Rubens Rubinho Gonçalves Barrichello is a Brazilian racing driver who competed in Formula One between 1993 and 2011. After losing his seat at the Williams F1 team, Barrichello moved to the IndyCar Series in 2012 with KV Racing Technology, Barrichello holds the record for most races in Formula One and has scored the eleventh highest points total in Formula One history. Barrichello drove for Ferrari from 2000 to 2005, as Michael Schumachers teammate and he finished third in 2001 and 2009. During his six years with Ferrari, Barrichello was involved in winning five constructors titles, at the end of 2005 Barrichello left Ferrari to sign a contract with Honda. Schumachers retirement at the end of 2006 made Barrichello the most experienced driver on the grid, in 2009, he finished third in the drivers championship for Brawn GP, as his team mate Jenson Button won the title. This meant Barrichello was involved in a sixth constructors title and he became the first driver to reach 300 Grand Prix entries and 300 starts, doing so in 2010.
He was appointed chairman of the Grand Prix Drivers Association in 2010, in 2013 he started covering F1 race weekends for Brazils TV Globo, interviewing drivers and team members on the grid and commentating during qualifying and race coverages. Barrichello has won eleven Formula One Grands Prix, the paternal side of his family comes from Veneto, Italy. Both his father and paternal grandfather are named Rubens, Rubens Barrichello was known as Rubinho, which has become his nickname. Barrichello won five karting titles in Brazil before going to Europe to race in the Formula Vauxhall Lotus series in 1990, in his first year, he won the championship, a feat he replicated the following year in the British Formula 3 Championship, beating David Coulthard. He very nearly joined Formula One, the highest category of single seater racing, instead he competed in Formula 3000 in 1992. He finished third in the championship, and joined the Jordan Formula One team for the 1993 Formula One season, during this time, and early in his Formula One career, Barrichello lived in Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, UK.
Barrichello had a rookie year. In his third race, the European Grand Prix, he started from 12th place in wet conditions but was fourth by the end of the first lap. He ran as high as second and was running third, having passed the Williams of Damon Hill and Alain Prost and his Jordans reliability in 1993 was poor, and he finished few races. Barrichello regularly outpaced his more experienced teammates, Ivan Capelli and Thierry Boutsen, in the French Grand Prix, he almost scored his first grand prix point but Michael Andretti passed Barrichello for the sixth and final point-paying position on the final lap. His only points finish of the season came at the Japanese Grand Prix with fifth place and these 2 points put him in 18th place in the standings. 1994 started well with a place in Brazil and a third place at Aida
International Formula 3000
Formula Two had become too expensive, and was dominated by works-run cars with factory engines, the hope was that Formula 3000 would offer quicker, more open racing. The series began as a specification, tyres were standardized from 1986 onwards, followed by engines. The series ran annually until 2004, and was replaced in 2005 by the GP2 Series, Formula 3000 replaced Formula Two, and was so named because the engines used were limited to 3000cc maximum capacity. Initially, the Cosworth DFV was a choice, having been made obsolete in Formula One by the adoption of 1.5 litre turbocharged engines. The rules permitted any 90-degree V8 engine, fitted with a rev-limiter to keep power output under control, as well as the Cosworth, a Honda engine based on an Indy V8 by John Judd appeared, a rumoured Lamborghini V8 never raced. In years, a Mugen-Honda V8 became the thing to have, eclipsing the DFV, not unlike the senior series, were getting out of control. The first chassis from March, AGS and Ralt were developments of their existing 1984 Formula Two designs, although Lolas entry was based on and looked very much like an IndyCar.
The form book was rewritten in 1988 with the entry of the ambitious Reynard marque with a new chassis. Dallara briefly tried the series before moving up to Formula One, at least one unraced F3000 chassis existed—the Wagner fitted with a straight-six short-stroke BMW. This was converted into a car, however. The series was not without controversy, definitive rules for the 1985 season did not appear until the championship was well under way. In 1987 questions were asked about the ability of some of the drivers, in 1989 the eligibility of the new Reynard chassis was challenged - it was raced with a different nose to the one that had been crash tested. This season saw problems with driver changes - the cost of F3000 was escalating to the point that teams were finding it difficult to run drivers for a whole season. A badly implemented two driver changes per car per season rule meant that cars had to sit idle while drivers with budgets could not race them. In 1991 the performance of some Italian teams attracted attention - they had started using Agips jungle juice Formula One fuel, worth an estimated 15 bhp—giving their drivers a significant advantage.
Formula 3000 races during the open chassis era tended to be of about 100–120 miles in distance, held at major circuits, the jewel in the crown of the F3000 season was traditionally the Pau Grand Prix street race, rivalled for a few years by the Birmingham round. Most major circuits in France, Spain, Germany, in 1996, new rules introduced a single engine and chassis, to go along with tyre standardization introduced in 1986. The following year the calendar was combined with that of Formula One, the series grew dramatically through the late nineties, reaching an entry of nearly 40 cars - although this in itself was problematic as it meant many drivers failed to qualify
Normanby, Redcar and Cleveland
Normanby is an area in the unitary authority of Redcar and Cleveland and the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England. It is part of the Middlesbrough agglomeration but is not within the borough of Middlesbrough itself and it has a population of approximately 7,000 residents. It lies between Ormesby, to the west, Eston, to the east, and Teesville and South Bank to the north, Normanby is part of Redcar parliamentary constituency and is represented by Labour Anna Turley in the House of Commons. It is part of the North East England European Parliament constituency and it provides residents with a place to walk and exercise. It aims to give a countryside experience without a long journey to reach it, there is a visitors centre – which stands on the site of the former Normanby Brickworks. Some of the walkways in the follow the course of the now defunct Cleveland Railway. The visitors centre has exhibits and information about wildlife and conservation, the park boasts a variety of habitats, including both deciduous and coniferous woodlands and ponds.
There are plenty of walks throughout the areas of the park, an outdoor exercise area. There is a network of bridleways which cyclists and horseriders are welcome to use, in the past, Flatts Lane veered from its present route and crossed the land now occupied by the Country Woodland Park. It was used by monks and traders to carry goods between markets and coastal ports, the cobbled path can still be seen in some places as it runs across the site. Godfalter Hill is a prominent landmark topped by its distinctive beech trees making it visible for miles around and it is on the long distance path called the Tees Link, the path travels along the route of a former railway which served Normanby Brickworks. Normanby Hall is a mansion on the side of Normanby. The manor of Normanby was held at a period by the de Brus family, of Skelton Castle. Later it came into the possession of the Percys, and then, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the estate belonged to William Pennyman, Esq. When he died, in 1718, buried at Eston Church, his daughters Elizabeth and Joanna, married two brothers – Rev.
William Consett and Captain Matthew Consett, sons of William Consett of Linthorpe. The manor lands were split, Reverend William Consett taking the part of the estate, upon which he built the elegant and commodious Normanby House. The other brother, Captain Matthew Consett, took the part of the manor with the ancient Hall, the Hall with a moiety of the estate was purchased in 1748, by Ralph Jackson, on the death of Captain Consett. The common fields around it were enclosed, in 1790, to become parkland for the mansion and it descended through the Jackson family, in the late 1880s, to Major Charles Ward-Jackson M. P. who was lord of the manor, and who died in 1930
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
Giancarlo Fisichella, known as Fisico, Giano or Fisi, is an Italian professional racing driver. He has driven in Formula One for Minardi, Benetton, Renault, Force India and Ferrari. Since he has driven for AF Corse in their Ferrari 458 GTE at various events, becoming twice a Le Mans 24 Hour class winner. He was Ferraris F1 reserve driver for 2010, Fisichella won three races in his Formula One career, the first of which was at the chaotic 2003 Brazilian Grand Prix, a race abandoned for safety reasons with 15 laps remaining. He was brought into the Renault team to replace fellow Italian Jarno Trulli, after that race it was his team-mate, the Spanish driver Fernando Alonso, that would win the greater share of races for Renault. Although highly rated as a driver, Fisichella was unable to pace with eventual champion Alonso. Outside of driving, he has backed his own GP2 team, Fisichella has three children, Carlotta and Carolina, with his wife Luna Castellani. The couple married on 10 October 2009, on 17 June 2012 Fisichella won the GTE Pro division of the Le Mans 24hrs for AF Corse and followed this up with the Manufacturers title in the WEC at the end of the season.
Fisichella is set to continue with AF Corse for the forthcoming 2013 WEC season competing for a title for the first time. Like most current Formula One drivers, he began racing as a youngster in the Guidonias Kart circuit. In 1992, he competed in the Italian Formula Three Championship and he finished runner up in 1993, and in 1994 he won the championship, following race victories in Monaco and Macau. He left open-wheel racing briefly in 1995 and 1996, driving for Alfa Romeo in the International Touring Car Championship, in 1996, he made the move to Formula One, making his debut for the Minardi team, after being the official test driver the previous season. However he did not complete the season since Minardi required a driver who could bring funding to the team. For 1997 he made the move to Eddie Jordans eponymous team, Fisichella gained his first podium finish at the 1997 Canadian Grand Prix, and went on to finish higher in the points standings than his team-mate. At Hockenheim a victory looked to be within reach for Fisichella, but a puncture, Fisichella was able to show his talent again at the rain-soaked Belgian Grand Prix in which he finished a commendable second behind Michael Schumacher.
Following this race, the Benetton team signed him for 1998, the timing of his move to Benetton move was unfortunate. Following Renaults withdrawal from Formula One, Benetton would contest the 1998 season without works engines, despite not having the latest engines, Fisichella still managed second places at Montreal and Monaco, even being in contention for a victory in Canada until gearbox problems slowed him down. In Austria, Fisichella scored his first pole position, although an on-track clash with Jean Alesi during the race cost him any chance of a good result
Damon Graham Devereux Hill, OBE is a British former racing driver. He is the son of Graham Hill, along with Nico Rosberg and he started racing on motorbikes in 1981, and after minor success moved on to single-seater racing cars. But although he progressed steadily up the ranks to the International Formula 3000 championship by 1989, Hill became a test driver for the Formula One title-winning Williams team in 1992. He was promoted to the Williams race team the year after Riccardo Patreses departure. During the mid-1990s, Hill was Michael Schumachers main rival for the Formula One Drivers Championship and their collision at the 1994 Australian Grand Prix gave Schumacher his first title by a single point. Hill became champion in 1996 with eight wins, but was dropped by Williams for the following season and he went on to drive for the less competitive Arrows and Jordan teams, and in 1998 gave Jordan their first win. Hill retired from racing after the 1999 season and he has since launched several businesses and has made appearances playing the guitar with celebrity bands.
In 2006, he became president of the British Racing Drivers Club, Hill stepped down from the position in 2011 and was succeeded by Derek Warwick. He presided over the securing of a 17-year contract for Silverstone to hold Formula One races, Hill currently works as part of the Sky Sports F1 broadcasting team. Hill was born in Hampstead, London, to Graham and Bette Hill, Graham Hill was a racing driver in the international Formula One series. He won the drivers championship in 1962 and 1968 and became a well-known personality in the United Kingdom. Graham Hills career provided a comfortable living, by 1975 the family lived in a 25-room country mansion in Hertfordshire and Damon attended the independent The Haberdashers Askes Boys School. The death of his father in a crash in 1975 left the 15-year-old Hill, his mother. Hill worked as a labourer and a courier to support his further education. Hill is married to Susan George and they have four children, Joshua, Oliver was born with Downs syndrome and Hill and Georgie are both patrons of the Downs Syndrome Association.
In 2008, Hill became the first patron of St. Josephs Specialist School and College, Joshua started racing in 2008, competing in the British Formula Renault Championship in 2011. On 9 July 2013 Joshua announced his retirement from motor racing, Hill started his motorsport career in motorcycle racing in 1981. He used the simple, easily identifiable helmet design as his father
Heinz-Harald Frentzen, nicknamed HHF, is a German former racing driver. He finished runner-up in the 1997 Formula One World Drivers Championship, Frentzen was born on 18 May 1967 in the West German city of Mönchengladbach to Heinrich-Harald Frentzen, a German undertaker and his wife Angela, a Spanish mother. He has two sisters, Sylvia, a theologian, Sonia, a teacher and two half-sisters Samantha, a student and Nicole-Nadine. His family was connected to motorsport, his father raced between 1950 and 1957, Frentzens parents divorced when he was eight years old and his father subsequently married Mexican-born Arazelli while Angela returned to Spain. Frentzen began karting at the age of twelve, after his father brought him his first kart, in 1981, aged fourteen, Frentzen won the German Junior Kart Championship. Two years later, Frentzen entered the CIK Asia Pacific Championships in Australia driving a Dino although he did not finish, in 1984, he finished runner-up in the 100cc class. He was funded and supported by his father—a funeral director—who acted as team boss and head mechanic.
In 1986, Frentzen moved into car racing by entering the German Formula Ford 2000 series, after two seasons in Formula Ford he was runner-up in the 1987 series, despite not participating in all races. Frentzen progressed to German Formula Opel Lotus in 1988 in the Junior Team of former Formula One driver Jochen Mass, Frentzen was champion of the German series in his first year and his teammate Marco Werner finished third in the championship. He participated in the Formula Opel Lotus Euroseries, where he finished 6th in the championship, the next step was the German Formula 3 Championship in 1989, where Frentzen competed against many future stars including Michael Schumacher and Karl Wendlinger. At the time, there was a big push by Bernie Ecclestone to have a German driver in the Formula One World Championship, the ONS put up the reward of a Formula One test to the driver who first would take a victory in a Formula 3 race. This ultimately ended up being Schumacher, in a race at Zeltweg. However, Schumacher did not get the Formula One test drive anyway, Karl Wendlinger won the German Formula 3 Championship, in 1990, Frentzen entered the International Formula 3000 series driving for Eddie Jordan Racing and was partnered by Eddie Irvine.
Frentzen finished the season 16th in the championship, scoring 3 points, in the same year, he participated in the World Sports Prototype Championship driving a Mercedes-Benz C11 scoring one podium and six points. In 1991, Frentzen continued to drive in International Formula 3000 moving to Vortex Motorsport, in 1994 Frentzen was given a Formula One drive by Peter Sauber in a Mercedes powered car, as teammate to Wendlinger. The following year in the now Ford-powered Sauber he got his first podium finish at the Italian Grand Prix, the race was won by Olivier Panis. For the 1997 season, Frentzen replaced Damon Hill at the Williams-Renault team that had won the championship three times since 1992. At the first race of the season, the Australian Grand Prix, Frentzen went into the lead at the first corner and he was running third late in the race when a brake disc exploded, throwing him off the circuit and into retirement
Michael Mike Gascoyne is a British Formula One designer and engineer. Gascoyne was born in Rackheath, England and he lived in Sprowston and went to Sprowston Junior School and before moving to Old Catton. He went to Wymondham College from 1974 to 1981, although he gained admission to study for a Ph. D. in fluid dynamics at Cambridge University from 1982 to 1988, he gaining a series of degrees but started working before graduating with a PhD. He was, active in his college Boat Club, after leaving Cambridge in 1988 he briefly worked for Westland System Assessment Limited, part of Westland Helicopters, but maintained a keen desire to work in motor sport. Postlethwaites stay with the Sauber team was short, but Gascoyne remained for the first season, in late 1993 Postlethwaite returned to Tyrrell and invited Gascoyne to become Deputy Technical Director responsible for the design of the teams 1994 car. Gascoyne accepted and remained with the team for four years, although lack of money severely limited his ability to produce a racing car.
In June 1998 Gascoyne joined Jordan Grand Prix as Technical Director, the season was the teams most successful in its history, finishing third in the Constructors Championship and taking two race victories. Shortly before the start of the 2001 season he moved to Benetton, Gascoyne’s two-and-a-half seasons with Benetton, and Renault, saw a marked improvement in the teams fortunes, culminating in victory at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. By now however, the highly rated Technical Director had already placed on gardening leave by his French employers pending a move to Toyota F1 for an undisclosed financial settlement. In December 2003 Gascoyne made his move to the Cologne base of Toyota, gascoynes aim for 2006 was high and the teams first victory and the championship were the next two steps. The early stages of the 2006 season proved to be average, with the team struggling with the switch to Bridgestone tyres. Many observers had predicted race wins and possibly even a title challenge, Gascoyne disliked the corporate way the teams management operated while team management were unimpressed by the TF106 car Gascoyne had produced and he was duly dismissed.
On 6 April Gascoyne and Toyota parted company amicably, pascal Vasselon became temporary Technical Director with immediate effect. In September 2006 Gascoyne was signed by Spyker F1 as Chief Technology Officer and he took up his new position in November 2006. An updated version of the F8-VII chassis was introduced at the 2007 Turkish Grand Prix and it was the first Spyker car designed by Gascoyne and he stated the new car could be up to three quarters of a second per lap faster than the original F8-VII. In 2008, Spyker became the Force India team after its sale to Vijay Mallya, Gascoyne continued as Chief Technology Officer. On 7 November 2008 it was announced that Gascoyne would no longer any formal role at the team. In 2009 Gascoyne was part of plans by the Litespeed F3 team to enter Formula One in 2010 and they failed to gain entry, but Gascoyne continued to work on the plans and got backing from the Malaysian government to form Lotus Racing
2010 German Grand Prix
The 2010 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 25 July 2010 at the Hockenheimring in Hockenheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was the round of the 2010 Formula One season. The 67-lap race was won by Ferrari driver Fernando Alonso after he started from second position and his teammate Felipe Massa finished second, and Red Bull driver Sebastian Vettel came in third. Although Vettel and Alonso were on the front row, both drivers were passed by Massa at the start of the race. Alonso and Massa traded the fastest times in the first twelve laps of the race until the pit stop period, Massa struggled with tyre temperatures and was challenged by Alonso on the 21st lap but fended off his efforts to move into the lead. Massa pulled away slightly from Alonso until the former came across slower cars which reduced the deficit between them. Alonso took over the first position after Massa was issued with team orders by Ferrari which allowed the Spanish driver to pass him, Massa resisted pressure from Vettel while Alonso maintained the lead throughout the remainder of the race and clinched the 23rd victory of his career.
Ferraris team orders caused them to be fined $100,000 by the race stewards, the result meant Alonso reduced the points deficit to be 14 behind Vettel in the Drivers Championship, while leader Lewis Hamilton extended his advantage over teammate Jenson Button by two points. Red Bull slightly reduced the deficit to McLaren in the Constructors Championship, while Ferrari moved further ahead of Mercedes, with eight races left in the season. The 2010 German Grand Prix was the scheduled race of the 2010 Formula One season and was held on 25 July 2010 at the Hockenheimring, Baden-Württemberg. The Grand Prix was contested by teams with two drivers each. The teams were, McLaren, Red Bull, Williams, Force India, Toro Rosso, Hispania, tyre supplier Bridgestone brought four types of tyre to the race, two dry compounds and two wet-weather compounds. Bridgestone selected those compounds in an attempt to improve the excitement of Formula One after an amount of degradation. The soft compounds were denoted by a stripe on their side-walls.
Webbers teammate Sebastian Vettel was fourth on 121 points and Fernando Alonso was fifth on 98 points, McLaren were leading the Constructors Championship with 278 points, Red Bull and Ferrari were second and third with 249 and 165 points, while Mercedes and Renault contended for fourth place. McLaren and Red Bull had dominated the championship, while Alonso won the season-opening Bahrain Grand Prix and his teammate Felipe Massa and Robert Kubica had finished in second place, and Nico Rosberg Massa and Kubica had taken third-place finishes. After the previous German Grand Prix in July 2009, the future of the race was in doubt after the government of Baden-Württemberg and the town of Hockenheim withdrew their funding for the event. An agreement was reached in September which would see the event run until 2018 with both management and Formula One Management agreeing to cover any losses incurred
Scuderia Ferrari S. p. A. competing as Scuderia Ferrari is the official name of the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer and competes in Formula One racing. It is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, the team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, initially to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. As a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors Championships, Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers Championships for the team. Since Räikkönens title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers title with Felipe Massa, Schumacher is the teams most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team. His titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, including the constructors title of 1999 consecutively being won until the end of 2004, this was the teams most successful period.
Currently, World Champions Kimi Räikkönen and Sebastian Vettel are the two race drivers. The team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the home race. The Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the team of Alfa Romeo. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was finally dismissed by Alfa in 1939. The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport under his own name, in 1939 Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815. The 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars, World War II put a temporary end to racing, and Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, the team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, which is used for testing road and race cars.
The team is named after its founder, Enzo Ferrari, Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams. In 1947 Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder,1.5 L Tipo 125, a Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grand Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, and it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. The company switched to the large-displacement naturally aspirated formula for the 275,340, after the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Loughborough University is a public research university located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire, in the East Midlands of England. In March 2013, the university announced it had acquired the former broadcast centre at the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park which opened as a campus in 2015. It was a member of the 1994 Group until the group was dissolved in November 2013, Loughborough ranks particularly highly for engineering and technology and is noted for its sports-related courses and achievements. In 2013, the university won its seventh Queens Anniversary Prize, awarded in recognition of its impact through research, the university is rated five star for excellence by Quacquarelli Symonds through QS Star Scheme. The university traces its roots back to 1909 when a Technical Institute was founded in the town centre, there followed a period of rapid expansion during which the institute was renamed Loughborough College and the development of the present campus began. In the early years, efforts were made to mimic the environment of an Oxbridge college whilst maintaining a strong counterbalance to academic learning.
During World War I, the served as an instructional factory. In 1966, the College of Advanced Technology as it had become, in 1977, the university broadened its range of studies by amalgamating with Loughborough College of Education. More recently, in August 1998, the university merged with Loughborough College of Art, Loughborough College is still a college of further education. Schofield became principal in 1915 and continued to lead the College of Technology until 1950, over his years as principal, the College changed almost beyond recognition. He purchased the estate of Burleigh Hall on the outskirts of the town. He oversaw the building of the original Hazlerigg and Rutland halls of residence, which are now home to the universitys administration and he further persuaded the Department of Education to buy further land and began a building programme. In 1963, the Robbins Report on higher education recommended that all colleges of advanced technology should be given the status of universities.
Consequently, Loughborough College of Technology was granted a Royal Charter on 19 April 1966 and became Loughborough University of Technology and it gradually remodelled itself in the image of the plate glass universities of the period, which had been created under Robbins. In 1977, Loughborough Training College was absorbed into the university, the Arts College was amalgamated with the university in 1998. These additions have diluted the technological flavour of the institution, causing it to more a traditional university with its mix of humanities, arts. Consequently, in 1996, the university dropped the of Technology from its title, the shortened name Lufbra is commonly used by the students union, the alumni association and others. The universitys main campus is in the Leicestershire town of Loughborough, the Loughborough campus covers an area of 438 acres, and includes academic departments, halls of residence, the Students Union, two gyms and playing fields