George McLendon was the Howard R. Hughes Provost and a Professor of Chemistry at Rice University. McLendon holds a bachelor's degree from the University of Texas at El Paso and a doctorate from Texas A&M University, he assumed the role of provost from 2010-2015 after serving as Dean of Trinity College of Arts and Science at Duke University. Prior to his tenure at Duke, McLendon was the R. W. Moore Professor and chair of the Department of Chemistry at Princeton University. McLendon's research is focused on physical biochemistry, he has published over 200 peer reviewed papers and received national research awards, including the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry, the Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry, Sloan Dreyfus Award, Guggenheim Fellowships. His publications range from solar nanotechnology to cell death pathways, his most recent research has direct implications for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other diseases. He has been involved in launching several biotech startups, including Tetralogic Pharmaceuticals.
As provost, McLendon outlined a broad strategy called "The Rice Initiatives." The initiatives encompass three main areas of focus: bioscience and health and the environment, international strategy. He is pursuing an international strategy for expanding Rice's image abroad
James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist and zoologist. In 1953, he co-authored with Francis Crick the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule. Watson and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material". Watson earned degrees at the University of Indiana University. Following a post-doctoral year at the University of Copenhagen with Herman Kalckar and Ole Maaloe, Watson worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory in England, where he first met his future collaborator Francis Crick. From 1956 to 1976, Watson was on the faculty of the Harvard University Biology Department, promoting research in molecular biology. From 1968 he served as director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory expanding its level of funding and research. At CSHL, he shifted his research emphasis to the study of cancer, along with making it a world leading research center in molecular biology.
In 1994, he served for 10 years. He was appointed chancellor, serving until he resigned in 2007 after making comments claiming a genetic link between intelligence and race. Between 1988 and 1992, Watson was associated with the National Institutes of Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project. Watson has written many science books, including the textbook Molecular Biology of the Gene and his bestselling book The Double Helix. In January 2019, following the broadcast of a television documentary in which Watson repeated his views about race and genetics, CSHL revoked honorary titles that it had awarded to him and severed all ties with him. James D. Watson was born in Chicago on April 6, 1928, as the only son of Jean and James D. Watson, a businessman descended from colonial English immigrants to America, his mother's father, Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow and her mother, Lizzie Gleason, was the child of parents from County Tipperary. Raised Catholic, he described himself as "an escapee from the Catholic religion."
Watson said, "The luckiest thing that happened to me was that my father didn't believe in God."Watson grew up on the south side of Chicago and attended public schools, including Horace Mann Grammar School and South Shore High School. He was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby shared with his father, so he considered majoring in ornithology. Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged bright youngsters to answer questions. Thanks to the liberal policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of Chicago, where he was awarded a tuition scholarship, at the age of 15. After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book What Is Life? in 1946, Watson changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to genetics. Watson earned his BS degree in Zoology from the University of Chicago in 1947. In his autobiography, Avoid Boring People, Watson described the University of Chicago as an "idyllic academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for critical thought and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who impeded his search for truth", in contrast to his description of experiences.
In 1947 Watson left the University of Chicago to become a graduate student at Indiana University, attracted by the presence at Bloomington of the 1946 Nobel Prize winner Hermann Joseph Muller, who in crucial papers published in 1922, 1929, in the 1930s had laid out all the basic properties of the heredity molecule that Schrödinger presented in his 1944 book. He received his PhD degree from Indiana University in 1950. Watson was drawn into molecular biology by the work of Salvador Luria. Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the Luria–Delbrück experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic mutations, he was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. He and Max Delbrück were among the leaders of this new "Phage Group," an important movement of geneticists from experimental systems such as Drosophila towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948, Watson began his PhD research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University.
That spring, he met Delbrück first in Luria's apartment and again that summer during Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The Phage Group was the intellectual medium; the members of the Phage Group sensed that they were on the path to discovering the physical nature of the gene. In 1949, Watson took a course with Felix Haurowitz that included the conventional view of that time: that genes were proteins and able to replicate themselves; the other major molecular component of chromosomes, DNA, was considered to be a "stupid tetranucleotide," serving only a structural role to support the proteins. At this early time, under the influence of the Phage Group, was aware of the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, which suggested that DNA was the genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses. Watson went to Copenhagen University in September 1950 for a year of postdoctoral research, first heading to the laboratory of biochemist Herman Kalckar.
Kalckar was interested in the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids, he wanted to use phages as an experimental system. Watson wanted to explore the structure of DNA, his interests did not coincide with Kalckar's. After working part of the year with Kalckar, Watson spent the
Mario Ramberg Capecchi is an Italian-born American molecular geneticist and a co-winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering a method to create mice in which a specific gene is turned off, known as knockout mice. He shared the prize with Oliver Smithies, he is Distinguished Professor of Human Genetics and Biology at the University of Utah School of Medicine. Mario Capecchi was born in Verona, Italy, as the only child of Luciano Capecchi, an Italian airman who would be reported as missing in action while manning an anti-aircraft gun in the Western Desert Campaign, Lucy Ramberg, an American-born daughter of Impressionist painter Lucy Dodd Ramberg and German archaeologist Walter Ramberg. During World War II, his mother was sent to the Dachau concentration camp as punishment for pamphleteering and belonging to an anti-Fascist group. Prior to her arrest she had made contingency plans by selling her belongings and giving the proceeds to a peasant family near Bolzano to provide housing for her only child.
However, after one year, the money was exhausted and the family was unable to care for him. At four-and-a-half years old he was left to fend for himself, living as a street child on the streets of northern Italy for the next four years, living in various orphanages and roving through towns with groups of other homeless children, he died of malnutrition. His mother, had been freed from Dachau and began a year-long search for him, she found him in a hospital bed in Reggio Emilia, ill with a fever and subsisting on a daily bowl of chicory coffee and bread crust. She took him to Rome. In 1946 his uncle, Edward Ramberg, an American physicist at RCA, sent his sister money to return to the United States, he and his mother moved to Pennsylvania to live at an "intentionally cooperative community" called Bryn Gweled, co-founded by his uncle. He graduated from George School, a Quaker boarding school in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in 1956. Mario Capecchi received his Bachelor of Science in chemistry and physics in 1961 from Antioch College in Ohio.
Capecchi came to MIT as a graduate student intending to study physics and mathematics, but during the course of his studies, he became interested in molecular biology. He subsequently transferred to Harvard to join the lab of James D. Watson, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA. Capecchi received his Ph. D. in biophysics in 1967 from Harvard University, with his doctoral thesis completed under the tutelage of Watson. Capecchi was a Junior Fellow of the Society of Fellows at Harvard University from 1967 to 1969. In 1969 he became an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biochemistry at Harvard Medical School, he was promoted to Associate Professor in 1971. In 1973 he joined the faculty at the University of Utah. Since 1988 Capecchi has been an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He has given a talk for Duke University's Program in Genetics and Genomics as part of their Distinguished Lecturer Series, he was the speaker for the 2010 Racker Lectures in Biology & Medicine and Cornell Distinguished Lecture in Cell and Molecular Biology at Cornell University.
After the Nobel committee publicly announced that Capecchi had won the Nobel prize, an Austrian woman named Marlene Bonelli claimed that Capecchi was her long-lost half-brother. In May 2008, Capecchi met with Bonelli, 69, in northern Italy, confirmed that she was his sister. Capecchi won the Nobel prize for creating a knockout mouse; this is a mouse, created by genetic engineering and in vitro fertilization, in which a particular gene has been turned off. For this work, Capecchi won the 2007 Nobel prize for medicine or physiology, along with Martin Evans and Oliver Smithies, who contributed. Capecchi has pursued a systematic analysis of the mouse Hox gene family; this gene family plays a key role in the control of embryonic development in all multicellular animals. They determine the placement of cellular development in the proper order along the axis of the body from head to toe. 1969 - Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry 1992 - Bristol-Myers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Neuroscience Research 1993 - Gairdner Foundation International Award for Achievements in Medical Sciences 1993 - Gairdner Foundation International Award 1994 - General Motors Cancer Research Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Jr. Prize 1996 - Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences 1996 - German Molecular Bioanalytics Prize 1997 - Franklin Medal for Advancing Our Knowledge of the Physical Sciences 1998 - Feodor Lynen Lectureship 1998 - Rosenblatt Prize for Excellence 1998 - Baxter Award for Distinguished Research in the Biomedical Sciences 1999 - Helen Lowe Bamberger Colby and John E. Bamberger Presidential Endowed Chair in the University of Utah Health Sciences Center 2000 - Lectureship in the Life Sciences for the Collège de France 2000 - Horace Mann Distinguished Alumni Award, Antioch College 2000 - Italian Premio Phoenix-Anni Verdi for Genetics Research Award 2001 - Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, co-winner with Martin Evans and Oliver Smithies 2001 - Spanish Jiménez-Diáz Prize 2001 - Pioneers of Progress Award 2001 - National Medal of Science 2002 - John Scott Medal Award 2002 - Massry Prize from the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California 2003 - Pezcoller Foundation-AACR International Award for Cancer Research 2002/3 - Wolf Prize in Medicine 2005 - March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology 2007 - Jacob Heskel Gabbay Award for Biotechnology and Medicine 2007 - Nobel Pr
Bruce Nathan Ames is an American biochemist. He is a professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Emeritus at the University of California, a senior scientist at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, he is the inventor of the Ames test, a system for and cheaply testing the mutagenicity of compounds. Ames, raised in New York City, is a graduate of the Bronx High School of Science, his undergraduate studies were at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, his graduate studies were completed at the California Institute of Technology. Ames was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1970, he is a recipient of the Bolton S. Corson Medal in 1980, Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 1985, the Japan Prize in 1997, the National Medal of Science in 1998 and the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal in 2004, among many others, his research focuses on cancer and aging and he has authored over 550 scientific publications. He is among the few hundred most-cited scientists in all fields.
Ames' current research includes identifying agents that delay the mitochondrial decay of aging, understanding the role of mitochondrial decay in aging in the brain, optimizing micronutrient intakes in the population to prevent disease and obesity. He is interested in mutagens as they relate to cancer prevention and aging. Dr. Ames received more than $650,000 in support from the National Foundation for Cancer Research between 1998 and 2007, he is married to Giovanna Ferro-Luzzi Ames, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley In the 1970s, Bruce Ames developed the Ames test, a cheap and convenient assay for mutagens and therefore potential carcinogens. Previous carcinogenic testing used live animals, the procedures are expensive and time-consuming; this made animal testing impractical for use in screening on a wide scale, reduced the number of compounds that could be tested. The Ames test on the other hand uses the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium to test for mutagens, is cheaper and faster.
The Ames test became used as an initial screen for possible carcinogens and has been used to identify potential carcinogens used in commercial products. Their identification led to some of those formulations, such as chemicals used in hair dye, being withdrawn from commercial use; the ease with which Ames test allows used chemicals to be identified as possible carcinogens made him an early hero of environmentalism. Subsequent work in Ames' lab involved looking at an overview of what was mutagenic or carcinogenic, to what degree. Scientists tended to only look for positive or negative results without considering the magnitude of the effect, which meant that as more and more items were shown to be mutagenic, there was no system for evaluating the relative dangers, he continued to test various natural and man-made compounds, discovered that, despite what he and others had assumed occurring compounds were not turning out to be benign as compared to man-made ones. His continued work led to his falling out of favor with many environmentalists.
As natural chemicals turned out to be mutagenic, he argued that environmental exposure to manufactured chemicals may be of limited relevance to human cancer when such chemicals are mutagenic in an Ames test and carcinogenic in rodent assays. He contended that most human genetic damage arises from essential micronutrients lacking in poor diets and the oxidation of DNA during normal metabolism, that the most important environmental carcinogens may include some whose chief effect is to cause the chronic division of stem cells whereby the normal protective mechanisms of a cell become less effective, he argued against the banning of synthetic pesticides and other chemicals such as Alar which have been shown to be carcinogenic. Ames published results showing that many ordinary food products would be found carcinogenic according to the same criteria. Ames was concerned that overzealous attention to the minor health effects of trace quantities of carcinogens may divert scarce financial resources away from major health risks, cause public confusion about the relative importance of different hazards.
Ames considered himself a leading “contrarian in the hysteria over tiny traces of chemicals that may or may not cause cancer", said that "if you have thousands of hypothetical risks that you are supposed to pay attention to, that drives out the major risks you should be aware of." Eli Lilly Award of the American Chemical Society 1964 Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences 1970 Elected to National Academy of Sciences 1972 Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 1980 Wadsworth Award 1981 Charles S. Mott Prize, GM Cancer Research Foundation 1983 IBM-Princess Takamatsu Cancer Res Fund Lectureship 1984 Elected Foreign Member, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 1989 Elected Fellow, Academy of Toxicological Sciences 1992 Elected Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology 1992 Röntgen Prize of the Accademia Nazionale de Lincei 1993 Messel Medal, British Society of Chemical Industry 1996 Society of Toxicology Public Communications Award 1996 Honda Prize 1996 Japan Prize 1997 Kehoe Award, American College of Occup. and Environ.
Med 1997 Medal of the City of Paris 1998 U. S. National Medal of Science 1998 American Society for Microbiology Lifetime Achievement Award 2001 Linus Pauling Institute Prize for Health Research 2001 Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal, Genetics Society Am 2004 American Society for Nutrition/CRN M. S. Rose Award 2008 Orthomolecular Medicine Hall of Fame 2010 SOT Lifetime Achievement Award 2012 American Society of Nutrition Class of 2018 Fellows 2018 Off
Jennifer Anne Doudna is an American biochemist. She is a Li Ka Shing Chancellor Chair Professor in the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Doudna has been an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1997, since 2018 holds the position of senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes as well as that of professor at the University of California, San Francisco. Doudna has been a leading figure in what is referred to as the "CRISPR revolution" for her fundamental work and leadership in developing CRISPR-mediated genome editing. In 2012, Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier were the first to propose that CRISPR/Cas9 could be used for programmable editing of genomes, now considered one of the most significant discoveries in the history of biology. Doudna has made fundamental contributions in biochemistry and genetics and received many prestigious awards and fellowships including the 2000 Alan T. Waterman Award for her research on the structure as determined by X-ray crystallography of a ribozyme, the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology.
She has been a co-recipient of the Gruber Prize in Genetics, the Canada Gairdner International Award and the Japan Prize. Outside the scientific community, she has been named one of the Time 100 most influential people in 2015 and was listed as a runner-up for Time Person of the Year in 2016 alongside other CRISPR researchers. Jennifer Doudna was born February 19, 1964 in Washington, D. C, her father received his Ph. D. in English literature from the University of Michigan, her mother, a stay-at-home parent, held a master's degree in education. When Doudna was seven years old, the family moved to Hawaii because her father accepted a position in American literature at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. Jennifer Doudna's mother earned a second master's degree in Asian history from the university and taught history at a local community college. Growing up in Hilo, Doudna was fascinated by the environmental beauty of the island and its exotic plants and animals, they built her sense of curiosity about how nature works and she wanted to understand the underlying biological mechanisms.
When she was in school, she developed her interest in science and mathematics. Her father fostered a culture of intellectual pursuit in her home, he filled the home with plenty of books on popular science. When she was in the sixth grade, her father gave her a copy of The Double Helix; when she was in high school, she was influenced by a chemistry teacher. Doudna entered Pomona College in California to study biochemistry. During her sophomore year, while taking a course in general chemistry, she questioned her own ability to pursue a career in science, considered switching her major to French. However, her French teacher suggested. Chemistry professors Fred Grieman and Corwin Hansch at Pomona had a major impact on her, she started her first scientific research in the lab of professor Sharon Panasenko. She earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Biochemistry in 1985, she chose Harvard Medical School for her doctoral study and earned a Ph. D. in Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology in 1989.
Her Ph. D. dissertation was on a system that increased the efficiency of a self-replicating catalytic RNA and was supervised by Jack W. Szostak. From 1989 to 1991, she held research fellowships in molecular biology at the Massachusetts General Hospital and in genetics at Harvard Medical School. From 1991 to 1994, she was Lucille P. Markey Postdoctoral Scholar in Biomedical Science at the University of Colorado Boulder, where she worked with Thomas Cech. Early in her scientific career, Doudna worked to uncover the structure and biological function of RNA enzymes or ribozymes. While in the Szostak lab, Doudna re-engineered the self-splicing Tetrahymena Group I catalytic intron into a true catalytic ribozyme that copied RNA templates, her focus was on engineering ribozymes and understanding their underlying mechanisms. So she went to the lab of Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado Boulder to crystallize and determine the three-dimensional structure of a ribozyme for the first time, so ribozyme structure could be compared with that of enzymes, the catalytic proteins.
She started this project in the Cech lab in 1991 and finished it at Yale University in 1996. She had joined Yale's Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry as an assistant professor in 1994. At Yale, Doudna's group was able to crystallize and solve the three-dimensional structure of the catalytic core of the Tetrahymena Group I ribozyme, her group was able to grow high-quality crystals, but they struggled with the phase problem due to unspecific binding of the metal ions. One of her early graduate students and her husband, Jamie Cate decided to soak the crystals in the heavy metal derivative, osmium hexammine to imitate magnesium. Using this strategy, they were able to solve the structure, the first solved ribozyme structure and the second solved folded RNA structure, they found that the osmium hexammines mimicking the normal magnesium ions were in a cluster at the center of the ribozyme and served as a core for RNA folding. This interaction created a structure in the ribozyme catalytic center, similar to that of an active site in the hydrophobic core of a protein.
Her group has crystallized other ribozymes, including the Hepatitis Delta Vir
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is one of the oldest learned societies in the United States. Founded in 1780, the Academy is dedicated to honoring excellence and leadership, working across disciplines and divides, advancing the common good. Membership in the academy is achieved through a thorough petition and election process and has been considered a high honor of scholarly and societal merit since the academy was founded during the American Revolution by John Adams, John Hancock, James Bowdoin, others of their contemporaries who contributed prominently to the establishment of the new nation, its government, the United States Constitution. Today the Academy is charged with a dual function: to elect to membership the finest minds and most influential leaders, drawn from science, business, public affairs, the arts, from each generation, to conduct policy studies in response to the needs of society. Major Academy projects now have focused on higher education and research and cultural studies and technological advances, politics and the environment, the welfare of children.
Dædalus, the Academy's quarterly journal, is regarded as one of the world's leading intellectual journals. The Academy carries out nonpartisan policy research by bringing together scientists, artists, business leaders, other experts to make multidisciplinary analyses of complex social and intellectual topics; the Academy's current areas of work are Arts & Humanities, Democracy & Justice, Energy & Environment, Global Affairs, Science & Technology. David W. Oxtoby began his term as the organization’s President in January 2019. A chemist by training, he served as President of Pomona College from 2003 to 2017, he was elected a member of the American Academy in 2012. The Academy is headquartered in Massachusetts; the Academy was established by the Massachusetts legislature on May 4, 1780. Its purpose, as described in its charter, is "to cultivate every art and science which may tend to advance the interest, honor and happiness of a free and virtuous people." The sixty-two incorporating fellows represented varying interests and high standing in the political and commercial sectors of the state.
The first class of new members, chosen by the Academy in 1781, included Benjamin Franklin and George Washington as well as several international honorary members. The initial volume of Academy Memoirs appeared in 1785, the Proceedings followed in 1846. In the 1950s, the Academy launched its journal Daedalus, reflecting its commitment to a broader intellectual and socially-oriented program. Since the second half of the twentieth century, independent research has become a central focus of the Academy. In the late 1950s, arms control emerged as one of its signature concerns; the Academy served as the catalyst in establishing the National Humanities Center in North Carolina. In the late 1990s, the Academy developed a new strategic plan, focusing on four major areas: science and global security. In 2002, the Academy established a visiting scholars program in association with Harvard University. More than 75 academic institutions from across the country have become Affiliates of the Academy to support this program and other Academy initiatives.
The Academy has sponsored a number of awards and prizes, now numbering 11, throughout its history and has offered opportunities for fellowships and visiting scholars at the Academy. Charter members of the Academy are John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Bacon, James Bowdoin, Charles Chauncy, John Clarke, David Cobb, Samuel Cooper, Nathan Cushing, Thomas Cushing, William Cushing, Tristram Dalton, Francis Dana, Samuel Deane, Perez Fobes, Caleb Gannett, Henry Gardner, Benjamin Guild, John Hancock, Joseph Hawley, Edward Augustus Holyoke, Ebenezer Hunt, Jonathan Jackson, Charles Jarvis, Samuel Langdon, Levi Lincoln, Daniel Little, Elijah Lothrup, John Lowell, Samuel Mather, Samuel Moody, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Orne, Theodore Parsons, George Partridge, Robert Treat Paine, Phillips Payson, Samuel Phillips, John Pickering, Oliver Prescott, Zedekiah Sanger, Nathaniel Peaslee Sargeant, Micajah Sawyer, Theodore Sedgwick, William Sever, David Sewall, Stephen Sewall, John Sprague, Ebenezer Storer, Caleb Strong, James Sullivan, John Bernard Sweat, Nathaniel Tracy, Cotton Tufts, James Warren, Samuel West, Edward Wigglesworth, Joseph Willard, Abraham Williams, Nehemiah Williams, Samuel Williams, James Winthrop.
From the beginning, the membership and elected by peers, has included not only scientists and scholars, but writers and artists as well as representatives from the full range of professions and public life. Throughout the Academy's history, 10,000 fellows have been elected, including such notables as John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John James Audubon, Joseph Henry, Washington Irving, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Willa Cather, T. S. Eliot, Edward R. Murrow, Jonas Salk, Eudora Welty, Duke Ellington. International honorary members have included Jose Antonio Pantoja Hernandez, Leonhard Euler, Marquis de Lafayette, Alexander von Humboldt, Leopold von Ranke, Charles Darwin, Otto Hahn, Jawaharlal Nehru, Pablo Picasso, Liu Kuo-Sung, Lucian Michael Freud, Galina Ulanova, Werner Heisenberg, Alec Guinness and Sebastião Salgado. Astronomer Maria Mitchell was the first woman elected to the Academy, in 1848; the current membership encompasses over 5,700 members based across the United States and around the world.
Academy members include more than 60 Pulitzer Prize winners. The current membership is divided into five classes and twen
John Kuriyan is Chancellor's Professor at the University of California, Berkeley in the departments of Molecular and Cell Biology and Chemistry. He is a Faculty Scientist in Berkeley Lab's Physical Biosciences Division, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Kuriyan received his B. S. in chemistry from Juniata College in Pennsylvania, followed by his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology supervised by Gregory Petsko and Martin Karplus. Kuriyan did postdoctoral research work for one year supervised by Karplus at Harvard before becoming an assistant professor at the Rockefeller University; as of 2015 Kuriyan's laboratory studies the structure and mechanism of enzymes and other proteins that transduce cellular signals and perform DNA replication. The laboratory uses x-ray crystallography to determine 3-D protein structures as well as biochemical and computational techniques to uncover the mechanisms used by these proteins. In 1989, Kuriyan was named a Pew Scholar in the Biomedical Sciences, a program supporting promising young researchers in the areas of basic and clinical sciences relevant to human health advancements.
Kuriyan was the recipient of the 2005 Loundsbery Award by the National Academy of Sciences, a recognition presented annually to a single scientific investigator, under the age of 45, who has made significant contributions to medicine or biology. Additional awards include the Cornelius Rhoads Memorial Award from the American Association for Cancer Research, the Eli Lilly Award in Biological Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, the Dupont-Merck Award of the Protein Society, the Schering-Plough Award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In 2009 he received the ASBMB Merck award for his contributions to structural biology. Kuriyan was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 2015