Glenn Patrick Lazarus is a former professional rugby league footballer and a former Australian Senator. An Australian international and New South Wales State of Origin representative prop, Lazarus won premierships with the Canberra Raiders, Brisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm, who he captained, he is the only player in the history of the game to win grand finals with three separate clubs, with the grand final wins being the first for each club. After his retirement from football he assisted several NRL clubs in a coaching capacity. In the 2013 federal election, Lazarus was elected to the Australian Senate for the state of Queensland as the lead Queensland candidate for the Palmer United Party, he became PUP Senate leader at the commencement of his term on 1 July 2014. He quit PUP on 13 March 2015 citing issues with its leader Clive Palmer, established his own political party, the Glenn Lazarus Team, he did not retain his seat in the 2016 federal election. Lazarus was born in New South Wales, he attended Karabar High School.
He excelled at swimming and football, both Australian rules and rugby league. Lazarus achieved a formidable reputation in prop forward position at club and international levels, he was the first player in the history of the game to win premierships with three different clubs: Canberra Raiders, Brisbane Broncos and Melbourne Storm. Lazarus was named Players' Player for two consecutive Kangaroo Tours: 1990 and 1994. In addition, Lazarus scored the first rugby league try at the Melbourne Cricket Ground during a State of Origin game. Lazarus began his first-grade career with the Canberra Raiders in 1987, was selected to make his debut for New South Wales in the 1989 State of Origin series, he played a starring role in the club's victory over the Balmain Tigers in the 1989 grand final. He travelled with the Raiders to England for the 1989 World Club Challenge, lost to Widnes. Lazarus played in the Raiders' victory over the Penrith Panthers in the 1990 grand final. At the end of the 1990 NSWRL season, he went on the 1990 Kangaroo tour of Great France.
He played for Canberra in their grand final loss to Penrith in 1991. In the summer preceding the 1992 season, Lazarus was recruited from Canberra by his former coach at the Raiders, Wayne Bennett and joined the Brisbane Broncos, with whom he played the largest portion of his career. During the 1992 Great Britain Lions tour of Australia and New Zealand, he helped Australia retain The Ashes, he played for the Broncos at prop forward in the 1992 grand final victory over the St. George Dragons, following which he travelled with the Broncos to England, where he played at prop forward in the 1992 World Club Challenge against British champions Wigan, helping Brisbane become the first NSWRL club to win the match in Britain, he played for Australia at prop forward in the World Cup final victory over Great Britain at Wembley Stadium. Lazarus played for the Broncos at prop forward in the 1993 grand final victory again over the St. George Dragons; this constituted a remarkable feat of playing in five consecutive grand finals.
During the 1994 NSWRL season, Lazarus played at prop forward for defending premiers Brisbane when they hosted British champions Wigan for the 1994 World Club Challenge and lost. In 1996, he captained the Broncos in a game against the Penrith Panthers due to Allan Langer being injured, he was selected to go on the 1994 Kangaroo Tour. It was only a broken ankle suffered during a 1997 World Club Championship match that prevented Lazarus from playing in that year's Super League grand-final-winning Brisbane side. Lazarus was recruited to the newly established Melbourne Storm by his former CEO and teammate from the Broncos, both responsible for setting up and managing the growth of new club in Melbourne. Lazarus commenced with the club in its inaugural year, 1998 and was named as the club's first captain and given a newspaper column to write in The Herald Sun, he went on to lead the Melbourne Storm at prop forward in their 1999 grand final victory. Lazarus announced his retirement from the game with five premierships for three different clubs.
In 2000, Lazarus was awarded the Australian Sports Medal for his contribution to Australia's international standing in rugby league. In 2003, he was one of the first four former players inducted into the Broncos' official Hall of Fame. In 2005, the western grandstand of Olympic Park Stadium was named the Glenn Lazarus stand in his honour. Lazarus spent, he assisted the Canberra Raiders and Brisbane Broncos in an assistant coaching capacity. In February 2008, Lazarus was named in the list of Australia's 100 Greatest Players, commissioned by the NRL and ARL to celebrate the code's centenary year in Australia. Lazarus has been 612 ABC Brisbane Breakfast rugby league tipster since 2008. In 2008 New South Wales announced their rugby league team of the century. At the end of the 2008 Queensland Cup season, who served as assistant coach at the Ipswich Jets club under the departing Kevin Walters, was named as head coach of the club from the 2009 season. Lazarus was not re-appointed for 2011. Lazarus was selected to head the Palmer United Party Senate ticket in Queensland at the 2013 federal election and was elected on a 9.89 percent primary vote.
He got to the required 14.3 percent quota from a favourable preferential tally from group voting tickets. His term as a PUP Senator commenced on 1 July 2014 and he became PUP Senate leader, he announced his resignat
Richard Swain is a New Zealand former professional rugby league footballer who played in the 1990s and 2000s. A New Zealand international representative hooker, he played club football in Australia for the Hunter Mariners, Melbourne Storm and Brisbane Broncos and in England for Hull F. C. Swain was born in New Zealand but raised in Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia, he went to Farrer Memorial Agricultural High School in Tamworth, the same school as former Canberra Raiders captain Alan Tongue and Tom Learoyd-Lahrs. Swain made his first grade début in 1997. With the demise of the club at the end of the year he moved south. Swain never missed a game for the Melbourne Storm from the club's first match in round 1, 1998 up until his final game for the club in round 26, 2002. Swain declared his eligibility for New Zealand in 1999 and was selected for the New Zealand national rugby league team for that year's ANZAC Test. Swain played at hooker in 1999 NRL Grand Final win against St. George Illawarra.
Swain was selected for the New Zealand team to compete in the end of season 1999 Rugby League Tri-Nations tournament. In the final against Australia he played at hooker in the Kiwis' 22-20 loss. Having won the 1999 Premiership, the Melbourne Storm traveled to England to contest the 2000 World Club Challenge against Super League Champions St Helens R. F. C. with Kimmorley playing at hooker in the victory. Swain went on to play in nineteen tests for New Zealand, including at the 2000 World Cup. Swain was named the Storm's player of the year in 2001. Swain the first player in the National Rugby League to top 1,000 Tackles in a season and was Super League's "Top Tackler" in 2004 with 907 tackles for Hull, he went on the 2002 New Zealand rugby league tour of Great Britain and France and was the goal-kicker and leading point-scorer of the tour. Swain spent 2003 with the Brisbane Broncos before joining Hull F. C. for four years in the Super League. Swain played at hooker and was a major part in Hull F. C. winning the 2005 Challenge Cup, as it was his last gasp charge-down of Kevin Sinfield's drop-goal attempt that ended the Leeds Rhinos' last chance of taking the game to extra-time.
Kevin Sinfield was named Lance Todd Trophy winner 5-minutes from time, when at the time Leeds Rhinos were winning. Hull F. C. reached the 2006 Super League Grand final to be contested against St. Helens and Swain played at hooker in his side's 4-26 loss. Swain retired halfway through the 2007 season due to a back injury. New Zealand profile SL stats profile
Great Britain national rugby league team
The Great Britain and Ireland national rugby league team represents Great Britain and Ireland in rugby league. Administered by the Rugby Football League, the team is nicknamed The Lions. For most of the 20th century, the Great Britain and Ireland team toured overseas, played against foreign touring teams and competed in the Rugby League World Cup, which they won three times, in 1954, 1960 and 1972. Since 1995, the RFL has sent separate home nations teams to the World Cup. Great Britain and Ireland continued to compete as a Test playing nation both home and away, they competed against Australia for the Ashes, New Zealand for the Baskerville Shield, as well the Tri-Nations series with both Australia and New Zealand. Great Britain and Ireland played in series and tours against France, Papua New Guinea and Fiji. In 2006, the RFL announced that after the 2007 All Golds Tour Great Britain and Ireland team would no longer compete on a regular basis, its players would represent England and Scotland at Test level.
It is planned that the Great Britain team will come together in future only for occasional tours, similar to the British and Irish Lions in rugby union. On 9 May 2017, it was confirmed that the Great Britain and Ireland team would tour the southern hemisphere in 2019 as Great Britain and Irish Lions. Great Britain were represented by a team made up of players from the Northern Rugby Football Union, known as the "Northern Union" side. On 25 January 1908, the first Great Britain test match took place at Headingley Rugby Stadium, versus New Zealand. At the time, Great Britain were referred to as the "Northern Union" – they won the game 14–6 before a crowd of 8,000; the second test went to New Zealand by 18 -- 6, before 14,000 in London. The third test was played at Cheltenham, 4,000 watched New Zealand win 8–5; the first Kangaroos arrived in England on 27 September 1908, they toured Britain, losing more games than they won. They played their first test against the Northern Union in December in Loftus Road, London.
The second test in Newcastle in January 1909 attracted a crowd of 22,000, the Northern Union won 15–5. The third test was played at Villa Park, the Northern Union winning again 6–5 before a crowd of 9,000; the Australians suggested that the series should be named "the Ashes" after the cricket series of the same name. The first British tour of the Southern Hemisphere began on 4 June 1910 captained by James Lomas; the Northern Union played New South Wales in front of 33,000 spectators in Sydney, losing 28–14. But they won the first test in Sydney against Australia 27–20 in front of 42,000 at the old Sydney Showground, they won the second test in Brisbane 22–17. The tourists recorded a 13-all draw against a combined Australasian side in front of over 42,000 at the Agricultural Ground; these tests have been credited as making rugby league the predominate code of rugby football in Australia, a situation which continues to this day. Upon arriving in Auckland on 17 July, the team was accorded a mayoral reception.
On 30 July, they defeated New Zealand 52–20. The second Lions tour down under in 1914, led by Harold Wagstaff, became the stuff of legend, they played three Tests in eight days with the first two in three days. After sharing the first two tests, Great Britain finished with only 10 men due to injuries, but still managed to hang on for a 14–6 victory in Sydney in July 1914, it was dubbed "Rorke's Drift test", after a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War. Great Britain defeated a touring Australian side 2–1 in the 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain to win back the Ashes, lost in 1920, they would not be lost again until 1950. The 1924 Lions added the blue chevron to the all-white jersey. On the 1928 tour of Australasia, Great Britain lost only five of 24 tour matches; the Lions won the first Test 15–12. On Saturday 14 July 1928, when Great Britain met Australia in the second Test on a sea of mud at the Sydney Cricket Ground; the Lions won 8–0, containing the Kangaroos who, for the only time in Test match history, failed to score on home soil.
After clinching the Test series, the Lions lost the final Test. They were presented with the Ashes Trophy by the Australians, which the two countries have competed for since. Great Britain set off for New Zealand, where they lost the first Test. On Saturday 18 August 1928 the Lions travelled to Tahuna Park, for the second Test; the Lions led 7–5 at the interval and went on to win 13–5. Seven days the Lions won the third Test 6–5 to clinch the series two Tests to one. Before coming home they played some missionary games in Canada, which led to the formation of a rugby league competition in that country. On 5 October 1929, Australia won the first Test at the Boulevard, Hull 31–8. Great Britain won the second 9–3 at Headingley, Leeds on 9 November 1929; the third test, held at Station Road, resulted in a 0–0 draw with Australia having a try disallowed in the last minute. With the series tied 1 -- 1, an unprecedented fourth test was played at Rochdale. Britain won the test 3 -- 0. Britain again won the Ashes in 1932.
In 1932 the police locked the SCG gates after 70,204 crammed into the SCG. This would remain the world record test match attendance until eclipsed by the 73,631 who attended the 1992 World Cup Final at Wembley Stadium. On New Year's Eve 1933 in Paris and Australia play the first game of rugby league in France; the match was one-sided, with Australia winning 63–13 in front of a crowd of 5,000, but the seed was sown. Jim Sullivan was asked to go again as captain of the 1936 tourists, but declined on the
Super League is the top-level professional rugby league club competition in the Northern Hemisphere. The league has one from France. Super League began in 1996, replacing the Rugby Football League Championship and switching from a winter to a summer season; each team plays 29 games between February and September: 11 home games, 11 away games, Magic Weekend and an additional 6'loop fixtures' decided by league positions. The top five enter the play-off series leading to the Grand Final which determines the champions; the bottom team is relegated to the Championship. The Super League champions play the National Rugby League champions from Australasia in the World Club Challenge at the start of the season. A "super league" competition was first mooted during the Australian Super League war as a way for Rupert Murdoch to gain the upper hand during the battle for broadcasting supremacy with the Australian Rugby League. Murdoch approached the British clubs to form Super League. A large sum of money aided the decision, the competition got under way in 1996.
Part of the deal saw rugby league switch from a winter to a summer season. The 12 founding teams of Super League were: Bradford Bulls Castleford Tigers Halifax Leeds Rhinos London Broncos Oldham Bears Paris Saint-Germain Sheffield Eagles St. Helens Warrington Wolves Wigan Warriors Workington TownInitially, several mergers between existing clubs were proposed: Castleford, Wakefield Trinity and Featherstone Rovers would form Calder Hull F. C. and Hull Kingston Rovers would form Hull Salford and Oldham were to form Manchester Sheffield Eagles and Doncaster were to form South Yorkshire Warrington and Widnes were to form Cheshire Whitehaven, Workington Town and Carlisle would form CumbriaThey were to be included with the following stand-alone clubs: Bradford Northern, Leeds, London Broncos, Paris Saint-Germain, St. Helens and Wigan; however this proved so unpopular. The clubs finishing below 10th in the existing top flight were excluded, which meant Featherstone Rovers, Wakefield Trinity and Widnes were left out, as were pioneering club Keighley who had just won the Second Division Championship.
London Broncos, who had come fourth in the Second Division, were "fast-tracked" in on commercial grounds. A new team, Paris Saint-Germain, was created to give a French dimension. Between 1998 and 2000 there was no relegation from Super League. After two years Paris were dropped from the competition. Promotion and relegation between Super League and the Rugby League National Leagues was re-introduced, in 2002 the Super League Europe governing body re-integrated into the Rugby Football League. In 2006, French side Catalans Dragons from Perpignan joined the league, becoming the second non-English team to compete. To facilitate this move, two clubs were relegated from Super League at the end of the 2005 season: Leigh who finished bottom of the league were replaced by the one club coming up from the National Leagues and Widnes who finished 11th were dropped for Les Catalans, thus the number of clubs in Super League remained at 12. Super League licences were announced in May 2005 by the RFL as the new determinant of the Super League competition's participants from 2009 in place of promotion and relegation.
The licences were awarded after consideration of more factors than just the on-the-field performance of a club. After 2007 automatic promotion and relegation was suspended for Super League with new teams to be admitted on a licence basis with the term of the licence to start in 2009; the RFL stated that clubs applying to compete in Super League would be assessed by criteria in four areas with the final evaluations and decisions being taken by the RFL board of directors. Successful applicants were licensed for three years of Super League competition and three-yearly reviews of Super League membership took place to ensure ambitious clubs lower down the leagues can still be successful. Points attained by each club's application are translated into licence grades A, B or C. Clubs who achieved an A or B Licence would be automatically awarded a place in Super League, while those who achieved a C Licence underwent further scrutiny before the RFL decided who made the final cut. First licensing period In June 2008, the RFL confirmed that Super League would be expanded from 12 teams to 14 in 2009, on 22 July 2008 the RFL confirmed the teams awarded licences.
The teams announced were the 12 existing Super League teams along with National League 1 teams, Celtic Crusaders and Salford. Celtic Crusaders becoming the first Welsh team to play in Super League and the only team to be awarded a licence who had never played in the Super League previously. Featherstone Rovers, Halifax and Widnes all failed to attain a licence. Leigh and Widnes were disappointed with their exclusions with Leigh's chairman being critical of the RFL. Second licensing period For the 2012–14 seasons Championship sides Batley, Featherstone Rovers and Widnes all met the on-field criteria needed to submit an application, but despite this only Barrow and Widnes decided to submit an application. On 31 March 2011 Widnes were awarded a Super League licence; the Rugby Football League's final decision was announced on 26 July 2011, Widnes would be joi
Super League Test series
The Super League Test series was a three-test match series between the Great Britain Lions and Super League's Australian national team held during November 1997 in England. Named the British Gas Test series due to sponsorship from Centrica's British Gas brand, it went to a decider in the third test, won by Australia; the Australian side consisted only of players from the 1997 Telstra Cup season, with none from the 1997 Optus Cup season. England's Rugby Football League on the other hand, aligned with the Super League since 1995, does count the series' games as genuine test matches in their player records. Coming off the disaster of the Lions 1996 Oceania tour where the team won its tests against Papua New Guinea and Fiji, but lost all 3 tests against New Zealand and indeed did not win a game on the New Zealand leg of the tour, The Lions were looking for redemption; the British team were attempting to win their first series against Australia since 1970 and their first home series win against Australia since 1959.
Lions fullback/winger Jason Robinson was the only player from both teams, not a Super League aligned player having signed an ARL contract in 1995 at the height of the Super League war. Robinson had in fact played for a Rest of the World team in a test against the Australian Kangaroos earlier in 1997. Although contracted to them, the ARL did not object to Robinson's selection for Great Britain. Robinson had been controversially left off Great Britain's 1996 Oceania tour by the RFL due to his ARL contract; the three tests took place at the following venues. This was Australia's first visit to Wembley Stadium since the ARL-only Kangaroos' 16–8 win over England in the 1995 Rugby League World Cup Final, it was the 6th and final time the Australians would play at the famous venue until the 2011 Rugby League Four Nations when they played England at the new Wembley Stadium. Great Britain on the other hand, were hoping for a repeat of their Wembley victories over Australia to begin both the 1990 and 1994 Ashes Series.
An Australian team drawn from the rebel Super League competition was much too good for a Britain team coached by former Great Britain international Andy Goodway and captained by giant Wigan lock forward Andy Farrell. Former Aussie international John Lang was coach of the Australians with the team captained by Laurie Daley, a veteran of the successful 1990 and 1994 Kangaroo tours, one of only five players in the team who had played a test at Wembley. Future great of the game Darren Lockyer made his international debut for Australia at fullback; this would be the last rugby league Test match played at the old Wembley Stadium, demolished in 2003. The victory giving Australia a 6–4 record at the famous old stadium dating back to the last game of the 1929–30 Kangaroo Tour when Australia defeated Wales 26–10 in what was the first rugby league international played at Wembley; the Kangaroos would next get to play Wembley in October 2011, that time at the new Wembley Stadium when they defeated England 36–20 in the 2011 Four Nations.
This game remains the only time that an Australian team has lost at Old Trafford since first playing at the "Theatre of Dreams" in 1986. Great Britain dropped three players following their first test defeat. Martin Crompton was sacked from the squad after failing to report to training. Gordon Tallis was sin-binned for dissent in the second half. Andy Farrell was credited for inspiring the British to victory; the Australian's wrapped up the Super League Test series with a 37–20 win over the Lions at Elland Road in Leeds. The Australians extended their unbeaten run against Great Britain at Elland Road in Leeds, having won all four of their games with the Lions played at the stadium since 1986. Great Britain vs Australia SL 1997 at rugbyleagueproject.org
State of Origin series
The State of Origin series is the annual best-of-three rugby league football match series between two Australian state representative sides, the New South Wales Blues and the Queensland Maroons. Referred to as Australian sport's greatest rivalry, the State of Origin series is one of Australia's premier sporting events, attracting huge television audiences and selling out the stadiums in which the games are played, it is described as being the pinnacle of rugby league in comparison with international competitions. Players are selected to represent the Australian state in which they played their first senior rugby league game, hence the name'state of origin'. Prior to 1980 players were only selected for interstate matches on the basis of where they were playing their club football at the time. In both 1980 and 1981 there were two interstate matches under the old selection rules and one experimental "State of Origin" match. From 1982 onwards a best-of-three match series has been played around the middle of the rugby league season for the State of Origin shield.
During the early years, the results were extraordinarily even. However, since 2006, Queensland has won every series except in 2014 and 2018. Since the 1908 establishment of rugby league in Australia, the sport's two major states, New South Wales and Queensland, have played representative matches against each other which have continued into the "state of origin" era which began in the 1980s; the two states' teams are referred to as the Blues and Maroons, reflecting the respective colours of their jerseys. These were the colours of the Australia national rugby league team's jersey until the adoption of the green and gold; the Blues team is administered by the New South Wales Rugby League and the Maroons by the Queensland Rugby League. The New South Wales team are sometimes referred to by the nickname "Cockroaches" and the Queensland team as "Cane Toads", due to names given to them by Barry Muir and Johnny Raper respectively, it was reinforced by a marketing campaign used in the 1980s where the respective teams were caricatured as such.
Whilst other Australian states have representative rugby league teams, they have not competed in State of Origin. The first calls for a state of origin selection policy in interstate rugby football came before the schism between the union and league codes eventuated in Australia. In 1900 a journalist known as'The Cynic' wrote in The Referee that star rugby player and recent immigrant to Queensland, Stephen Spragg, should be able to play for his home state of New South Wales. Since the beginning of Australian rugby league in 1908, an interstate competition between New South Wales and Queensland has been conducted from time to time; until 1982 each team drew its players from the clubs based in that state. No consideration was given to the origins of the players themselves; the first of these interstate games was played at Sydney's Agricultural Ground on 11 July 1908, before Queensland had commenced its club competition. New South Wales accounted for Queensland in a 43–0 victory; the local media were unimpressed.
There can be no doubt the NSW men are improving a good deal... They can not be blamed for the farce. If the Australian team depends on Queenslanders to strengthen it, one is afraid it will be found wanting, they are quite the weakest lot of footballers I have seen come down from Queensland. The play needs no detailed description as it was a practice match for NSW, did not advantageously advertise the new game. -The Sydney Morning Herald, 13 July 1908The interstate series was dominated by New South Wales, apart from a golden period for Queensland in the 1920s. From 1922 to 1925 Queensland defeated. At the end of the 1925 season a Kangaroo team was to be picked for touring Great Britain. Instead of announcing an Australian team dominated by Queenslanders, the Australian Rugby League Board of Control informed the media that the Rugby Football League had decided that the Kiwis would provide stronger opposition, that there would be no Australian tour; the period spanning 1922 to 1929 saw no Australian team play in Great Britain, the only such hiatus outside the two World Wars.
The New South Wales dominance of interstate football increased after 1956 when gaming machines were legalised for all registered clubs in New South Wales. This provided New South Wales football clubs with a revenue source unmatched by Queensland clubs. From this time on an increasing number of Queensland players moved to the much stronger Sydney competition, becoming ineligible for Queensland state selection. Paul Hogan famously told a Queensland Rugby League gathering in 1977 that "every time Queensland produces a good footballer, he finishes up being processed through a New South Wales poker machine."Prior to 1956, NSW had won 75% and Qld only 25% of series played. From 1956–1981, NSW dominance soared higher and Qld wins dwindled to only 3.8% with only 1 series win, in 1959. By the 1970s the prestige of interstate matches had been downgraded. Matches were played mid-week, so as not to interfere with the Sydney club competition, the small crowds in New South Wales were hosted at suburban grounds.
Interstate football reached its nadir in 1977 when the New South Wales Rugby Football League declined to host the Queensland team, both interstate games were played in Queensland. Former Queensland captain and Australian vice-captain Jack Reardon, who had become a journalist, was the first to suggest that Sydney-based Queenslanders should be available for selection to represent their state. Brisbane Courier-Mail reporter Hugh Lunn, Barry Maranta and Maranta's business partner Wayne Reid pla
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin