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Rob Roy (cocktail)

The Rob Roy is a cocktail consisting of whisky and vermouth, created in 1894 by a bartender at the Waldorf Astoria in Manhattan, New York City. The drink was named in honor of the premiere of Rob Roy, an operetta by composer Reginald De Koven and lyricist Harry B. Smith loosely based upon Scottish folk hero Rob Roy MacGregor. A Rob Roy is similar to a Manhattan, but is made with Scotch whisky, while the Manhattan is traditionally made with rye and today made with bourbon or Canadian whisky. Like the Manhattan, the Rob Roy can be made "sweet", "dry", or "perfect"; the standard Rob Roy is the sweet version, made with sweet vermouth, so there is no need to specify a "sweet" Rob Roy when ordering. A "dry" Rob Roy is made by replacing the sweet vermouth with dry vermouth. A "perfect" Rob Roy is made with equal parts sweet and dry vermouth; the Rob Roy includes a dash of Angostura bitters and is served in a cocktail glass and garnished with two maraschino cherries on a skewer or a lemon twist. List of cocktails Liquor portal

Burra Ness Broch

Burra Ness Broch is an iron-age broch located on the east coast of the island of Yell, Scotland. Burra Ness Broch is situated 2.6 kilometres south of the small village of Gutcher on the tip of the headland of Burra Ness. It can be reached by a path south from the settlement of North Sandwick; the broch has an external diameter of about 18 metres. The outer wall is around 4.5 metres thick, stands over 4 metres high on the east side. Two hundred years ago the broch is reported to have been 20 feet high, the beginning of a bell-shaped profile was visible. Internally a "scarcement" ledge to support an upper floor is visible some 4 metres above the ground. There are signs of an upper intramural gallery, there are traces of intramural "guard cell" on the southeast side but no remains of the entrance can be seen. There are traces of outbuildings towards the north and southeast, slight indications of surrounding ramparts; the ruins of a farm can be seen about 100 metres to the south. Media related to Burra Ness Broch at Wikimedia Commons Historic Environment Scotland.

"Burra Ness, Yell"

André Dutertre

André Dutertre was a French painter. A professor at the école gratuite de dessin, his students included Collet, he took part in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria and on 22 August 1798 he was made a member of the Institut d'Égypte, in the literature and arts section. He was taken on the trip to the Suez Isthmus on 24 December 1798, he drew 184 portraits of the officers and scholars of the expedition, which were used as illustrations for the Histoire scientifique et militaire by Reybaud and reprinted in the Journal by Villiers du Terrage. He drew Egyptians - his portrait of Murad Bey is his masterwork. On his return to France, he exhibited portraits at the Paris Salons of 1804 and 1812, notably those of Desaix and Kléber; the Musée de Versailles owns nearly thirty portraits by him. À la découverte de l’Italie et de l’Égypte, les voyages d’André Dutertre. Thesis from the Ecole nationale des chartes

Golem effect

The Golem effect is a psychological phenomenon in which lower expectations placed upon individuals either by supervisors or the individual themselves lead to poorer performance by the individual. This effect is seen and studied in educational and organizational environments, it is a form of self-fulfilling prophecy. The effect is named after the golem, a clay creature, given life by Rabbi Loew of Prague in Jewish mythology. According to the legend, the golem was created to protect the Jews of Prague; the effect was named after the golem legend in 1982 by Babad and Rosenthal because it "represent the concerns of social scientists and educators, which are focused on the negative effects of self-fulfilling prophecies". The Golem effect has similar underlying principles to its theoretical counterpart, the Pygmalion effect. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson's Pygmalion in the Classroom and further experiments have shown that expectations of supervisors or teachers affect the performance of their subordinates or students.

The most studied situations of this effect are classrooms. When arbitrarily informed that a particular student is "bright" or "dull", not only will the supervisor's behavior change to favor the "bright" students, the students themselves will exhibit behaviors in line with their labels. While the Pygmalion effect and the majority of studies focus on the positive side of this phenomenon, the Golem effect is the negative corollary. Supervisors with negative expectations will produce behaviors that impair the performance of their subordinates while the subordinates themselves produce negative behaviors; this mechanism is an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy: the idea that self-held beliefs can come true in reality. When both supervisor and subordinate notice the low performance, the negative expectations are confirmed and the belief is reinforced. Up until Babad and Rosenthal, studies on teacher/supervisor expectancy and its effect on performance had focused on the Pygmalion effect. Babad investigated the effect in his 1977 paper looking at developmentally challenged students but his 1982 paper is considered the seminal Golem effect article due to its more generalizable student population.

As opposed to other past teacher-student expectancy studies, the authors asked their teachers to nominate three high-expectancy and three low-expectancy students out of each class instead of just high-expectancy nominations and a control group. In addition to replicating the findings of previous Pygmalion effect studies, the authors found support for the Golem effect. Teachers who were susceptible to biasing information treated their low-expectancy students more dogmatically than their high-expectancy students. Low-expectancy students performed worse than their high-expectancy counterparts. Teachers who were not susceptible to bias did not show any distinctions in behavior between high and low-expectancy students. Although the majority of research looking at the Golem effect has focused on educational contexts, the effect has been studied in the workplace. A study by Schrank that predated the Rosenthal and Jacobson article looked at US Air Force Academy airmen; the author induced a "labeling effect" by randomly assigning incoming freshmen to one of five class sections designating ability levels.

McNatt performed a meta-analysis on studies with workplace samples and found that the Golem effects still hold true to around the same magnitude at the workplace as they do in the classroom. Furthermore, the Golem effect can influence entire organizations, not just supervisors and their direct subordinates. Davidson and Eden suggested there are two different types of Golem effects: relative; the absolute Golem effect occurs when the individuals who are identified as the low tier of their group are in fact underqualified for their group. For any given normal distribution of students or employees, this may be the case. However, the more dangerous type of effect is the relative Golem effect. In this case, the entire population is qualified to be in the group. However, because there will always be a "lower tier" for a group of individuals who meet all of the performance standards of the group, the Golem effect could degrade the performance of highly skilled individuals. Davidson and Eden suggested a number of "de-Golemization" efforts such as convincing the group that the initial performance measures underestimate true potential in order to reduce this threat.

Although the consequences of the Pygmalion/Golem effects are well documented, the mechanisms behind them are more disputed among researchers. Both effects have been argued to stem from Victor Vroom's expectancy theory; this theory posits that people are more to perform behaviors that they believe they have a high expectation of performing successfully. In relation to the Golem effect, when expectations are set low by the supervisor, subordinates do not require as much effort to reach their performance expectation, which results in lower performance. Rowe and O'Brian argued that the Golem effect was a result of transaction agency theories, they posit that because teachers monitor their classes for opportunistic behaviors, some students may take such monitoring as a sign that the teacher does not trust them and, in turn, engage in opportunistic behavior be

Julia Lockwood

Julia Lockwood was a British actress. Daughter of the late Margaret Lockwood, her career began as a child actress at the age of four and spanned 30 years in film and the theatre. She was born in Ringwood, England on 23 August 1941, her mother Margaret Lockwood was one of the Britain's most popular film stars of the 1930s and 1940s. Her father Rupert Leon was a commodities clerk, serving in the army. During the war years she lived with her maternal grandmother in Ringwood but after her parents divorced in 1949 she moved to London to live with her mother in Roehampton, London. Lockwood attended the Arts Educational Schools, London from the age of five. Lockwood's first appearance as a film actor was in the 1947 film Hungry Hill, opposite her mother – she was only four years old when filming began, she began to gain leading roles in the late 1950s in coming-of-age films such as Please Turn Over. She screen tested for Hollywood with Columbia Pictures, her theatrical career began at the age of 12 when she was cast in the lead role in Alice in Wonderland at the Q Theatre in south west London.

She went on to star in numerous West-End shows right into the 1970s. But it was in the play Peter Pan that she is most remembered. "My obsession with Peter Pan began. My mother, Margaret Lockwood was invited to play "The Immortal Boy" at the Scala theatre in 1949. I used to sit in the wings transfixed, longing to be up on the stage with her and the lost boys, flying through the air and fighting the pirates.”She first played the role of Wendy opposite her mother in 1957 and reprised the role the following year with Sarah Churchill in the title role. One performance was visited by the Churchill Family. In 1959 she would achieve her dream of playing Peter, she would go on to play the lead role a further three times in 1960, 1963 & 1966, she is one of only three actors to play both Peter. She is the only actor to have played Wendy opposite her own mother in the lead role, her television career began at the age of 12 when she was cast in the lead role of the BBC children's television series Heidi and the follow-up series, Heidi Grows Up.

She again starred opposite her mother in the 1957 series, The Royalty, set in an exclusive London hotel. Both Lockwoods appeared when the BBC reprised the series 1965 as The Flying Swan. During the 50s and 60s Julia was a regular feature of the small screen, appearing in over a dozen different television series, she is best remembered in the mid-60s BBC soap opera, set in the offices of a glossy women's magazine. Lockwood played the role of Anthea Keane. In 1971 she appeared in the BBC comedy series "Birds on the Wing" with Richard Briers and Anne Rogers, she was in the radio 4 series Brothers in Law with Richard Briers in the 1970s. Lockwood appeared on the front cover of Tatler magazine in February 1965. In 1965 Lockwood was one of five judges of the Miss England beauty pageant, alongside comedian Des O'Connor, actress Fenella Fielding, Patrick Wymark, Disc Jockey Pete Murray. In 1971 Lockwood released a 7" single under the Columbia label; the A-side track was titled "He's and She's", the B-side "Edward, Alexander & Joe".

She worked as a drama teacher in the early 1990s at the Arts Educational Schools in Chiswick, London. In 1972, she married Ernest Clark, a British actor best known as the Geoffrey Loftus in Doctor in the House and its TV sequels. Julia Lockwood retired from acting in 1977 after the birth of her third child, she and her late husband had four children, Nicholas and Katharine. She moved to live in Spain after the death of her husband, she returned to the UK to live in Somerset in 2007, where she lived until her death. Julia's last public appearance was at the unveiling of the blue plaque on her mother's house in Kingston-upton-Thames in July 2015. Lockwood died peacefully on 24 March 2019 after a short illness, surrounded by her children. Hungry Hill – Fanny's Daughter The White Unicorn – Norey The Flying Eye – Angela My Teenage Daughter – Poppet Carr The Solitary Child – Maggie Please Turn Over – Jo Halliday No Kidding – Fenella /'Vanilla' Julia Lockwood on IMDb


Kirada, is considered by modern scholarship as the first known ruler of the Kidarite Huns in the area of Gandhara in northwestern India at the same time as another Kidarite ruler named Yosada. The name of Kirada name appears on numerous coins at the end of the Kushan Empire and the beginning of the rule of the Kidarite Huns in the area of Central and Western Punjab in India, in the period circa 340-345 CE; the name Ga-ḍa-ha-ra appears vertically as a monogram in the right field of the coins of Kirada, as on some earlier coins signed Samudragupta, or subsequent coins of other early Kidarite rulers named Yasada and Kidara. The appearance of the name Samudragupta may suggest some kind of suzerainty at a time in relation with the Gupta Empire; the coins of Kirada would have followed those in the name of Samudragupta in Gandhara, it is thought that Kirada was succeeded as Kidarite ruler by another Kidarite Peroz and the famous Kidara. Altogether they form the first coin issues after the reign of the last Kushan ruler Kipunada.

Kirada struck in Balkh coins in the name of the last Kushano-Sasanian ruler Varahran I Kushanshah circa CE 340-345, incorporating the Kidarite tamga which replaced the nandipada, in use before the rise of the Kidarites