Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a field that has base lengths of 60 feet, a pitcher's mound that ranges from 35-43 feet away from home plate, a homerun fence, 220 feet away from home plate. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago, United States as an indoor game; the game moves at a faster pace than traditional baseball. There is less time for the base runner to get to first; the name softball was given to the game in 1926, because the ball used to be soft, however in modern day usage, the balls are hard. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago World's Fair spurred interest in the game; the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. The World Baseball Softball Confederation regulates rules of play in more than 110 countries, including the United States and Canada. Women's fast pitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it and baseball were dropped from the 2012 Games.
There are three types of softball. In the most common type, slow-pitch softball, the ball, which can measure either 11 or 12 inches in circumference depending on gender and league, must arch on its path to the batter, there are 10 players on the field at once. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, bunting and stealing bases are permitted. Modified softball restricts the "windmill" wind-up used by fastpitch pitchers, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball. Two major differences are that the ball must be pitched underhand—from 46 ft for men or 43 ft for women as compared with 60.5 ft in baseball—and that seven innings instead of nine constitute a regulation game. Despite the name, the ball used in softball is not soft, it is about 12 in in circumference, 3 in larger than a baseball. Softball recreational leagues for children use 11-inch balls until they participate in travel ball around age 12 and adjust to a 12-inch sized ball.
The infield in softball is smaller than on an adult or high school baseball diamond but identical to that used by Little League Baseball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is dirt, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases and on the pitcher's mound which are dirt. Softball mounds are flat, while baseball mounds are a small hill. Softballs are pitched underhand; this changes the arc of the ball. For example, depending if the pitcher pitches a fastball, in softball the ball would most rise while in baseball because the pitcher is on a hill, the ball would drop; the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day, 1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University and Harvard University football game; when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The Harvard fan swung at the rolled up glove. George Hancock, a reporter there, called out "Play ball!" and the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball, a broom handle serving as a bat.
This first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded. George Hancock is credited as the game's inventor for his development of a 17" ball and an undersized bat in the next week; the Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread to outsiders. Envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called "Indoor Baseball". Under the name of "Indoor-Outdoor", the game moved outside in the next year, the first rules were published in 1889. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters. Rober's version of the game used a ball 12 inches in circumference, rather than the 16-inch ball used by the Farragut club, the Minneapolis ball prevailed, although the dimensions of the Minneapolis diamond were passed over in favor of the dimensions of the Chicago one. Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No. 19 in Minneapolis, Rober's post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sport's development.
The first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name "softball" dates back to 1926; the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress. The name softball had spread across the United States by 1930. By the 1930s, similar sports with different rules and names were being played all over the United States and Canada. By 1936, the Joint Rules Committee on Softball had standardized the rules and naming throughout the United States. Sixteen-inch softball sometimes referred to as "mush ball" or "super-slow pitch", is a direct descendant of Hancock's original game. Defensive players are not allowed to wear fi
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria as the Islamic State and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi doctrine of Sunni Islam. ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive, followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre; the group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is known for its videos of beheadings and other types of executions of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, its destruction of cultural heritage sites; the United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes. ISIL committed ethnic cleansing on an historic scale in northern Iraq. ISIL originated as Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in 1999, which pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda and participated in the Iraqi insurgency following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces at the behest of the United States.
In June 2014 the group proclaimed itself a worldwide caliphate and began referring to itself as the Islamic State. As a caliphate, it claimed religious and military authority over all Muslims worldwide, its adoption of the name Islamic State and its idea of a caliphate have been criticised, with the United Nations, various governments and mainstream Muslim groups rejecting its statehood. In Syria, the group conducted ground attacks on both government forces and opposition factions and by December 2015, it held a large area extending from western Iraq to eastern Syria, containing an estimated 8 to 12 million people, where it enforced its interpretation of sharia law. ISIL is believed to be operational in 18 countries across the world, including Afghanistan and Pakistan, with "aspiring branches" in Mali, Somalia, Bangladesh and the Philippines. In 2015, ISIL was estimated to have an annual budget of more than US$1 billion and a force of more than 30,000 fighters. In July 2017, the group lost control of Mosul, to the Iraqi army.
Following this major defeat, ISIL continued to lose territory to the various states and other military forces allied against it, until it controlled no meaningful territory by November 2017. U. S. military officials and simultaneous military analyses reported in December 2017 that the group retained a mere 2 percent of the territory they had held. On 10 December 2017, Iraq's Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi said that Iraqi forces had driven the last remnants of Islamic State from the country, three years after the militant group captured about a third of Iraq's territory. By 23 March 2019, ISIL lost one of their last significant territories in the Middle East, surrendering their "tent city" and pockets in Al-Baghuz Fawqani near the end of the Battle of Baghuz Fawqani. In April 2013, having expanded into Syria, the group adopted the name ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah fī'l-ʿIrāq wa-sh-Shām; as al-Shām is a region compared with the Levant or Greater Syria, the group's name has been variously translated as "Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham", "Islamic State of Iraq and Syria", or "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant".
While the use of either one or the other acronym has been the subject of debate, the distinction between the two and its relevance has been considered not so great. Of greater relevance is the name Daesh, an acronym of ISIL's Arabic name al-Dawlah al-Islamīyah fī l-ʻIrāq wa-sh-Shām. Dāʿish, or Daesh; this name has been used by ISIL's Arabic-speaking detractors, although – and to a certain extent because – it is considered derogatory, as it resembles the Arabic words Daes and Dāhis. Within areas under its control, ISIL considers use of the name Daesh punishable by flogging or cutting out the tongue. In late June 2014, the group renamed itself ad-Dawlah al-Islāmiyah, declaring itself a worldwide caliphate; the name "Islamic State" and the group's claim to be a caliphate have been rejected, with the UN, various governments, mainstream Muslim groups refusing to use the new name. The group's declaration of a new caliphate in June 2014 and its adoption of the name "Islamic State" have been criticised and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists both inside and outside the territory it controls.
In a speech in September 2014, United States President Barack Obama said that ISIL was neither "Islamic" nor was it a "state", while many object to using the name "Islamic State" owing to the far-reaching religious and political claims to authority which that name implies. The United Nations Security Council, the United States, Turkey, Russia, the United Kingdom and other countries call the group "ISIL", while much of the Arab world uses the Arabic acronym "Dāʻish". France's Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said "This is a terrorist group and not a state. I do not recommend using the term Islamic State because it blurs the lines between Islam and Islamists; the Arabs call it'Daesh' and I will be calling them the'Daesh cutthroats.'" Retired general John Allen, the U. S. envoy appointed to co-ordinate the coalition. S. Army Lieutenant General James Terry, head of operations against the group.
Neil Alden Armstrong was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer, the first person to walk on the Moon. He was a naval aviator, test pilot, university professor. A graduate of Purdue University, Armstrong studied aeronautical engineering with his college tuition paid for by the U. S. Navy under the Holloway Plan, he became a midshipman in 1949, a naval aviator the following year. He saw action in the Korean War. In September 1951, he was hit by anti-aircraft fire while making a low bombing run, was forced to bail out. After the war, he completed his bachelor's degree at Purdue and became a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base in California, he flew the North American X-15 seven times. He was a participant in the U. S. Air Force's Man in Space X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs. Armstrong joined the NASA Astronaut Corps in the second group, selected in 1962, he made his first spaceflight as commander of Gemini 8 in March 1966, becoming NASA's first civilian astronaut to fly in space.
During this mission with pilot David Scott, he performed the first docking of two spacecraft. During training for Armstrong's second and last spaceflight as commander of Apollo 11, he had to eject from the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle moments before a crash. In July 1969, Armstrong and Apollo 11 Lunar Module pilot Buzz Aldrin became the first people to land on the Moon, spent two and a half hours outside the spacecraft while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the command and service module; when Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface, he famously said: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." Along with Collins and Aldrin, Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Richard Nixon. President Jimmy Carter presented Armstrong with the Congressional Space Medal of Honor in 1978, Armstrong and his former crewmates received a Congressional Gold Medal in 2009. After he resigned from NASA in 1971, Armstrong taught in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati until 1979.
He served on the Apollo 13 accident investigation, on the Rogers Commission, which investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. He acted as a spokesman for several businesses, appeared in advertising for the automotive brand Chrysler starting in January 1979. Armstrong was born on August 5, 1930, near Wapakoneta, Ohio, to Stephen Koenig Armstrong and Viola Louise née Engel, he was of German and Scots-Irish ancestry, had a younger sister, a younger brother, Dean. His father worked as an auditor for the Ohio state government, the family moved around the state living in sixteen towns over the next fourteen years. Armstrong's love for flying grew during this time, having started early when his father took his two-year-old son to the Cleveland Air Races; when he was five or six, he experienced his first airplane flight in Warren, when he and his father took a ride in a Ford Trimotor known as the "Tin Goose". His father's last move was in 1944, back to Wapakoneta. Armstrong attended Blume High School, took flying lessons at the grassy Wapakoneta airfield.
He earned a student flight certificate on his sixteenth birthday soloed in August, all before he had a driver's license. He earned the rank of Eagle Scout; as an adult, he was recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with its Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo Award. On July 18, 1969, while flying toward the Moon, Armstrong greeted the Scouts. Among the few personal items that he carried with him to the Moon and back was a World Scout Badge. In 1947, at age 17, Armstrong began studying aeronautical engineering at Purdue University, he was the second person in his family to attend college. He was accepted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but an uncle who had attended MIT dissuaded him from attending, telling him that it was not necessary to go all the way to Cambridge, for a good education, his college tuition was paid for under the Holloway Plan. Successful applicants committed to two years of study, followed by two years of flight training and one year of service in the U.
S. Navy as an aviator completion of the final two years of their bachelor's degree. Armstrong did not take courses in naval science, nor did he join the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps at Purdue. Armstrong's call-up from the Navy arrived on January 26, 1949, requiring him to report to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida for flight training with class 5-49. After passing the medical examinations, he became a midshipman on February 24, 1949. Flight training was conducted in a North American SNJ trainer, in which he soloed on September 9, 1949. On March 2, 1950, he made his first aircraft carrier landing on the USS Cabot, an achievement he considered comparable to his first solo flight, he was sent to Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas for training on the Grumman F8F Bearcat, culminating in a carrier landing on the USS Wright. On August 16, 1950, Armstrong was informed by letter that he was a qualified naval aviator, his mother and sister attended his graduation ceremony on August 23, 1950.
Armstrong's assignment was to Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 7 at NAS San Diego. On November 27, 1950, he was assigned to VF-51, an all-jet squadron, becoming its youngest officer, made
State schools are primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. While such schools are to be found in every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education encompasses primary and secondary education, as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than by private entities; the position before there were government-funded schools varied: in many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit elite, sector of the population. The introduction of government-organised schools was in some cases able to build upon this established system, both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously. State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in that enfranchisement for the government of public education is as broad as for government generally.
It is organised and operated to be a deliberate model of the civil community in which it functions. Although provided to groups of students in classrooms in a central school, it may be provided in-home, employing visiting teachers, and/or supervising teachers, it can be provided in non-school, non-home settings, such as shopping mall space. State education is available to all. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to attend school up to a certain age, but the option of attending private school is open to many. In the case of private schooling, schools operate independently of the state and defray their costs by charging parents tuition fees; the funding for state schools, on the other hand, is provided by tax revenues, so that individuals who do not attend school help to ensure that society is educated. In poverty stricken societies, authorities are lax on compulsory school attendance because child labour is exploited, it is these same children whose income-securing labour cannot be forfeited to allow for school attendance.
The term "public education" when applied to state schools is not synonymous with the term "publicly funded education". Government may make a public policy decision that it wants to have some financial resources distributed in support of, it may want to have some control over, the provision of private education. Grants-in-aid of private schools and vouchers systems provide examples of publicly funded private education. Conversely, a state school may rely on private funding such as high fees or private donations and still be considered state by virtue of governmental ownership and control. State primary and secondary education involves the following: compulsory student attendance. In some countries, private associations or churches can operate schools according to their own principles, as long as they comply with certain state requirements; when these specific requirements are met in the area of the school curriculum, the schools will qualify to receive state funding. They are treated financially and for accreditation purposes as part of the state education system though they make decisions about hiring and school policy, which the state might not make itself.
Government schools are free to attend for Australian citizens and permanent residents, whereas independent schools charge attendance fees. They can be divided into two categories: selective schools; the open schools accept all students from their government-defined catchment areas. Government schools educate 65% of Australian students, with 34% in Catholic and independent schools. Regardless of whether a school is part of the Government or independent systems, they are required to adhere to the same curriculum frameworks of their state or territory; the curriculum framework however provides for some flexibility in the syllabus, so that subjects such as religious education can be taught. Most school students wear uniforms. Public or Government funded; these schools teach students from Year 1 to 10, with examinations for students in years 5, 8, 10. All public schools follow the National Board Curriculum. Many children girls, drop out of school after completing the 5th Year in remote areas. In larger cities such as Dhaka, this is uncommon.
Many good public schools conduct an entrance exam, although most public schools in the villages and small towns do not. Public schools are the only option for parents and children in rural areas, but there are large numbers of private schools in Dhaka and Chittagong. Many Bangladeshi private schools teach their students in English and follow curricula from overseas, but in public schools lessons are taught in Bengali. Per the Canadian constitution, public-school education in Canada is a provincial responsibility and, as such, there are many variations among the provinces. Junior kindergarten exists as an official program in only Ontario and Quebec while kindergarten is available in every province, but provincial funding and the level of ho
Golden Valley, Minnesota
Golden Valley is a city in Hennepin County, United States. It is a western suburb of Minneapolis and is the main corporate headquarters of General Mills and Pentair. Golden Valley is the home of NBC affiliate KARE, the Perpich Center for Arts Education and Breck School; the population was 20,371 at the 2010 census. Tribes of Chippewa and Sioux had encampments on nearby Medicine Lake; the first white settlers arrived in the early 1850s. Golden Valley was incorporated December 17, 1886. In the early twentieth century, it was a farming community. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.55 square miles, of which 10.20 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles is water. The 45th parallel north runs through Golden Valley, coinciding with Duluth Street. Interstate 394, U. S. Highway 169, Minnesota State Highways 55 and 100 are four of the main routes in the area. Most children who live in Golden Valley attend the Robbinsdale School District or the Hopkins School District, as all of the territory of the city belongs to one or the other school district.
Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute. Golden Valley High School was founded in 1957, the adjacent Golden Valley Middle School was opened in 1964, were closed in the early 1980s after the Golden Valley School District merged with the Hopkins School District. Carl Sandburg Junior High School opened in 1959. In 1988, it became Sandburg Middle School. In 1981, the Breck School, a private Episcopal school, purchased the former Golden Valley High School and Middle School property and moved from Minneapolis to the campus of the former Golden Valley schools. There is a private elementary Catholic School named Good Shepherd Catholic School, its name was changed in 2006 from the former Parkvalley Catholic. What is the site of the Perpich Center for Arts Education was the Golden Valley Lutheran College, which closed in 1985. Major employers in the city include: Tennant General Mills Pentair KARE, NBC affiliate for the Twin Cities Minnesota United FC - headquarters for the Major League Soccer franchise Bluestone Garden Room & Board Honeywell UnitedHealth Group USFamily.netEven though the population of Golden Valley is around 20,000, more than 30,000 people work in Golden Valley.
This is because of the presence of large employers including General Mills and Pentair. According to Golden Valley's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city were: As of the census of 2010, there were 20,371 people, 8,816 households, 5,417 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,997.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,349 housing units at an average density of 916.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.4% White, 7.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 3.5% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 8,816 households of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.6% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.84. The median age in the city was 45.7 years. 19.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,281 people, 8,449 households, 5,508 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,982.3 people per square mile. There were 8,589 housing units at an average density of 839.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.07% White, 3.59% African American, 0.29% Native American, 2.87% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, 1.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.76% of the population. There were 8,449 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 5.0% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $62,063, the median income for a family was $75,899. Males had a median income of $49,890 versus $35,967 for females; the per capita income for the city was $34,094. About 0.8% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. Golden Valley is a statutory city. Golden Valley operates under the council–manager form of government; the City Council sets the policy and overall direction for the city, appoints a city manager to serve as administrator. The city manager directs city staff in ca
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a