The Sava is a river in Central and Southeastern Europe, a right tributary of the Danube. It flows through Slovenia, along the northern border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, through Serbia, discharging into the Danube in Belgrade, its central part is a natural border of Croatia. The Sava forms the northern border of the Balkan Peninsula, the southern edge of the Pannonian Plain; the Sava is 990 kilometres long, including the 45-kilometre Sava Dolinka headwater rising in Zelenci, Slovenia. It is the greatest tributary of the Danube by volume of water, second-largest after Tisza in terms of catchment area and length, it drains a significant portion of the Dinaric Alps region, through the major tributaries of Drina, Kupa, Vrbas, Kolubara and Krka. The Sava is one of the longest rivers in Europe and among a handful of European rivers of that length that do not drain directly into a sea; the population in the Sava River basin is estimated at 8,176,000, it connects three national capitals—Ljubljana and Belgrade.
The Sava is navigable for larger vessels from the confluence of the Kupa River in Sisak, Croatia two-thirds of its length. The name is believed to be derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *sewh1 and the ending *eh2, so that it means'that which waters'; the Sava River is formed from the Sava Dolinka and the Sava Bohinjka headwaters in northwest Slovenia. The river's headwater area encompasses several tributaries, including the 52-kilometre Sora, the 27-kilometre Tržič Bistrica and the 17-kilometre Radovna rivers—flowing into the Sava at confluences located as far east downstream as Medvode; the Sava Dolinka rises at the Zelenci Pools near Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, in a valley separating the Julian Alps from the Karavanke mountain range. The spring is located near the Slovene-Italian border at 833 metres above sea level, in a drainage divide between the Adriatic and Danube basins; the Sava Dolinka spring is fed by groundwater exhibiting bifurcation of source karst aquifer to the Sava and Soča basins.
Nadiža creek, a short losing stream flowing nearby, is the source of Zelenci Pools water. The Sava Dolinka is considered the Sava's 45-kilometre segment; the Sava Bohinjka originates in Ribčev Laz, at the confluence of the Jezernica, a short watercourse flowing out from Lake Bohinj and the Mostnica River. Some sources define the Jezernica as a part of the Sava Bohinjka, specifying the latter as flowing directly out of the lake, while another group of sources include Savica, rising at the southern flank of Triglav as the 78-metre Savica Falls, downstream from Triglav Lakes Valley, flowing into the lake, as a part of the Sava Bohinjka; the watercourse flows 41 kilometres —including the length of the Savica—east to Radovljica, where it discharges into the Sava Dolinka. Downstream from the confluence, the river is referred to as the Sava; the Sava is located in Southeast Europe, flowing through Slovenia, Croatia and along the Bosnia-Herzegovina border. Its total length is 990 kilometres, including the 45-kilometre Sava Dolinka and the 945-kilometre Sava proper.
As a right tributary of the Danube, the river belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin. The Sava River is the third longest tributary of the Danube shorter than the 966-kilometre Tisza and the 950-kilometre Prut—the Danube's two longest tributaries—when the Sava Dolinka headwater is excluded from its course, it is the largest tributary of the Danube by discharge. The river course is sometimes used to describe the northern boundary of the Balkans, the southern border of the Central Europe. Before the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991, the river was located inside Yugoslav borders and it was the longest river with its entire course within the country; the Sava Dolinka rises in the Zelenci Pools, west of Podkoren in the Upper Carniola region of Slovenia at 833 metres above sea level, flows east, past Kranjska Gora to Jesenice, where it turns southeast. At Žirovnica, the river enters the Ljubljana Basin and encounters the first hydroelectric dam—Moste plant—before proceeding to the east of the glacial Lake Bled towards Radovljica and confluence of the Sava Bohinjka, at 411 metres a.s.l.
Downstream of Radovljica, the Sava proceeds southeast towards Kranj. Between Kranj and Medvode, its course comprises the Lake Trboje and the Lake Zbilje reservoirs, built for the Mavčiče and the Medvode power plants; the Sava flows through the capital of Slovenia, where another reservoir is located on the river, adjacent to the Tacen Whitewater Course. There the river course turns east and leaves the Ljubljana Basin via Dolsko, at 261 metres a.s.l.. The course continues through the Sava Hills, where it passes the Litija Basin with the mining and industrial town of Litija, the Central Sava Valley with the mining towns of Zagorje ob Savi and Hrastnik, turns to the southeast and runs through the Lower Sava Valley with the towns of Radeče, Krško; the course through the Sava Hills forms the boundary of traditional regions of Lower Carniola and Styria, At Radeče, the Vrhovo hydroelectric dam reservoir is located. The latter is site of the Krško Nuclear Power Plant, which uses the Sava River water to dissipate excess heat.
The easternmost stretch of the Sava River course in Slovenia runs to the south of Brežice, where it is joined by the Kr
Carrara marble is a type of white or blue-grey marble popular for use in sculpture and building decor. It is quarried in the city of Carrara located in the province of Massa and Carrara in the Lunigiana, the northernmost tip of modern-day Tuscany, Italy. Carrara marble has been used since the time of Ancient Rome and it was called the "Luni marble". In the 17th and 18th centuries, the marble quarries were monitored by the Cybo and Malaspina families who ruled over Massa and Carrara; the family created the "Office of Marble" in 1564 to regulate the marble mining industry. The city of Massa, in particular, saw much of its plan redesigned in order to make it worthy of an Italian country's capital. Following the extinction of the Cybo-Malaspina family, the state was ruled by the House of Austria and management of the mines rested with them; the Basilica of Massa is built of Carrara marble and the old Ducal Palace of Massa was used to showcase the precious stone. By the end of the 19th century, Carrara had become a cradle of anarchism in Italy, in particular among the quarry workers.
According to a New York Times article of 1894, workers in the marble quarries were among the most neglected labourers in Italy. Many of them were fugitives from justice; the work at the quarries was so tough and arduous that any aspirant worker with sufficient muscle and endurance was employed, regardless of their background. The quarry workers and stone carvers had radical beliefs. Anarchism and general radicalism became part of the heritage of the stone carvers. Many violent revolutionists, expelled from Belgium and Switzerland went to Carrara in 1885 and founded the first anarchist group in Italy. In Carrara, the anarchist Galileo Palla remarked, “even the stones are anarchists.” The quarry workers were the main actors of the Lunigiana revolt in January 1894. The marble from Carrara was used for some of the most remarkable buildings in Ancient Rome: Temple of Proserpina - reused in many building in Valletta The Pantheon Trajan's Column Column of Marcus AureliusIt was used in many sculptures of the Renaissance including Michelangelo's David whilst the statue to Robert Burns, which commands a central position in Dumfries, was carved in Carrara by Italian craftsmen working to Amelia Paton Hill's model.
It was unveiled by future UK Prime Minister Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery on 6 April 1882. Other notable occurrences include: Marble Arch, London Victoria Memorial, London Some sections of the Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas, Spain Prem Mandir, Uttar Pradesh, India Duomo di Siena, Italy Sarcophagus of St. Hedwig, Queen of Poland, Poland Manila Cathedral, Philippines First Canadian Place, Ontario, Canada Sheikh Zayed Mosque, Abu Dhabi, UAE Harvard Medical School buildings, Massachusetts, US Oslo Opera House, Norway Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial, France Peace Monument, Washington, DC, US King Edward VII Memorial, Birmingham, UK Akshardham, India Aon Center Chicago, Illinois, US Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin, US Robba Fountain, Slovenia Finlandia Hall, Finland Devon Tower, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, US The Rotunda, Virginia, US Palacio Legislativo, the seat of the Uruguayan Parliament Far Eastern University, Philippines—Administration Building The Rome Italy Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Glasgow City Chambers, ScotlandCarrara marble has been designated by the International Union of Geological Sciences as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.
The Apuan Alps above Carrara show evidence of at least 650 quarry sites, with about half of them abandoned or worked out. The Carrara quarries have produced more marble than any other place on earth. Working the quarries has been dangerous and continues so to this day. In September 1911, a collapsing cliff face at the Bettogli Quarry crushed 10 workers who were on lunch break under a precipice. A 2014 video made at a Carrara quarry shows workers with missing fingers, workers performing hazardous, painfully noisy work who are not wearing protective gear of any kind; the prize yield from Carrara quarries through millennia has been a pure white marble. However, by the end of the 20th century, the known deposits of Statuario near Carrara are played out; the quarries continue to remove and ship up to a million tons/year of less-esteemed marble for export. Bianco Carrara classified in C and CD variations as well as Bianco Venatino and Statuarietto are by far the most common types with more expensive exotic variations such as Calacatta Gold, Calacatta Borghini, Arabescato Cervaiole and Arabescato Vagli quarried throughout the Carrara area.
Calcite, obtained from an 80 kg sample of Carrara marble, is used as the IAEA-603 isotopic standard in mass spectrometry for the calibration of δ18O and δ13C. The black yeast Micrococcus halobius can colonize Carrara marble by forming a biofilm and producing gluconic, lactic and succinic acids from glucose, as seen in the Dionysos Theater of the Acropolis in Athens. List of types of marble Lizza di Piastreta Marmifera di Carrara railway Lardo, a culinary specialty of the Carrara region cured in Carrara marble basins Goldthwaite, Richard A.. The Economy of Renaissance Florence. JHU Press. ISBN 0801889820. Newman, Cathy. "Carrara Marble: Touchstone of Eternity". National Geographic. Vol. 162 no. 1. Pp. 42–59. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 6434834
Francesco Robba was an Italian sculptor of the Baroque period. Though he is regarded as the leading Baroque sculptor of marble statuary in southeastern Central Europe, he has remained unknown to international scholars. Francesco Robba was born in Venice, he received his training in the workshop of the Venetian sculptor Pietro Baratta from 1711 to 1716. In 1720, he moved to Ljubljana to work with the Slovene master Luka Mislej and married his daughter Theresa in 1722. In this early period, his first marble statues and reliefs still reflect the influence of Pietro Baratta; when Mislej died in 1727, Robba took over his clientele. Soon Robba started to earn his own reputation and was awarded commissions by ecclesiastical and bourgeois patrons. In 1729 his work was praised in a letter to Prince Emmerich Esterházy, Archbishop of Esztergom by the rector of the Jesuit College in Zagreb, Francesco Saverio Barci. From 1727 on his works attest of a growing self-confidence, his technical virtuosity manifests itself in the emotional expressions and the refined forms of his statues.
He was recognized by the people of Ljubljana as a "honorary citizen of Ljubljana". In 1743, he was elected to the External Council of the city. In 1745, he was appointed "state engineer" of Carniola. During all this time, he didn't lose contacts with Venice, since he paid several visits to his native city; this allowed him to remain familiar with the Baroque sculpture of central Rome. The prevailing view has been that in 1755, Robba left Ljubljana for Zagreb, where he died on 24 January 1757. According to an article published in 2001 by Blaž Resman, an expert in the Baroque, new documents had shown that Robba died in Ljubljana; the best-known work by Francesco Robba is the Fountain of the Three Rivers of Carniola, representing the Ljubljanica, the Sava and the Krka. It was inspired by the Bernini's Fountain of the Four Rivers on Piazza Navona during Robba's visit to Rome. Other works include the Narcissus Fountain, the main altar and the statues of St. James's Church, an altar in Ljubljana Cathedral, the majority of the main altar in the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation, a statue of St. John of Nepomuk in Klagenfurt and an altar in the parish church in Vransko.
Francesco Robba is the creator of the main altar of the Ursuline Church of the Holy Trinity in Ljubljana and also of the marble statue of the Holy Trinity Monument that stands in front of it. The work of Francesco Robba was highlighted in an international scientific symposium, held in Ljubljana in November 1998. Francesco Robba and the Venetian Baroque Sculpture of the Eighteenth Century. Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Piazza della Rotonda
The Piazza della Rotonda is a piazza in Rome, Italy, on the south side of, located the Pantheon. The square gets its name from the Pantheon's informal title as the church of Santa Maria Rotonda. Although the Pantheon has stood from antiquity, the area in front of it had over the centuries become choked with a maze of sheds and small shops that had grown up around its columns; these medieval accretions were cleared by order of Pope Eugenius IV and the piazza was laid out and paved. It took its name from the Pantheon, converted in the 7th century AD into a Christian church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" but informally known as Santa Maria Rotonda; the piazza is rectangular 60 meters north to south and 40 meters east to west, with a fountain and obelisk in the center and the Pantheon on the south side. During the 19th century, the piazza was noted for its market of bird-sellers, who brought their cages with live parrots, nightingales and other birds into the piazza. A traveler in 1819 remarked that during Twelfth Night celebrations in Rome the Piazza della Rotonda was "in particular distinguished by the gay appearance of the fruit and cake-stalls, dressed with flowers and lighted with paper lanterns."Charlotte Anne Eaton, an English traveller who visited in 1820, was much less impressed with the piazza and deplored how a visitor would find himself "surrounded by all, most revolting to the senses, distracted by incessant uproar, pestered with a crowd of clamorous beggars, stuck fast in the congregated filth of every description that covers the slippery pavement...
Nothing resembling such a hole as this could exist in England. An 1879 Baedeker guidebook noted that the "busy scene" of the piazza "affords the stranger opportunities of observing the characteristics of the peasantry."Its present appearance was threatened with destruction under the French administration of 1809-1814, when Napoleon signed decrees calling for the demolition of the buildings around the Pantheon. The short life of French rule in Rome meant that the scheme never went ahead but it re-emerged in an altered form in the urban plan of 1873; this scheme proposed that the piazza should be enlarged and made into the focus of new boulevards converging on it from the direction of Piazza Borghese and Largo Magnanapoli. In the event, this did not happen, though several structures adjoining the north end of the square and the Pantheon were demolished under Popes Pius VII and Pius IX. In the center of the piazza is a fountain, the Fontana del Pantheon, surmounted by an Egyptian obelisk; the fountain was constructed by Giacomo Della Porta under Pope Gregory XIII in 1575, the obelisk was added to it in 1711 under Pope Clement XI.
The Aqua Virgo, one of the eleven aqueducts that supplied ancient Rome with drinking water, served the area of the Campus Martius, but had fallen into disrepair and disuse by the late Middle Ages. It was consecrated in 1453 as the Acqua Vergine. In 1570, Giacomo della Porta was commissioned under Pope Gregory XIII to oversee a major project to extend the distribution of water from the Vergine to eighteen new public fountains. Construction of the fountain in the Piazza della Rotonda was authorized on September 25, together with a fountain for Piazza Colonna, two more for Piazza Navona. Della Porta designed the fountain, Leonardo Sormani executed it. Due to the slope of the piazza, the fountain is approached by five steps on the south side, only two on the north. Under the pontificate of Alexander VII Chigi, projects were set afoot to systematize the piazza and its setting and enlarging it and widening the incident streets, in which Gian Lorenzo Bernini participated. An engraving by Giovanni Battista Falda records the work, completed at the time of Alexander's death in 1667.
In 1711, the fountain was given its current appearance when Pope Clement XI had the Late Baroque sculptor Filippo Barigioni top it with a 20-foot red marble Egyptian obelisk. The obelisk constructed by Pharaoh Ramses II for the Temple of Ra in Heliopolis, had been brought to Rome in ancient times where it was reused in the Iseum Campense, a shrine to the Egyptian god Isis that stood to the southeast of the Pantheon, it was rediscovered in 1374 underneath the apse of the nearby Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva. In the mid-15th century, the obelisk had been erected in the small Piazza di San Macuto some 200 meters east of the Pantheon, where it remained until its 1711 move to the Piazza della Rotonda, it is still called the Obelisco Macutèo after its previous location. List of fountains in Rome List of obelisks in Rome
The Ljubljanica, known in the Middle Ages as the Ljubija, is a river in the southern part of the Ljubljana Basin in Slovenia. The capital of Slovenia, lies on the river; the Ljubljanica rises south of the town of Vrhnika and outflows in the Sava River about 10 kilometres downstream from Ljubljana. Its largest affluent is the Mali Graben Canal. Including its source affluent the Little Ljubljanica, the river is 41 km in length; the Little Ljubljanica joins the Big Ljubljanica after 1,300 m and the river continues its course as the Ljubljanica. The Ljubljanica is the continuation of several karst rivers that flow from the Prezid Karst Field to Vrhnika on the surface and underground in caves, so the river is poetically said to have seven names: Trbuhovica, Stržen, Pivka and Ljubljanica; the Ljubljanica has become a popular site for archaeologists and treasure hunters to dive for lost relics and artifacts. Locations in the river between Ljubljana and Vrhnika have offered up pieces of history from the Stone Age to the Renaissance, belonging to a variety of groups, from local ancient cultures to more well-known groups like the Romans and the Celts.
One of the more significant findings is a yew spearhead, found in 2009 in Sinja Gorica. It has been dated to about 35,000 to 45,000 before present, the Szeletien period, supplements the scant data about the presence of Stone Age hunters in the Ljubljana Marshes area. Why the Ljubljanica became an article dumping ground is unknown, but most historians believe that it is related to how local tradition has always held the river as a sacred place; these treasures may have been offered "to the river during rites of passage, in mourning, or as thanksgiving for battles won." The Ljubljanica has become a popular attraction in Europe for treasure hunters. This has created an ethical debate between international treasure seekers, it is believed that the river has offered up between 10,000 and 13,000 objects, of which many have been lost to the public. Many pieces have been sold into private collections, or are hidden away by the original treasure hunters. In 2003, to help curb this trend, Slovenia's national parliament declared the river a site of cultural importance and banned diving in it without a permit.
Ljubljanica Sluice Gate Condition of Ljubljanica - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days https://web.archive.org/web/20070311005227/http://expo98.literal.si/eng/zakladi/vode-slovenije/ljubljanica.html http://www7.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0701/feature6/index.html
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Upper Carniola is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region. The centre of the region is Kranj, while other urban centers include Jesenice, Tržič, Škofja Loka and Domžale, it has around 300,000 14 % of the population of Slovenia. Its origins as a separate political entity can be traced back to the 17th century, when the Habsburg duchy of Carniola was divided into three administrative districts; this division was described by the scholar Johann Weikhard von Valvasor in his 1689 work The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola. The districts were known in German as Kreise, they were: Upper Carniola with its centre in Ljubljana, comprising the northern areas of the duchy. This division remained, in different arrangements, up to the 1860s, when the old administrative districts were abolished and Upper Carniola was subdivided into smaller districts of Kranj and Kamnik; the regional identity remained strong thereafter. Upon the dissolution of Austria-Hungary after World War I, Carniola was incorporated first into the State of Slovenes and Serbs and into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and it ceased to exist as a separate political and geographical unit.
The Carniolan regional identity soon faded away, but the regional identification with its sub-units remained strong. To the north, Upper Carniola is delimited by the Austrian state of Carinthia, the historic Lower Styria region to the east, the Slovenian Littoral to the west. An 1809 atlas shows the border with Lower Carniola to the southeast following the line of the Sava, Ljubljanica, Iščica, Želimeljščica rivers; the border with Inner Carniola to the south follows the southern edge of the Ljubljana Marsh, cuts north to the Gradaščica River, turns west through the hills to Spodnja Idrija. The landscape is characterised by the mountains of the Southern Limestone Alps, predominantly by the Julian Alps and the Karawanks range at its northern rim. Ljubljana was part of Upper Carniola. However, in the 19th century it started to be considered a separate unit. Since the 19th century, not Ljubljana, has been considered the unofficial capital of Upper Carniola; the modern notion of Upper Carniola does not correspond to the historical borders.
For example, the Municipality of Jezersko used to be part of the Duchy of Carinthia. Now it is today considered an integral part of Upper Carniola, rather than Slovenian Carinthia; the borders of Upper Carniola are only vaguely similar those of Slovenia's Upper Carniola Statistical Region. Traditionally, most of the people of Upper Carniola have spoken the Upper Carniolan dialect, one of the geographically most extended and linguistically most compact Slovene dialects, it covers most of the province, except for some peripheral areas in south-western and north-western Upper Carniola, it extends to the northern suburbs of Ljubljana. It belongs to the Upper Carniolan dialect group, which includes the Selca dialect, spoken in the mountainous Upper Carniolan villages of Železniki, Dražgoše and Davča; these two Upper Carniolan dialects are spoken in the vast majority of the region: this convergence of linguistic and geographical borders is quite exceptional in Slovenia, it reinforces the cohesiveness of Upper Carniolan regional identity.
Other dialects are spoken in Upper Carniola, as well: in the village of Rateče, people speak the Gail Valley dialect, which belongs to the Carinthian dialect group. In the area around Kranjska Gora and Gozd Martuljek, a transitional dialect between the Carinthian and Upper Carniolan dialect group is spoken: this is known as the Kranjska Gora subdialect. In the mountainous areas of eastern Upper Carniola, dialects from the Rovte dialect group are spoken. Beginning in the 18th century, the Upper Carniolan dialect became the basis on which standard Slovene was developed. During the late Enlightenment and early Romantic period, many of the most important Slovene authors and philologists came from the region: Marko Pohlin, Jurij Japelj, Anton Tomaž Linhart, Jernej Kopitar, Matija Čop, Janez Bleiweis; the poet and journalist Valentin Vodnik, born in Šiška, now a suburb of Ljubljana wrote in the Upper Carniolan dialect. The first two Slovene language newspapers, Lublanske novice and Kmetijske in rokodelske novice were published in the Upper Carniolan regional variety of Slovene.
The poetic language of France Prešeren, the Slovenian national poet has many specific Upper Carniolan features. Most of the Slovene literary production from that period thus had recognizable Upper Carniolan linguistic features. In the 1840s and 1850s, many of these features were removed from the literary standard.