The Rising Tour
The Rising Tour was a lengthy, top-grossing concert tour featuring Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band that took place in arenas and stadiums over 2002 and 2003. It followed the release of their 2002 album The Rising. Tour preparations began in late July and early August 2002 with closed and semi-open rehearsals, several public rehearsal shows, at Asbury Park, New Jersey's Convention Hall, as well as a advertised early morning promotional appearance there on NBC's The Today Show, he appeared on Late Night with David Letterman on CBS, NBC's Saturday Night Live, Nightline on ABC. His Nightline interview was one of the most revealing of his career. A private person, Springsteen agreed to all of these appearances as part of the biggest promotional effort of his career for the tour and its album; the first leg of the tour formally began on August 7, 2002 with an opening show in Springsteen's home floor of Continental Airlines Arena in New Jersey. This commenced what Springsteen's management called their "Barnstorming", playing 46 arena shows in 46 different cities in North America and Western Europe through the end of the year, ending on December 17 at Conseco Fieldhouse in Indianapolis.
The idea was to maximize the publicity effect of the tour for aiding sales of the heavily promoted new album by visiting as many markets as possible. The attendant publicity would only be increased if tickets were hard to come by, the case in Springsteen hot spots which were accustomed to multiple-night stands; the strategy appeared to succeed, as The Rising did well commercially and became Springsteen's best-selling album of new material in 15 years. After a break of more than two months in winter, the second leg of the tour began on February 28, 2003 with 7 more one-night stands in the United States; the band travelled to Australia and New Zealand in March for five shows down under. They quickly returned to North America for 6 more barnstorming shows in April in Canada. After a three-week break, barnstorming was over and the promised third leg of multiple-show stands was on; the tour went back to Western Europe, this time satisfying much pent-up demand by playing 24 shows in May and June, all in stadiums, with multiple dates in cities where necessary.
These dates ended in Stadio San Siro in Milan. Shows in Europe were hugely successful, for example in Scandinavia, shows in Finland, Sweden and Denmark sold out in a record two hours. Now it was time for North America to get the same treatment. From mid-July through early October, the band played 33 dates in stadiums composed of multiple-night stands along the Eastern Seaboard where Springsteen was most popular, starting with what would become 10 shows in New Jersey's Giants Stadium; these were Springsteen's first full appearances in United States stadiums since the 1985 leg of his Born in the U. S. A. Tour, included visits to icons such as Fenway Park and Dodger Stadium; the Rising Tour concluded on October 4, 2003 at Shea Stadium in New York City. In all, the tour played 120 shows in 82 cities over a span of 14 months. Not songs from The Rising played a key role in the structure of the tour's shows. Concerts began with "The Rising" followed by "Lonesome Day", both songs about the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
New E Streeter Soozie Tyrell's violin played a prominent role in establishing the texture of these numbers, as it would throughout the concert. Two more September 11 songs, "Empty Sky" and "You're Missing" appeared soon after, to continue the mood. Seven or eight songs into the show, "Waitin' on a Sunny Day" provided the first buoyant, happy moments. Springsteen's first-ever use of recorded backing music took place on the mid-show "Worlds Apart", where Middle Eastern vocals were applied; the role of elongated band introductions song for this tour was taken by "Mary's Place", which usually included interpolations of R&B classics. The main set closer was a final September 11 number, "Into the Fire", which relevant to the new album's themes emphasized togetherness and praise for sacrifice rather than the pure exuberance of previous tours' closers such as "Rosalita" and "Light of Day". For the rest of the main set, a mixture of songs from throughout Springsteen's catalog would emerge. Set lists were unusually static during the barnstorming, but loosened up.
One consistent mid-show mainstay was "Badlands", which never failed to bring audiences to their feet. The next-to-last spot in the main set was reserved for Springsteen playing a heretofore unusual solo piano spot, running through an old classic such as "For You" or "Incident on 57th Street". First encores of shows were fun and upbeat, featuring the return after a long absence of Springsteen's biggest hit single, "Dancing in the Dark", mindless numbers such as "Ramrod", concluding with his signature song, "Born to Run". Second encores were more thematic, centered around "My City of Ruins", the return of the full band version of "Born in the U. S. A.", the benedictory "Land of Hope and Dreams". Some of the second leg shows took place during the run-up to, March 20, 2003 star
Virginia Commonwealth University
Virginia Commonwealth University is a public research university in Richmond, Virginia. MCV was founded in 1838 as the medical department of Hampden–Sydney College, becoming the Medical College of Virginia in 1854. In 1968, the Virginia General Assembly merged MCV with the Richmond Professional Institute, founded in 1917, to create Virginia Commonwealth University. In 2018, more than 31,000 students pursue 217 degree and certificate programs through VCU's 11 schools and three colleges; the VCU Health System supports the university's health care education and patient care mission. With a record $270.3 million in sponsored research funding in the fiscal year 2014–15, VCU is designated as "R1: Doctoral University - Highest Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. A broad array of university-approved centers and institutes of excellence, involving faculty from multiple disciplines in public policy and health care discoveries, supports the university's research mission.
Twenty-eight graduate and first-professional programs are ranked by U. S. News & World Report as among the best in the country. VCU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the VCU Rams, they are members of the Atlantic 10 Conference. The VCU campus includes historic buildings such as the Ginter House, now used by the school's provost. Although created with the merger of the Richmond Professional Institute and Medical College of Virginia in 1968, VCU's history began in 1838 when the Medical Department of Hampden-Sydney College opened in Richmond. In 1844, it moved into its first permanent home, the Egyptian Building. In 1854, the Medical Department of Hampden–Sydney College received an independent charter from the Virginia General Assembly and became the Medical College of Virginia. A few years in 1860, MCV conveyed all its property to the Commonwealth of Virginia and becomes a state institution in exchange for $30,000. In 1893, the College of Physicians and Surgeons University College of Medicine, was established by Hunter Holmes McGuire just three blocks away from MCV.
In 1912, McGuire Hall opened as the new home of the University College of Medicine. The following year, MCV and UCM merged through the efforts of George Ben Johnston and Stuart McGuire. MCV acquired the Memorial Hospital as a result of the merger. Richmond Professional Institute traces its roots back to 1917, when it began as the Richmond School of Social Work and Public Health. In 1925, it became the Richmond division of The College of William & Mary. In 1939, this division became the Richmond Professional Institute of The College of William & Mary". In 1947, the MCV Foundation was incorporated, in 1962 RPI separated from William & Mary to become an independent state institution. In 1968, state legislation merged MCV and RPI to become Virginia Commonwealth University. VCU claims 1838 as its founding date on its official seal and on promotional materials. In 2013, VCU was awarded a $62 million federal grant to oversee a national research consortium of universities and clinics to study what happens to service members and veterans who suffer mild traumatic brain injuries or concussions.
In 2010, VCU received a $20 million National Institutes of Health grant to join a nationwide consortium of research institutions working to turn laboratory discoveries into treatments for patients. The Clinical and Translational Science Award made VCU the only academic health center in Virginia to join the prestigious CTSA network. In 2011, The Carnegie Foundation elevated Virginia Commonwealth University to "Very High Research Activity," with over 255 million in sponsored research. In 2009, Michael Rao was appointed the fifth president of VCU and continues in his tenure to focus on VCU's growth as a premier public research university. In 2018, a series of protests by adjunct faculty were held at VCU, over low pay and no benefits. Ahead of the 2018-19 budget, $4.2 million was allocated to increase adjunct faculty funding from $800 to $1,000 per credit hour, about $1,000 less than what the coalition was demanding. Warren W. Brandt served as the first president of VCU. During his tenure, 32 degree programs were added, the School of Allied Health Professions and the School of Community Services were established.
In addition, more than $20 million of new construction was completed or initiated on both campuses, including the James Branch Cabell Library, Rhoads Hall, the School of Business building, the Larrick Student Center and a large addition to Sanger Hall. In the 1980s, under the leadership of VCU President Edmund Ackell, a major overhaul of the university's governance system and administrative structure was initiated. Dr. Ackell lead the administration in instituting a new system for both short-range and long-range university planning. Eugene Trani became the president of VCU in 1990. During his tenure VCU became one of the largest universities in Virginia, growing from an enrollment of 21,764 in 1990, to 32,284 at the time of his retirement. VCU was the state's first university to enroll over 30,000 students. Under Dr. Trani's leadership VCU and the VCU Health System undertook more than $2.2 billion in capital construction and renovation projects. In February 2006, VCU established VCU 2020 Vision for Excellence, a strategic plan to continue to fulfill VCU's mission as a leading urban research institution for the 21st century and develop more than $1 billion in new academic, recreation, student housing, parking faci
The Upstage Club
The Upstage Club was a legendary coffee shop, music venue, afterhours club located in Asbury Park, New Jersey, United States and featured in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Influential musicians such as Bruce Springsteen, Bill Chinnock, Southside Johnny, David Sancious, Little Steven Van Zandt, Garry Tallent, Vini Lopez, Danny Federici first honed their live performance skills at the club, it was where Steel Mill and the Blackberry Blues Band were formed. Although Asbury Park is associated with the sounds of rock'n' roll from the 60s and 70s, its music history did not begin or end there. Since the turn of the century, its music community has included John Philip Sousa, Artie Shaw, various Broadway theater lyricists, in addition to contemporary artists. In its heyday, there were jazz joints lining Springwood Avenue; the Upstage Club was opened by Tom and Margaret Potter in 1968 at Cookman Avenue & Bond Street, Asbury Park, NJ, above a Thom McAn shoe store. The venue predated longstanding music venues such as The Saint.
When it opened, the Green Mermaid Café was on the second floor and a music room was on the third floor. Potter insisted; the music room was decked out with black lighting. The club was alcohol-free, musicians would jam there all night until around 5 a.m. In his book about the Asbury Park Music scene, Beyond the Palace, Gary Wien wrote, "This is where it all began... Musicians gathered each night at a club on the corner of Cookman Avenue and Bond Street, set on top of a Thom McAn shoe store; the Upstage brought the sights of San Francisco psychedelia and the sounds of Greenwich Village together in an endless array of all night jam sessions, which attracted the best young musicians in the area."In 1970, shortly after the Club opened, riots tore through Asbury Park, damaging the musically rich Springwood Avenue area, drug use increased. According to Don Stine, president of the Asbury Park Historical Society, there was an integration of races and musical styles at the Upstage. Up to that point in Asbury's history, Black bands did not play the boardwalk clubs, it was rare for white musicians to perform in the African-American music scene of Springwood Avenue on the West Side.
Garry Tallent, future E Street Band bassist, was an exception. In 1969, Clarence Clemons joined Norman Seldin’s Joyful Noyze, musicians of all colors were jamming at the Upstage; the Upstage was a refuge from the chaos. A sign on the door read, “Leave your anger and hate outside with your booze and drugs.” The Upstage Club has been said to have helped develop the Jersey Shore sound or'Asbury Sound," though musicians and others involved with the regional music scene object to the concept and see each band as having a personality and style of their own. According to Richie "La Bamba" Rosenberg, "If the sound that developed at the Shore in the 70s was unique, it was because you could play traditional blues and rock-and-roll. At the same time, audiences were open to experimentation. We mingled everybody's' styles."The musicians frequenting the Upstage Club formed several influential bands. In the late 1960s Springsteen jammed there with John Lyon, Van Zandt, Garry Tallent, Danny Federici, David Sancious and Vini Lopez.
The Asbury Jukes', the E Street Band's, the Hubcap's roots extend to The Upstage Club. Richie "La Bamba" Rosenberg said "When we started, it was me convincing a club owner we had a band that played pop tunes... He'd hire us, I'd run to the Upstage club in Asbury Park and whoever was there at the time became the band. We used to call it'the band of the week." Rosenberg said that the Hubcaps consisted of Jukes who were not busy when he was recruiting for the Hubcaps. Van Zandt Garry Tallent, Danny Federici, Vini Lopez and David Sancious, would all join Springsteen in the E Street Band; the Upstage Club closed in 1971. In 2014, the site of the former Upstage Club was listed for sale at 1.8 million dollars, which included a $750,000 liquor license. A documentary about the club called "Just Before the Dawn" that tells the story of The Upstage Club was released on April 21, 2017 during the Asbury Park Music & Film Festival; the film was going to focus on the Upstage Club but its scope was expanded to include the societal context in which the club was created, how the music community helped Asbury Park survive.
The film was directed by Tom Jones. It reflects on Asbury Park during the 1970s, the impact of race riots, the emergence of its unique sound; the film features interviews with musicians. In the film, Southside Johnny says, “I learned everything I know about performing and singing from those three years, two and a half years, at the Upstage because it was like our college.” There is a book about The Upstage Club by Carrie Potter-Devening entitled, "For Music's Sake. Asbury Park's Green Mermaid Cafe; the Untold Stories", whilst Albee Tellone's "Upstage, Springsteen and Me" gives substantial insights into life in the club
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U. S. folk rock emerged from the folk music revival and the influence that the Beatles and other British Invasion bands had on members of that movement. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their preexisting folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way discouraged in the U. S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was used in the U. S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music. The commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and their debut album of the same name, along with Dylan's own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde —encouraged other folk acts, such as Simon & Garfunkel, to use electric backing on their records and new groups, such as Buffalo Springfield, to form.
Dylan's controversial appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, where he was backed by an electric band, was a pivotal moment in the development of the genre. During the late 1960s in Britain and Europe, a distinct, eclectic British folk rock style was created by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North American style of folk rock, British folk rock bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire, leading to other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of the Albion Band and Celtic rock. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term "folk rock" refers to the blending of elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the U. S. and UK in the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation, in a style influenced by the Beatles and other British Invasion bands; the term "folk rock" was coined by the U.
S. music press to describe the Byrds' music in June 1965, the month in which the band's debut album was issued. Dylan contributed to the creation of the genre, with his recordings utilizing rock instrumentation on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde. In a broader sense, folk rock encompasses inspired musical genres and movements in different regions of the world. Folk rock may lean more towards either folk or rock in instrumentation and vocal style, choice of material. While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences; the term is not associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots. There are some exceptions; the American folk-music revival began during the 1940s. In 1948, Seeger formed the Weavers, whose mainstream popularity set the stage for the folk revival of the 1950s and early 1960s and served to bridge the gap between folk, popular music, topical song.
The Weavers' sound and repertoire of traditional folk material and topical songs directly inspired the Kingston Trio, a three-piece folk group who came to prominence in 1958 with their hit recording of "Tom Dooley". The Kingston Trio provided the template for a flood of "collegiate folk" groups between 1958 and 1962. At the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Brownie McGhee, Josh White came to the fore. Many of these urban revivalists were influenced by recordings of traditional American music from the 1920s and 1930s, reissued by Folkways Records. While this urban folk revival flourished in many cities, New York City, with its burgeoning Greenwich Village coffeehouse scene and population of topical folk singers, was regarded as the centre of the movement. Out of this fertile environment came such folk-protest luminaries as Bob Dylan, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Peter and Mary, many of whom would transition into folk rock performers as the 1960s progressed.
The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material. The influence of this folk-protest movement would manifest itself in the sociopolitical lyrics and mildly anti-establishment sentiments of many folk rock songs, including hit singles such as "Eve of Destruction", "Like a Rolling Stone", "For What It's Worth", "Let's Live for Today". During the 1950s and early 1960s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival, was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Both viewed British folk music as a vehicle for leftist political concepts and an antidote to the American-dominated popular music of the time. However, it wasn't until 1956 and the advent of the skiffle craze that the British folk revival crossed over into the mainstream and connected with British youth culture. Skiffle renewed popularity of folk music forms in Britain and led directly to the progressive folk movement and the attendant B
Robert "Waddy" Wachtel is an American musician and record producer, most notable for his guitar work. Wachtel has worked as session musician for other artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Stevie Nicks, Keith Richards, The Rolling Stones, Jon Bon Jovi, James Taylor, Iggy Pop, Warren Zevon, Bryan Ferry, Michael Sweet, Jackson Browne, Andrew Gold, both in the studio and live. Wachtel was born May 1947, in Jackson Heights in the New York City borough of Queens. At about age 9–10, Wachtel began to learn to play the guitar, taking lessons with teacher Gene Dell until about age 14. At that age, he says, he began writing songs. Waddy is Jewish. Wachtel studied with Rudolph Schramm, the head of the NBC staff orchestra and went on to teach music at Carnegie Hall. Schramm tried to get Wachtel to take piano lessons, but Wachtel was intent on playing guitar so Schramm agreed to give him guitar lessons three times a week on rhythm and harmony. After performing with local bands in the New York area, Wachtel formed his own band, The Orphans, who played in Connecticut and New Hampshire.
The band settled into a regular bar band routine, playing in Newport, Rhode Island, where Wachtel took lessons from Sal Salvador. When the Orphans disbanded, he formed another band, Twice Nicely. At the suggestion of Bud Cowsill, he brought Twice Nicely to Los Angeles in 1968 where they recorded a few demos, but after two years, Wachtel decided to work as a session player, recording with The Cowsills and produce their albums. In 1972, he made an appearance in the film The Poseidon Adventure with the actual band on stage in the dining room when the ship capsizes, he played in the Oscar's awarded short film Session Man in 1991. Wachtel has composed and played instruments for film scores including Joe Dirt, Up in Smoke, Nice Guys Sleep Alone, The Longest Yard, The Benchwarmers, Grandma's Boy, Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star, Strange Wilderness, The House Bunny, Paul Blart: Mall Cop, he has composed, produced, or performed in songs with Warren Zevon, Joe Walsh, Jackson Browne, Linda Ronstadt and others.
In 1972, he was hired by Warren Zevon to play guitar on The Everly Brothers Stories We Could Tell album and join them in a subsequent tour. By 1973, he played with Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks on their first album Buckingham Nicks, on tour; when Nicks and Buckingham joined Fleetwood Mac, he played rhythm guitar on their 1975 album Fleetwood Mac on the track "Sugar Daddy". In 1980, he wrote and sang lead vocals on an album for producer Peter Asher with members of Linda Ronstadt's band, including musicians Don Grolnick, Dan Dugmore, Rick Marotta. Both the group and the album were titled Ronin. Released on the Mercury label, the record never charted. In 1984 he played on Steve Perry's solo album Street Talk, he has appeared on hundreds of albums with bands. Production credits include albums by Stevie Nicks, Keith Richards, Jackson Browne, Bryan Ferry, The Church, Sand Rubies, George Thorogood and the Destroyers and Warren Zevon. Wachtel co-wrote several songs with Zevon including "Werewolves of London".
He co-wrote the Warren Zevon song "Things to Do in Denver When You're Dead" from the album Mr. Bad Example, he co-produced the first two Zevon albums. Wachtel shares co-writing credits with Stevie Nicks on a few tracks such as "Annabel Lee", "I Don't Care". Wachtel has been credited on some albums as Bob Wachtel, but some online sources have incorrectly credited him as Richard Wachtel on albums he was credited as having played guitar on. Wachtel and his wife Annie were arrested in 1998 on suspicion of possession of child pornography after illicit images were found on a computer they had in their home hard copies and duplicates of child porn were found in the home; the case against Wachtel's wife was dismissed. Musician Brett Tuggle defended Wachtel and his wife, saying "there is no way that Stevie would have him in her band if she thought he was guilty of any wrongdoing." Wachtel plays 1957 Fender Stratocaster. He said in a 1980 interview. Wachtel purchased the Les Paul guitar from Stephen Stills for $350.
In September 2014 the Gibson Custom Shop chose the 1960 Les Paul Waddy Wachtel guitar for their new Collector's Choice series. Wachtel performs with the Waddy Wachtel Band in the Los Angeles area, notably at The Joint from 2000 through 2013; the band at that time included Phil Jones, Rick Rosas, Bernard Fowler and Blondie Chaplin, among others. He continues to gig with some personnel changes, while retaining Fowler and Chaplin. Many famous artists have performed with the band as special guests.> Wachtel appeared on the 2010 Grammy Award television show backing Taylor Swift's live presentation. In Swift's duet with Nicks on the song "Rhiannon", Wachtel was featured on lead guitar. Waddy Wachtel Band Website Waddy Wachtel discography at Discogs Waddy Wachtel on IMDb
Asbury Park, New Jersey
Asbury Park is a city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, located on the Jersey Shore and part of the New York City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 16,116, reflecting a decline of 814 from the 16,930 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 131 from the 16,799 counted in the 1990 Census, it was ranked the sixth-best beach in New Jersey in the 2008 Top 10 Beaches Contest sponsored by the New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium. Asbury Park was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 26, 1874, from portions of Ocean Township; the borough was reincorporated on February 28, 1893. Asbury Park was incorporated as a city, its current type of government, as of March 25, 1897. A seaside community, Asbury Park is located on New Jersey's central coast. Developed in 1871 as a residential resort by New York brush manufacturer James A. Bradley, the city was named for Francis Asbury, the first American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States.
Bradley was active in the development of much of the city's infrastructure, despite his preference for gas light, he allowed the Atlantic Coast Electric Company to offer electric service. Along the waterfront Bradley installed the Asbury Park Boardwalk, an orchestra pavilion, public changing rooms and a pier at the south end of that boardwalk; such success attracted other businessmen. In 1888, Ernest Schnitzler built the Palace Merry-Go-Round on the southwest corner of Lake Avenue and Kingsley Street, the cornerstone of what would become the Palace Amusements complex. During these early decades in Asbury Park, a number of grand hotels were built, including the Plaza Hotel. Uriah White, an Asbury Park pioneer, installed the first artesian well water system; as many as 600,000 people a year vacationed in Asbury Park during the summer season in the early years, riding the New York and Long Branch Railroad from New York City and Philadelphia to enjoy the mile-and-a-quarter stretch of oceanfront Asbury Park.
By 1912, The New York Times estimated that the summer population could reach 200,000. The country by the sea destination experienced several key periods of popularity; the first notable era was the 1890s, marked by a housing growth, examples of which can still be found today in a full range of Victorian architecture. Coinciding with the nationwide trend in retail shopping, Asbury Park's downtown flourished during this period and well into the 20th century; the 1920s saw a dramatic change in the boardwalk with the construction of the Paramount Theatre and Convention Hall complex, the Casino Arena and Carousel House, two handsome red-brick pavilions. Beaux Arts architect Warren Whitney of New York was the designer, he had been hired to design the imposing Berkeley-Carteret Hotel positioned diagonally across from the theater and hall. At the same time, Asbury Park launched a first-class education and athletic program with the construction of a state-of-the-art high school overlooking Deal Lake. On September 8, 1934, the wreck of the ocean liner SS Morro Castle, which caught fire and burned, beached itself near the city just yards away from the Asbury Park Convention Hall.
In 1935, the newly founded Securities and Exchange Commission called Asbury Park's Mayor Clarence F. Hetrick to testify about $6 million in "beach improvement bonds" that had gone into default. At the same time, the SEC inquired about rental rates on the beach front and why the mayor reduced the lease of a bathhouse from $85,000 to $40,000, among many other discrepancies that could have offset debt; the interests of Asbury Park's bond investors led Senator Frank Durand to add a last-minute "Beach Commission" amendment to a municipal debt bill in the New Jersey legislature. When the bill became law, it ceded control of the Asbury Park beach to Governor Harold Hoffman and a governor's commission; the city of Asbury Park sued to restore control of the beach to the municipal council, but the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals upheld the validity of the law in 1937. When Durand pressed New Jersey's legislature to extend the state's control of Asbury Park's beach in 1938, the lower house staged a walk out and the Senate soon adjourned, a disruption that prevented a vote for funding New Jersey's participation in the 1939 New York World's Fair.
In December 1938, the court returned control of the beach to the municipal council under the proviso that a bond repayment agreement was created. In 1943, the New York Yankees held their spring training in Asbury Park instead of Florida; this was because rail transport had to be conserved during the war, Major League Baseball's Spring Training was limited to an area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. With the opening of the Garden State Parkway in 1947, Asbury Park saw the travel market change as fewer vacationers took trains to the seashore. While the Asbury Park exit on the Parkway opened in 1956 and provided a means for drivers to reach Asbury Park more additional exits further south allowed drivers access to new alternative vacation destinations on Long Beach Island. In the decades that followed the war, surrounding farm communities gave way to tracts of suburban houses, encouraging the city's middle-class blacks as well as whites to move into newer houses with spacious yards.
With the above-mentioned change in the travel market, prompted by the opening of the Garden State Parkway in 1947 and the opening of Monmouth Mall 10 miles (16
Gleaming the Cube
Gleaming the Cube is an American film released in 1989. It featured Christian Slater as Brian Kelly, a 16-year-old skateboarder investigating the death of his adopted Vietnamese brother; the skating technical advisor for the film was original Z-Boy Stacy Peralta. Among the skateboarders who appear in the film as stunt skaters are Mike McGill, "Gator" Mark Rogowski, Rodney Mullen, Rich Dunlop, Eric Dressen, Lance Mountain, Mike Vallely, Chris Black, Ted Ehr, Natas Kaupas, Chris Borst, Steve Saiz. Tony Hawk and Tommy Guerrero members of the Bones Brigade, appear in the film as members of Brian's skate crew. Future lead singer of The Aquabats and creator of Yo Gabba Gabba!, Christian Jacobs appears in the film as Gremic. The film received a moderate release in the United States from 20th Century Fox. Although the film had a low box office turnout, it garnered a significant cult following after its theatrical release, through basic cable replays on networks such as USA and the burgeoning VHS market, as well as among skateboarders.
The title of the film refers to the cryptic question "Have you gleemed inside a cube?" that Garry Scott Davis asked Neil Blender in an interview in the December 1983 issue of Thrasher magazine. In the film, Christian Slater's character defines "gleaming the cube" as "pushing your limits to the edge"; the DVD contains an easter egg. Brian Kelly is an underachieving high school student in California. An avid skateboarder, Brian is at odds with his parents for his reckless behavior, which has landed him in jail on more than one occasion; the only person in the family Brian can relate to is his adopted Vietnamese brother Vinh, who works as a shipping clerk for the Vietnamese Anti-Communist Relief Fund, an organization which sends medical supplies to Vietnam. When Vinh discovers a suspicious inaccuracy in VACRF's shipping records, he brings it to his boss Colonel Trac, who dismisses the matter as a clerical error fires Vinh when he tries to investigate. Undeterred, Vinh sneaks into Westpac Medical Supplies, the warehouse handling VACRF's shipping, but is apprehended by owner Ed Lawndale.
Vinh is interrogated by another of Colonel Trac's employees, at a motel. When Colonel Trac arrives, it is revealed that he and Lawndale are conspirators in a scheme to smuggle illegal weapons to Vietnam. Convinced that Vinh poses no threat to their operation, Trac intends to set him free, but Vinh is strangled to death by Nguyen, they hang Vinh's body from a noose, so the police deem it a suicide. After the funeral, Brian finds the list of medical supplies Vinh was investigating, written in Vietnamese. Looking for someone to translate it, he encounters Bobby Nguyen. Brian sneaks into the backseat of Nguyen’s car and witnesses a meeting with Trac and Lawndale, in which Nguyen demands $50,000 and a ticket to Bangkok, but a struggle ensues and Lawndale kills Nguyen. Brian flees to notify the police, but they find no trace of the crime and learn that Nguyen arrived in Thailand. Brian tries to convince Detective Al Lucero. While skeptical, Lucero offers to look into it; as Brian's suspicion of Colonel Trac grows, he reaches out to Trac's daughter Tina, a fellow high school student and Vinh's ex-girlfriend.
After an image makeover, Brian asks her out on the two become closer. He attends one of VACRF's social functions, where he notices Lawndale and learns of his connection to Trac and Westpac. Following in his brother's footsteps, Brian sneaks into Lawndale's warehouse and uncovers a shipping crate full of weapons. Brian causes an explosion at the warehouse and plants evidence to incriminate Trac, but Lucero suspects Brian and admonishes him for the act. However, the incident causes Trac to panic and send his wife and daughter away to his brother's house. A distressed Tina spends the night with Brian instead and discovers a lighter belonging to her father in Brian's room, leading Brian to explain all his suspicions to her. Tina angrily confronts her father about the conspiracy, shamed by his involvement and contacts Lawndale to end the operation. In response, Lawndale sends a group of Vietnamese motorcyclists to run Brian down on the street; the police manage to apprehend the bikers and, with the aid of an interpreter, Lucero is able to confirm Lawndale's role in the attack.
Brian visits his friend Yabbo, who builds a newer, faster skateboard for Brian and rallies the rest of the skateboarding clique. Brian and the police both converge upon Colonel Trac's house; when Trac tries to wrestle the gun away, Brian crashes into the room through the window, but Lawndale shoots and kills Trac escapes in a police car. Brian and the entire skateboarding crew corner Lawndale; as Lawndale prepares to shoot Brian, he soars into the air on his skateboard and knocks Lawndale out. Brian comforts Tina about her father's death and suggests that they return to school together, implying that their relationship will continue. Afterwards and Lucero visit Vinh's grave before driving away. Christian Slater as Brian Kelly Steven Bauer as Al Lucero Richard Herd as Ed Lawndale Le Tuan as Colonel Trac Min Luong as Tina Trac Art Chudabala as Vinh Kelly Ed Lauter as Mr. Kelly Micole Mercurio as Mrs. Kelly Peter Kwong as Bobby Nguyen Max Perlich as Yabbo Tony Hawk as Buddy Christian Jacobs as Gremic Renowned stuntman Buddy Joe Hooker makes a cameo at the start of the chase scene's freeway segm