Sophie, Princess of Prussia
Princess Sophie was born on 7 March 1978 in Frankfurt, West Germany. Her parents are Franz-Alexander, Prince of Isenburg and his wife and he is head of a mediatized Catholic line of Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, who lost their independence in 1815. She has two sisters and two brothers, growing up at Castle Birstein, the family seat in Hesse, Sophie studied at a primary school in Birstein and at St. Marys school in Fulda. She attended the boarding school Kloster Wald and passed her A-Levels as well as a trade test as a dressmaker, the princess undertook internships in her countrys Bundestag, and in London, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. Sophie studied Business Administration at the University of Freiburg and Humboldt University of Berlin, on 21 January 2011, Georg Friedrich, the head of the House of Hohenzollern, announced the couples engagement. Following the ceremony, a reception was held on the grounds of the Sanssouci summer palace of Frederick the Great. Numerous sources called it the most lavish Hohenzollern wedding since the marriage of the aunt, Princess Marie Cécile of Prussia.
The bride arrived with her father in a silver Rolls Royce and her bridal gown was designed by Wolfgang Joop. Sophie wore the Isenburgs traditional diamond diadem to the altar, replacing it with the 1905 Prussian Meander tiara of diamonds-and-platinum for the wedding supper, approximately 720 guests witnessed the wedding inside the church,1300 well-wishers attended a reception at the nearby Neue Kammern afterwards. 370 people joined the couple in the evening for the wedding dinner. Some had attended a charity concert with the couple at the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin the previous night, germanys political establishment was represented at the wedding by former finance minister Michael Glos and Brandenburgs incumbent and former premiers, Matthias Platzeck and Manfred Stolpe. Vladimir Kotenev, Russias ambassador to Germany from 2004 to 2010, ehrengard von Preussen and the heir of the senior branch of the dynasty, Hereditary Prince of Hohenzollern attended. On 20 January 2013, Sophie gave birth to sons, Carl Friedrich Franz Alexander.
Carl Friedrich, the elder of the two, is the apparent to the House of Hohenzollern. Their third child Princess Emma Marie Charlotte Sophie was born on the 2 April 2015, the couples fourth child, Heinrich Albert Johann Georg was born on 17 November 2016. 07 March 1978 -25 August 2011, Her Serene Highness Princess Sophie of Isenburg 25 August 2011 - present, Her Imperial and Royal Highness The Princess of Prussia
The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, and one region, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown. It was ruled by the House of Habsburg, and constituted the last phase in the evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal, Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states. Austria-Hungary was a state and one of the worlds great powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as a state religion due to Bosnias Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I and it was already effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918. The realms full, official name was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship, one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, which was under the control of both Austria and Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary, the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained largely untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungarys central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government, the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancellery in Vienna. The Hungarian government and Hungarian parliament were suspended after the Hungarian revolution of 1848, despite Austria and Hungary sharing a common currency, they were fiscally sovereign and independent entities. Since the beginnings of the union, the government of the Kingdom of Hungary could preserve its separated. After the revolution of 1848–1849, the Hungarian budget was amalgamated with the Austrian, from 1527 to 1851, the Kingdom of Hungary maintained its own customs controls, which separated her from the other parts of the Habsburg-ruled territories
Ludwig III of Bavaria
Ludwig III, was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. Ludwig was born in Munich, the eldest son of Prince Luitpold of Bavaria and of his wife and he was a descendant of both Louis XIV of France and William the Conqueror. Hailing from Florence, Augusta always spoke in Italian to her four children, Ludwig was named after his grandfather, King Ludwig I of Bavaria. Ludwig spent his first years living in the Electoral rooms of the Munich Residenz, from 1852 to 1863, he was tutored by Ferdinand von Malaisé. When he was ten years old, the moved to the Leuchtenberg Palace. In 1861 at the age of sixteen, Ludwig began his career when his uncle, King Maximilian II of Bavaria. A year later, he entered the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, when he was eighteen, he automatically became a member of the Senate of the Bavarian Legislature as a prince of the royal house. In 1866, Bavaria was allied with the Austrian Empire in the Austro-Prussian War, Ludwig held the rank of Oberleutnant.
He was wounded at the Battle of Helmstedt, taking a bullet in his thigh, the incident contributed to the fact that he was rather averse to the military. He received the Knights Cross 1st Class of the Bavarian Military Merit Order In June 1867, Ludwig visited Vienna to attend the funeral of his cousin, while there, Ludwig met Mathildes eighteen-year-old step-cousin Maria Theresia, Archduchess of Austria-Este. On 20 February 1868, at St. Augustines Church in Vienna and she was the only daughter of the late Archduke Ferdinand Karl Viktor of Austria-Este and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria. Until 1862, Ludwigs uncle had reigned as King Otto I of Greece, although Otto had been deposed, Ludwig was still in line of succession to the Greek throne. Had he ever succeeded, this would have required that he renounce his Roman Catholic faith, Maria Theresas uncle, Duke Francis V of Modena, was a staunch Roman Catholic. He required that as part of the marriage agreement Ludwig renounce his rights to the throne of Greece, in addition, the 1843 Greek Constitution forbade the Greek sovereign to be simultaneously ruler of another country.
Consequently, Ludwigs younger brother Leopold technically succeeded upon their fathers death to the rights of the deposed Otto I, by his marriage, Ludwig became a wealthy man. Maria Theresa had inherited large properties from her father and she owned the estate of Sárvár in Hungary and the estate of Eiwanowitz in Moravia. The income from these estates enabled Ludwig to purchase an estate at Leutstetten in Bavaria, over the years, Ludwig expanded the Leutstetten estate until it became one of the largest and most profitable in Bavaria. Ludwig was sometimes derided as Millibauer due to his interest in agriculture, although they maintained a residence in Munich at the Leuchtenberg Palace and Maria Theresa lived mostly at Leutstetten
The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries, the term is used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house which is not currently in the direct line of succession. The term comes from the French term cadet for younger sons of a noble family, in Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, a cadet is a member of one of the cadet forces. In the United Kingdom these are the Combined Cadet Force, the Sea/Royal Marine Cadets, Army Cadets, Military officers in training are called officer cadets. In Canada, the term refers to an officer in training, with the official rank names as Officer Cadet for the Air Force and Army. It refers to any member of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets and these three organizations are volunteer youth groups administered by the Department of National Defence. In Germany, the rank Cadet only exists in the German Navy for officers in training, in the Army and the Luftwaffe, officers in training usually have the rank of a Fahnenjunker or Ensign before they are promoted into the rank of a Lieutenant.
Graduates of PMMA are given reserve officer status in the Philippine Navy, the term cadet is applicable to the enrollees of Citizens Army Training and Reserve Officer Training Corps. Service academy cadets are thought to be between the NCO and Officers ranks, and NCO consider cadets as rank higher to them, in Ireland, a Cadet is a pupil of the Military College, which carries out officer training for the Air Corps and Naval Service. Training takes two years and the Cadets are split into Senior and Junior Grades and Classes, in Norway, a cadet is a pupil of either of the three Krigsskolen, which educate commanding officers for either the Army, the Navy or to the Air Force. In the United States, cadet refers to a college student who is concurrently in training to become a commissioned officer of the armed forces. Some state-sponsored military colleges, including The Citadel, Virginia Military Institute and private college, Norwich University. In Australia Cadet refers to an officer in training, the official rank is Officer Cadet however OCDTs in the Royal Military College—Duntroon are referred to as Staff Cadet for historical reasons.
In the British and Commonwealth as well as Russian service, these groups of boys or youths are organized and trained on volunteer military lines, the Antigua and Barbuda Cadet Corps consists of students between the ages of 12 and 19. It Is a voluntary organization, sponsored by the government. The main objective is to training and personal development to the youths through paramilitary activities. The training is geared to young men and woman to become model citizens. Emphasis during training is based on discipline, leadership
Genealogy, known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship, the results are often displayed in charts or written as narratives. Amateur genealogists typically pursue their own ancestry and that of their spouses, professional genealogists may conduct research for others, publish books on genealogical methods, teach, or produce their own databases. They may work for companies that provide software or produce materials of use to other professionals, both try to understand not just where and when people lived, but their lifestyles and motivations. This often requires—or leads to—knowledge of antiquated laws, old political boundaries, migration trends, bloodlines of Salem is an example of a specialized family-history group. It welcomes members who can prove descent from a participant of the Salem Witch Trials or who choose to support the group.
Genealogists and family historians often join family history societies, where novices can learn from experienced researchers. Such societies generally serve a specific geographical area and their members may index records to make them more accessible, and engage in advocacy and other efforts to preserve public records and cemeteries. Some schools engage students in projects as a means to reinforce lessons regarding immigration. Other benefits include family medical histories with families with medical conditions that are hereditary. The terms genealogy and family history are used synonymously. The term family history may be popular in Europe, genealogy more popular in the United States. In communitarian societies, ones identity is defined as much by ones kin network as by individual achievement, would be answered by a description of father and tribe. New Zealand Māori, for example, learn whakapapa to discover who they are, Family history plays a part in the practice of some religious belief systems.
For example, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has a doctrine of baptism for the dead, in societies such as Australia or the United States, there was by the 20th-century growing pride in the pioneers and nation-builders. Establishing descent from these was, and is, important to such groups as the Daughters of the American Revolution, in Nazi Germany, family histories were compiled to affirm individuals affiliation with the master race and to adhere to legal requirements for marriage. In Germany today, family history is often perceived as a threat to privacy rather than as a source of self-esteem. Most 20th-century sources remain unavailable to the public on privacy grounds, funding of support for family history at archives is limited
Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria
He was born at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, the son of Archduke Franz Karl of Austria and his wife Sophie of Bavaria. His siblings included Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria and Maximilian and his mother ensured he was raised a devout Roman Catholic by the Vienna Prince-archbishop Joseph Othmar Rauscher, a conviction that evolved into religious mania in his years. However, he found his authority to exert power restricted by the Austrian cabinet of his cousin Archduke Rainer Ferdinand and he finally laid down the office upon the issue of the 1861 February Patent for a life as patron of the arts and sciences. As the eldest surviving brother of the Emperor, Karl Ludwig, after the death of his nephew Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria in 1889, became heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A newspaper article appeared shortly after the death of his claiming that the Archduke had renounced his succession rights in favor of his eldest son Franz Ferdinand. This rumor proved to be false and his first wife, whom he married on 4 November 1856 at Dresden, was his first cousin Margaretha of Saxony, the daughter of Johann of Saxony and Amalie Auguste of Bavaria.
She died on 15 September 1858 and they had no children and they had four children, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria he married Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg on 1 July 1900. Archduke Otto Franz of Austria he married Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony (1867–1944 on 2 October 1886, Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria he married Bertha Czuber on 15 August 1909. Archduchess Margarete Sophie of Austria she married Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg on 24 January 1893, Maria Annunciata died on 4 May 1871. His third wife, whom he married on 23 July 1873 at Kleinheubach, was Infanta Maria Theresa of Portugal, daughter of Miguel I of Portugal and they had two daughters, Archduchess Maria Annunziata of Austria. Abbess of the Theresia Convent in the Hradschin, Archduchess Elisabeth Amalie of Austria she married Prince Aloys of Liechtenstein on 20 April 1903. Karl Ludwig died of typhoid at Schönbrunn in Vienna returning from a journey to Palestine and Egypt and his widow, Maria Teresa died on 12 February 1944.
List of heirs to the Austrian throne
Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este is a member of the Belgian Royal Family. He is the heir to the headship of the House of Austria-Este, a branch of the Habsburg-Lorraine. Amedeo was born at the University Clinic St. Luc, Woluwe-St-Lambert, Belgium and he bears the same given name as his paternal great-grandfather Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta. His godparents are his uncle, King Philippe of Belgium and maternal grandmother, Amedeo himself is godfather to his cousin, the Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Amedeo has one younger brother Joachim and three sisters, Maria Laura, Luisa Maria and Laetitia Maria. He was baptised and married by the Archbishop of Mechelen, Cardinal Danneels, Amedeo undertook primary school and the greater part of his secondary education at the Jesuit school Sint-Jan Berchmanscollege in Brussels, popular with Belgian aristocracy and royalty. He finished his education at Sevenoaks School in Kent, England between 2001 and 2004. He spent a year in Belgiums Royal Military Academy, in September 2005 he began studies at the London School of Economics, where he graduated in 2008 with a Bachelor of Science and took a sabbatical before entering professional life.
Amedeo completed military service and is an officer in the Belgian Army. He worked as a research analyst intern at Accumulus Capital Management, during 2013 and 2014 Amedeo resumed his studies, obtaining a Master of Business Administration at the Columbia Business School of Columbia University. Thereafter he started to work as a management consultant for Deloitte in New York, on 15 February 2014, the Belgian Royal Court announced the engagement of Prince Amedeo to Italian journalist Nobile Elisabetta Lili Maria Rosboch von Wolkenstein. The couple were planning to relocate in Belgium after the wedding, in 1991 Amedeo obtained, along with his mother and younger siblings, succession rights to the Belgian throne. In 1993 his maternal grandfather acceded to the throne as King Albert II and he became third in Belgiums line of succession, following his uncle Philippe, Duke of Brabant, and his mother. The abdication on 21 July 2013 of his grandfather King Albert II of the Belgians promoted him to sixth in line to the throne, in November 2015, a royal decree expressing King Philips retroactive permission for the marriage was gazetted in the Moniteur Belge.
In April 2016, it was announced that the couple were expecting their first child and their daughter, Archduchess Anna Astrid of Austria-Este, was born on 17 May 2016 in Brussels. e. Archduke/Archduchess of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary, internationally his abbreviated style is HI&RH Prince Amedeo of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Charles I of Austria
Charles I was the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He was the last Emperor of Austria, the last King of Hungary, and he spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922. Following his beatification by the Catholic Church in 2004, he has become known as Blessed Charles of Austria. Charles was born 17 August 1887 in the Castle of Persenbeug in Lower Austria and his parents were Archduke Otto Franz of Austria and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. At the time, his granduncle Franz Joseph reigned as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as a child, Archduke Charles was reared a devout Roman Catholic. He spent his early years wherever his fathers regiment happened to be stationed, on he lived in Vienna and he was privately educated, contrary to the custom ruling in the imperial family, he attended a public gymnasium for the sake of demonstrations in scientific subjects. In 1907, he was declared of age and Prince Zdenko Lobkowitz was appointed his chamberlain, in the next few years he carried out his military duties in various Bohemian garrison towns.
In 1911, Charles married Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma and they had met as children but did not see one another for almost ten years, as each pursued their education. In 1909, his Dragoon regiment was stationed at Brandýs nad Labem in Bohemia and it was during one of these visits that Charles and Zita became reacquainted. Due to Franz Ferdinands morganatic marriage in 1900, his children were excluded from the succession, as a result, the Emperor severely pressured Charles to marry. Zita not only shared Charles devout Catholicism, but a royal lineage. Zita recalled, Charles became heir presumptive after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914, only at this time did the old Emperor take steps to initiate the heir-presumptive to his crown in affairs of state. But the outbreak of World War I interfered with this political education, Charles spent his time during the first phase of the war at headquarters at Teschen, but exercised no military influence. Charles became a Feldmarschall in the Austro-Hungarian Army, in the spring of 1916, in connection with the offensive against Italy, he was entrusted with the command of the XX.
Corps, whose affections the heir-presumptive to the throne won by his affability, the offensive, after a successful start, soon came to a standstill. Shortly afterwards, Charles went to the front as commander of an army operating against the Russians and Romanians. Charles succeeded to the thrones in November 1916, after the death of his grand-uncle, on 2 December 1916, he assumed the title of Supreme Commander of the whole army from Archduke Friedrich. His coronation as King of Hungary occurred on 30 December, in 1917, Charles secretly entered into peace negotiations with France