for Careers. Provo was ranked first for first in health/well-being; the Provo area was called Timpanogas, a Numic word meaning "rock river". The area was inhabited by the Timpanogos, it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people; the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area, in 1776, he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin Desert; the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado. In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, just north of Timpanogos Mountain.
At first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of disputes over land and cattle, tensions rose; because of the reported stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future." This ended in modern-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands. In 1849, 33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War; the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog. Fort Utah was renamed Provo in 1850 for Étienne Provost, an early French-Canadian trapper who arrived in the region in 1825. 1850 saw the construction of the first school house in Provo, built within Utah Fort. As more Latter-day Saints moved in Provo grew as a city, it soon came to be nicknamed The Garden City with the large number of fruit orchards and gardens there.1872 saw the railroad reach Provo.
It was this year that the Provo Woolen Mills opened. They were the first large factory in Provo and employed about 150 people mainly skilled textile laborers who had immigrated from Britain. Provo lies in the Utah Valley at an elevation of 4,549 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.2 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles, or 5.66%, is water. The Wasatch Range contains many peaks within Utah County along the east side of the Wasatch Front. One of these peaks, known as Y Mountain, towers over the city. There is a large hillside letter Y made of whitewashed concrete halfway up the steep mountain, built in the early part of the 20th century to commemorate Brigham Young University. Wild deer still roam the mountains; the geography allows for hiking, skiing and other outdoor activities. Provo has a humid continental climate bordering on a humid subtropical climate or hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with four distinct seasons.
Overall, annual rainfall at the location of Brigham Young University is around 19.75 inches or 500 millimetres. The wettest calendar year in Provo has been 1983 with 37.54 inches and the driest 2002 with 10.65 inches. Winters are cold with substantial snowfall averaging 57.2 inches or 1.45 metres and a record monthly total of 66.0 inches in January 1918, during which the record snow cover of 34 inches or 0.86 metres was record on the 17th. Seasonal snowfall has ranged from 127.5 inches in 1983–84 to a mere 10.1 inches in 2014–15. Cold weather may occur when cold air from over the Continental Divide invades the region: although only four mornings fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C during an average winter and this temperature was not reached at all between 1999 and 2006, during the cold January 1917, seventeen mornings fell this cold. By contrast, in several recent winters like 1994–95, 1995–96, 19
2006–07 NFL playoffs
The National Football League playoffs for the 2006 season began on January 6, 2007. The postseason tournament concluded with the Indianapolis Colts defeating the Chicago Bears in Super Bowl XLI, 29–17, on February 4, at Dolphin Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. Within each conference, the four division winners and the two wild card teams qualified for the playoffs; the four division winners are seeded 1 through 4 based on their overall won-lost-tied record, the wild card teams are seeded 5 and 6. The NFL does not use a fixed bracket playoff system, there are no restrictions regarding teams from the same division matching up in any round. In the first round, dubbed the wild-card playoffs or wild-card weekend, the third-seeded division winner hosts the sixth seed wild card, the fourth seed hosts the fifth; the 1 and 2 seeds from each conference receive a bye in the first round. In the second round, the divisional playoffs, the number 1 seed hosts the worst surviving seed from the first round, while the number 2 seed will play the other team.
The two surviving teams from each conference's divisional playoff games meet in the respective AFC and NFC Conference Championship games, hosted by the higher seed. Although the Super Bowl, the fourth and final round of the playoffs, is played at a neutral site, the designated home team is based on an annual rotation by conference. * Indicates overtime victory Under the new U. S. television broadcast contracts that took effect starting this season, NBC replaced ABC as the network televising the first two Wild Card playoff games. Fox televised the rest of the NFC games. CBS broadcast the rest of the AFC playoff games and Super Bowl XLI. Despite quarterback Peyton Manning's three interceptions, the Indianapolis Colts out-gained the Kansas City Chiefs in total yards, 435–126, first downs, 23–8. Indianapolis's defense forced three turnovers, four sacks, prevented Kansas City from gaining a single first down until late in the third quarter; the game was never in question despite Manning's turnovers as Indy dominated Kansas City from start to finish to earn a trip to Baltimore.
The Colts opened up the scoring on their first drive of the game with Adam Vinatieri's 48-yard field goal. The next time they had the ball, they drove 68 yards to the Kansas City 2-yard line, but had to settle for another Vinatieri field goal to give them a 6–0 lead. After another Kansas City punt, Chiefs cornerback Ty Law intercepted a pass from Manning and returned it 43 yards to the Colts 9-yard line, but Kansas City failed to get the ball into the end zone with three rushing attempts and came up empty when Lawrence Tynes' 23-yard field goal attempt hit the left upright. After another interception thrown by Manning and another Kansas City punt, the Colts increased their lead to 9–0 by driving 33 yards and scoring on Vinatieri's 50-yard field goal on the last play of the first half; the Chiefs ended the half with no first downs. This was the first time in the modern era and the first time since 1960 that an NFL team had been held without an offensive first down in the first half of a playoff game.
On the Colts' opening possession of the second half, Manning threw his third interception of the game, but the Chiefs could not take advantage of the turnover and had to punt. Indianapolis drove 89 yards in 12 plays and scored with Joseph Addai's 6-yard touchdown run, giving them a 16–0 lead. Kansas City got their first first down of the game on their ensuing possession, driving 60 yards in eight plays. Trent Green finished the drive with a 6-yard touchdown pass to tight end Tony Gonzalez, completed a pass to tight end Kris Wilson for a successful two-point conversion to cut their deficit to within one touchdown, 16–8. However, the Colts increased their lead to 23–8 on a 71-yard, 9-play drive ending with Reggie Wayne's 5-yard touchdown reception. Indianapolis's defense forced three turnovers on the Chiefs' last three drives to clinch the victory. Dallas Cowboys' quarterback Tony Romo, a four-year veteran who earned the starting job and made the Pro Bowl for the first time in his career during the regular season, botched the hold on a potential game-winning field goal with 1:19 left in the fourth quarter, allowing the Seattle Seahawks to escape with a victory.
Taking advantage of Dallas kicker Martín Gramática's opening kickoff, which went out-of-bounds and gave Seattle the ball at their own 40, the Seahawks marched down the field on their opening drive and scored with Josh Brown's 23-yard field goal. Dallas was forced to punt on their ensuing possession, but Cowboys defensive back Anthony Henry intercepted Seattle's next pass and returned it to the Seahawks 43-yard line, setting up Gramatica's 50-yard field goal to tie the game. Early in the second quarter, Seattle drove 54 yards and retook the lead with Brown's second field goal of the game. After an exchange of punts, the Cowboys took the lead. Aided by Jason Witten's 32-yard reception, Dallas drove 76 yards in ten plays and scored on Romo's 12-yard touchdown pass to Patrick Crayton with only 11 seconds left in the half, giving the Cowboys a 10–6 lead. In the third quarter, Seattle drove 62 yards in 12 plays, featuring two fourth-down conversions by running back Shaun Alexander, scored with Matt Hasselbeck's 15-yard touchdown pass to Jerramy Stevens, giving them a 13–10 lead.
However, Dallas promptly took the lead right back after Miles Austin returned the ensuing kickoff 93 yards for a touchdown. Early in the final quarter, Dallas defensive back Roy Williams intercepted a pass from Hasselbeck at the Cowboys 43-yard line. Eight plays Gramatica kicked a 29-yard field goal to increase his team's lead to
2006 NFL season
The 2006 NFL season was the 87th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 7 to December 31, 2006; the NFL title was won by the Indianapolis Colts, when they defeated the Chicago Bears 29–17 in Super Bowl XLI at Dolphin Stadium at Miami Gardens, Florida on February 4. End zone celebrations became more restricted. Players can not do any act in which they are on the ground. Players may still spike, or, dunk it over the goal posts. Dancing in the end zone is permitted as long as it is not a prolonged or group celebration; the Lambeau Leap, though, is still legal. Defenders were prohibited from hitting a passer in the knee or below unless they are blocked into him; this rule was enacted in response to the previous season's injuries to Cincinnati Bengals quarterback Carson Palmer, Pittsburgh Steelers' Ben Roethlisberger, Tampa Bay Buccaneers' Brian Griese. Down-by-contact calls could now be reviewed by instant replay to determine if a player fumbled the ball before he was down, who recovered it.
These plays could not be reversed once officials blew the whistle. The "horse-collar tackle" rule enacted during the previous 2005 season was expanded. Players are now prohibited from tackling a ball carrier from the rear by tugging inside his jersey, it was only illegal if the tackler's hand got inside the player's shoulder pads. To reduce injuries, defensive players cannot line up directly over the long snapper during field goal and extra point attempts; the 2006 season marked the debut of new officiating uniforms which are supposed to be more comfortable for officials to wear in extreme weather over the old polyester uniforms. The uniforms were designed by Reebok using a proprietary material technology to keep officials both warm and dry during the winter months of the season. On the shirt, the position and number are removed from the front pocket and the lettering and numbers on the back side were black-on-white and are smaller print and the sleeve shows the uniform number. Officials wore full-length black pants with white stripe during the winter months to stay warm, criticized by media.
This was the first major design overhaul since 1979, when the position name was added to the shirt, but abbreviated in 1982. Bernie Kukar and Tom White retired. Jerome Boger and Gene Steratore were promoted to referee. For the first time since Super Bowl IV at the conclusion of the 1969 season, the official NFL game ball was known as "The Duke" in honor of Wellington Mara, whose family owns the New York Giants. Son John is the current CEO of the team; the NFL first used "The Duke" ball in honor of Mara in 1941 after then-Chicago Bears owner George Halas and then-Giants owner Tim Mara made a deal with Wilson Sporting Goods to become the league's official supplier of game balls, a relationship that continued into its sixty-fifth year in 2006.“The Duke” ball was discontinued after the 1970 AFL-NFL Merger, the merged league began using a different standardized ball made by Wilson. The only other time that "The Duke" ball name was used was during the two "Thanksgiving Classic" games in 2004. One side of the new 2006 "Duke" football featured the NFL shield logo in gold, the words "The Duke", the NFL commissioner’s signature.
The obverse side has a small NFL logo above the needle bladder hole, the conference names between the hole, the words "National Football League" in gold. As per the custom, specially branded balls were used for the first week of the 2006 season as well as for the Thanksgiving Day, conference championships, Super Bowl XLI and Pro Bowl games. Through week 11 of the season, all NFL games had been sold out, for the 24th time, all blackout restrictions had been lifted; the streak was ended by the Jacksonville at Buffalo game in Week 12. This was the first season that NBC held the rights to televise Sunday Night Football, becoming the beneficiaries by negotiating the new flexible-scheduling system. ESPN became the new home of Monday Night Football, replacing sister network American Broadcasting Company, who chose to opt out of broadcasting league games. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively.
This was the first season that the NFL used a “flexible-scheduling” for the last few weeks of the season, allowing the league flexibility in selecting games to air on Sunday night, in order to feature the current hottest, streaking teams. This was implemented to prevent games featuring losing teams from airing during primetime late in the season, while at the same time allowing NBC to rake in more money off of the higher ratings from surprise, playoff-potential teams that more fans would enjoy watching. Under the flexible-scheduling system, all Sunday games in the affected weeks tentatively had the start times of 1 p.m. ET/10 a.m. PT, except those played in the Pacific or Mountain time zones, which will have a tentative start time of 4 p.m. ET/1 p.m. PT. On the Tuesday 12 days before the games, the league moved one game to the primetime slot, one or more 1 p.m. slotted games to the 4 p.m. slots. During the last week of the season, the league could re-schedule games as late as six days before the contests so that all of the television networks will be able to broadcast a game that has playoff implications.
Starting September 18, fans were able to download highlights of their teams' games through Apple's iTunes Store. Each video costs US$1.99 each but fans have the chance of buying a "Follow Your
2007 NFL season
The 2007 NFL season was the 88th regular season of the National Football League. Regular-season play was held from September 6 to December 30; the New England Patriots became the first team to complete the regular season undefeated since the league expanded to a 16-game regular season in 1978. Four weeks after the playoffs began on January 5, 2008, the Patriots' bid for a perfect season was dashed when they lost to the New York Giants in Super Bowl XLII, the league championship game at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona on February 3, by a score of 17–14; the following rule changes were passed at the league's annual owners meeting in Phoenix, Arizona during the week of March 25–28: The instant replay system, used since the 1999 season, was made a permanent officiating tool. It was renewed on a biennial basis; the system has been upgraded to use high-definition technology. However, the systems at Texas Stadium, RCA Dome, Giants Stadium did not receive the HDTV updates since those stadiums were scheduled to be replaced in the forthcoming years.
One reason that the technology was improved was that fans with high-definition televisions at home were having better views on replays than the officials and according to Dean Blandino, the NFL's instant replay director "that could have bit us in the rear if we continued." In addition, the amount of time allotted for the referee to review a play was reduced from 90 seconds to one minute. After a play is over, players who spike the ball in the field of play, other than in the end zone, will receive a 5-yard delay of game penalty. Forward passes that unintentionally hit an offensive lineman before an eligible receiver will no longer be an illegal touching penalty, but deliberate actions are still penalized. Roughing-the-passer penalties will not be called on a defender engaged with a quarterback who extends his arms and shoves the passer to the ground. During situations where crowd noise becomes a problem, the offense can no longer ask the referee to reset the play clock, it is necessary to have the ball touch the pylon or break the plane above the pylon to count as a touchdown.
A player just had to have some portion of his body over the goal line or pylon to count a touchdown. A completed catch is now when a receiver has control of the ball. A receiver had to make "a football move" in addition to having control of the ball for a reception. Players will be subject to a fine from the league for playing with an unbuckled chin strap. Officials will not penalize for chin strap violations during a game. John Parry was promoted to referee, replacing Bill Vinovich, forced to resign due to a heart condition. Vinovich would serve as a replay official from 2007 to 2011, he would be given a clean bill of health and return to the field as a referee in 2012. The 2007 season marked the second year of the current television contracts with NBC, CBS, Fox, ESPN, the NFL Network; the pre-game shows made some changes, with former Steelers coach Bill Cowher joining host James Brown, Boomer Esiason, Shannon Sharpe and Dan Marino on CBS’ The NFL Today. On Fox, after one season on the road, Fox NFL Sunday returned to Los Angeles as Curt Menefee took over as full-time host.
Chris Rose, doing in-game updates of other NFL games, was reverted to a part-time play-by-play role. The biggest changes were at NBC and ESPN. Michael Irvin’s contract with ESPN was not renewed, former coach Bill Parcells returned to the network after four years as Cowboys head coach. Parcells left. Another pair of former Cowboys, Emmitt Smith and Keyshawn Johnson provided roles in the studio for Sunday NFL Countdown and Monday Night Countdown. At Monday Night Football, Joe Theismann was dropped after seventeen years in the booth between the Sunday and Monday Night packages, former Philadelphia Eagles quarterback and current Philadelphia Soul president Ron Jaworski took his place alongside Mike Tirico and Tony Kornheiser. Part of the reason that Jaworski replaced Theismann was because of his chemistry with Kornheiser on Pardon the Interruption, where Jaworski was a frequent guest during the football season. NBC’s Football Night in America made two changes. MSNBC Countdown anchor Keith Olbermann joined Bob Costas and Cris Collinsworth as another co-host, while Sterling Sharpe exited as a studio analyst, former New York Giants running back Tiki Barber replaced him.
In another change, Faith Hill took over singing “Waiting All Day For Sunday Night” for Pink. In the second year of the NFL Network's “Run to the Playoffs”, Marshall Faulk and Deion Sanders replaced Dick Vermeil for two games when Collinsworth was unavailable. An unforced change saw Bryant Gumbel miss the Broncos–Texans game December 13 due to a sore throat and NBC announcer Tom Hammond step into Gumbel's play-by-play role in what turned out to be more or less a preview of one of NBC's Wild Card Game announcing teams; the dispute between the NFL Network and various cable companies involving the distribution of the cable channel continued throughout the season, getting the attention of government officials when the NFL Network was scheduled to televise two high-profile regular season games: the Packers-Cowboys game on November 29 and the Patriots-Giants game on December 29. In the case of the Packers-Cowboys game, the carriage was so limited that Governor of Wisconsin Jim Doyle went to his brother's house to watch the game on satellite (which is where the majority of the view
BYU Cougars football
The BYU Cougars football team is the college football program representing Brigham Young University, a private university owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and located in Provo, Utah. The Cougars began collegiate football competition in 1922, have won 23 conference championships and one national championship in 1984; the team has competed in several different athletic conferences during its history, but since July 1, 2011, they have competed as an Independent. The team plays home games at the 63,470-seat LaVell Edwards Stadium, named after legendary head coach LaVell Edwards. LaVell Edwards won 19 conference championships, seven bowl games, one national championship while coaching at BYU, is regarded as the most successful coach in BYU program history. BYU traces its football roots back to the late 19th century. Benjamin Cluff became the third principal of Brigham Young Academy in 1892 and was influenced by his collegiate studies at the University of Michigan to bring athletic competition to Brigham Young.
The first BYU football team in 1896 played the University of Utah, the Elks, the Crescents, the YMCA of Salt Lake City, the Wheel Club of Denver, Westminster College. In its second year of competition, the BYA football team won the championship too, but as a result of an accidental football-related death in Utah in 1900, football was banned from all LDS Church schools until 1919. After a twenty-year ban on football, the sport was brought back to BYU on an intramural basis in 1919, intercollegiate games were resumed in 1920 under coach Alvin Twitchell. BYU was admitted to the Rocky Mountain Conference in 1921 and had its first winning year in 1929 under the helm of coach G. Ott Romney, who BYU recruited from Montana State University the year before. Romney and his successor Eddie Kimball ushered in a new era in Cougar football in which the team went 65–51–12 between 1928–1942. In 1932, the Cougars posted an 8–1 record and outscored their opponents 188–50, which remains one of the school's finest seasons on record.
The university did not field a team from 1943–1945 due to World War II, in 1949 suffered its only winless season, going 0–11. The team began to rebuild in the mid-1950s, recruiting University of Rhode Island head coach Hal Kopp to lead the Cougars, whom achieved back-to-back winning seasons in 1957 and 1958, led by southpaw quarterback Jared Stephens and nose tackle Gavin Anae. In 1961, Eldon "The Phantom" Fortie became the school's first All-American, in 1962, BYU moved to the Western Athletic Conference. In 1964, Cougar Stadium was built, which included a capacity of 30,000, in 1965, head coach Tommy Hudspeth led the Cougars to their first conference championship with a record of 6–4. In 1972, assistant coach LaVell Edwards was promoted succeeding Hudspeth. Edwards and his staff installed a drop-back passing game considered to be an early implementation of the West Coast offense, resulting in Cougar Pete Van Valkenburg as the nation's leading rusher for that year; the following year, the Cougars struggled to a 5–6 finish, but this would be Edwards' only losing season during his run as BYU coach over the next three decades.
In fact, the Cougars won the conference championship every year except one from 1974 to 1985, including the national championship in 1984. However, the Cougars lost their first four bowl games, their first post-season win came in the 1980 Holiday Bowl, which has become known as the "Miracle Bowl" since BYU was trailing SMU 45–25 with four minutes left in the game and came back to win. BYU would win its 1981, 1983, 1984 bowl games as well. During this period, Young finished second for the Heisman Trophy in 1983 and McMahon finished third for the trophy in 1981. In 1984, BYU reached the pinnacle of college football; the undefeated Cougars opened the season with a 20–14 victory over Pitt, ranked No. 3 in the nation at the time and finished with a victory over the Michigan Wolverines. BYU defeated Michigan 24–17 in the Holiday Bowl, marking the only time a national champion played in a bowl game before New Year's Day, the last time the national championship was won by a team from a non-power 5 conference.
Coupled with the 11 consecutive wins to close out the 1983 season, BYU concluded the 1984 championship on a 24-game winning streak. At the end of the season, BYU was crowned as National Champion after being a unanimous number one in all four NCAA sanctioned polls AP, Coaches, NFF, FWAA. In 1985, quarterback Robbie Bosco finished third in the Heisman balloting. In 1990, the Cougars achieved their first victory over a top-ranked team when they defeated the #1 Miami Hurricanes early in the season, the season culminated with quarterback Ty Detmer becoming BYU's first and only Heisman Trophy winner. In 1996, BYU won the first WAC Championship Game in Las Vegas and earned a bid to play in the Cotton Bowl against Kansas State of the newly formed Big 12 Conference, making it BYU's first New Year's Day bowl game, which they won 19–15. BYU finished ranked No. 5 in both the Coaches and AP polls, became the first team in NCAA history to win 14 games in a season. In 1999, BYU left the WAC along with seven other teams to form the Mountain West Conference, with the Cougars winning a share of the inaugural MWC championship.
2005 NFL season
The 2005 NFL season was the 86th regular season of the National Football League. Regular season play was held from September 8, 2005 to January 1, 2006; the regular season saw the first regular season game played outside the United States, as well as the New Orleans Saints being forced to play elsewhere due to damage to the Superdome and the entire New Orleans area by Hurricane Katrina. The playoffs began on January 7. New England's streak of 10 consecutive playoff wins and chance at a third straight Super Bowl title was ended in the Divisional Playoff Round by the Denver Broncos, the NFL title was won by the Pittsburgh Steelers, who defeated the Seattle Seahawks 21–10 in Super Bowl XL at Ford Field in Detroit, Michigan on February 5 for their fifth Super Bowl win; this marked the first time that a sixth-seeded team, who by the nature of their seeding would play every game on the road, would advance to and win the Super Bowl. The season formally concluded with the Pro Bowl, the league's all-star game, at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii on February 12.
This marked the final season that ABC held the rights to televise Monday Night Football after thirty-six years of airing the series. When the TV contracts were renewed near the end of the season, the rights to broadcast Monday Night Football were awarded to Disney-owned corporate sibling ESPN. NBC bought the right to televise Sunday Night Football, marking the first time that the network broadcast NFL games since Super Bowl XXXII in 1998. Meanwhile, CBS and Fox renewed their television contracts to the American Football Conference and the National Football Conference packages, respectively; the 2005 season featured the first regular season game played outside the United States when a San Francisco 49ers – Arizona Cardinals game was played at Estadio Azteca in Mexico City on October 2. The game drew an NFL regular season record of 103,467 paid fans, it was a home game for the Cardinals because the team sold out at their then-home field, Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, Arizona. This season was the last year.
Due to the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the Louisiana Superdome and the greater New Orleans area, the New Orleans Saints’ entire 2005 home schedule was played at different venues while the Saints set up temporary operations in San Antonio, Texas. The Saints’ first home game scheduled for September 18 against the New York Giants was moved to September 19 at Giants Stadium, where the Giants won 27–10; the impromptu “Monday Night doubleheader” with the game scheduled was a success, was made a permanent part of the schedule the next year when Monday Night Football made the move to ESPN. As a result of the unscheduled doubleheader, the NFL designated its second weekend, September 18 and 19, as “Hurricane Relief Weekend’, with fund raising collections at all of the league's games; the Saints’ remaining home games were split between the Alamodome in San Antonio and Louisiana State University's Tiger Stadium in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Being forced to travel to 13 of their 16 games and practice in substandard facilities and conditions in San Antonio, the Saints finished 3–13, their worst season since 1999.
The last time an NFL franchise had to play at an alternate site was in 2002, when the Chicago Bears played home games in Champaign, Illinois, 120 miles away, due to the reconstruction of Soldier Field. The last NFL team to abandon their home city during a season was the hapless 1952 Dallas Texans, whose franchise was returned to the league after drawing several poor crowds at the Cotton Bowl, they played their final “home” game at the Rubber Bowl in Akron, against the Bears on Thanksgiving. The Sunday, October 23 game between the Kansas City Chiefs and the Miami Dolphins at Dolphins Stadium was rescheduled to Friday, October 21 at 7:00 pm EDT to beat Hurricane Wilma's arrival to the Miami, Florida area; the Chiefs won the game, 30–20, became the first visiting team to travel and play on the same day. Since the game was planned for Sunday afternoon, it is one of the few times in history that the Dolphins wore their road jerseys in a home game played at night; the “horse-collar tackle”, in which a defender grabs inside the back or side of an opponent's shoulder pads and pulls that player down, is prohibited.
Named the “Roy Williams Rule” after the Dallas Cowboys safety whose horse collar tackles during the 2004 season caused serious injuries to Philadelphia Eagles wide receiver Terrell Owens, Tennessee Titans wide receiver Tyrone Calico, Baltimore Ravens running back Musa Smith. Peel-back blocks below the waist and from the back are now illegal. Unnecessary roughness would be called for blocks away from the play on punters or kickers, similar to the same protection quarterbacks have after interceptions; when time is stopped by officials prior to the snap for any reason while time is in, the play clock resumes with the same amount of time that remained on it – with a minimum of 10 seconds. The play-clock would be reset to 25 seconds. During field goal and extra point attempts, the defensive team will be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct if it calls consecutive timeouts in an attempt to "ice" the kicker; the second timeout request was only denied by officials, thus could be used to distract the kickers.
Players cannot run, dive into, cut, or throw
Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.
In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.
To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.
Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.
A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force